Notes

Notes
1
George H. Tinkham, A History of Stockton (San Francisco: W. M. Hunton, 1880), iv, with marginal comments by Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo on pp. 60 and 63, copy located at the Huntington Library, San Marino.
Alan Rosenus, General M. G. Vallejo and the Advent of the Americans (Albu- querque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995).
2
Mariano G. Vallejo, "Historical and Personal Memoirs Relating to Alta California," 5 vols., ms, given to Hubert Howe Bancroft, April 10, 1875, translated by Earl R. Hewitt, Ban- croft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
4
Pablo Tac, "Studio garammaticali sulla lingua della California, ca. 1835," mss., Mezzo- fanti, Caps. III, I, Biblioteca Comunale dell' Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy, Huntington Li- brary.
Minna and Gordon Hewes, eds., "Indian Life and Customs at Mission San Luis Rey: A Record of California Mission Life Written By Pablo Tac, An Indian Neophyte (Rome, ca. 1835)," The Americas 9 (July 1952): 87-106
5
Hewes and Hewes, "Indian Life and Customs," 94, 106.
6
Keith Basso, Portraits of "the Whiteman": Linguistic Play and Cultural Symbols Among the Western Apache (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 8-12.
7
Tac, "Studio garammaticali," page following 862
8
William Cronon, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, "Becoming West: Toward a New Meaning for Western History," in William Cronon, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, eds., Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), 3-27.
9
Ibid., 11.
10
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
11
Thomas C. Blackburn and M. Kat Anderson, eds., Before the Wilderness: Environ- mental Management by Native Californians (Menlo Park, Calif: Ballena Press, 1993)
12
Florence C. Shipek, "California Indian Reactions to the Franciscans," The Americas 41 (1985): 480-92.
13
Alfred W. Crosby, "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 33 (April 1976): 289-99.
14
James A. Sandos, "An Aphonic Cry: Syphilis and Gonorrhea Among the California Mission Indians," ms., part of a book in progress on the California missions.
15
David Ingall and Daniel Musher, "Syphilis," in Jack S. Remington and Jerome O. Klein, eds., Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1983), 335-74.
16
Ibid., 345
17
[Mariano] Guadalupe Vallejo, "Ranch and Mission Days in Alta California," The Century Magazine 41 (December 1890): 186
Hugo Reid, "New Era in Mission Affairs," in Robert Heizer, ed., The Indians of Los Angeles County: Hugo Reid's Letters of 1852 (Los Ange- les: Southwest Museum Papers, No. 21, 1968), 87
Edward D. Castillo, trans, and ed., "An Indian Account of the Decline and Collapse of Mexico's Hegemony Over the Missionized Indians of California," American Indian Quarterly 12 (Fall 1989): 397-98.
18
Cronon, Miles, and Gitlin, "Becoming West," 16.
19
Francis F. Guest, "An Examination of the Thesis of S. F. Cook on the Forced Conversion of Indians in the California Missions," Southern California Quarterly 61 (1979): 1-77.
Ed D. Castillo, "The Native Response to the Colonization of Alta California," in Columbian Consequences, vol. 1, Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West, David Hurst Thomas, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989), 379.
20
David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), 264.
21
Cronon, Miles, and Gitlin, "Becoming West," 14-15.
22
Ibid., 12-13.
23
Ibid, 18.
24
Iris H. W. Engstrand, "John Sutter: A Biographical Examination," in Kenneth N. Owens, ed., John Sutter and a Wider West (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 76-92.
25
Herbert E. Bolton, "The Mission as a Frontier Institution in the Spanish American Colonies," American Historical Review 12 (October 1917): 44-45.
26
Geronimo Boscana, Chinigchinich: Historical Account of the Belief, Usages, Customs and Extravagancies of the Indians of this Mission of San Juan Capistrano Called the Acagchemem Tribe, Alfred Robinson, trans., John P. Harrinton, anno. (Banning: Malki Museum Press, 1978), 80.
27
Antonio María Osio, The History of Alta California: A Memoir of Mexican California, Rose Marie Beebe and Robert M. Senkewicz, trans., (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 68.
Osio's account that I used, entitled "Cronica de los acontecimientos ocurridos en California desde 1815 hasta 1846," p. 78
28
his: "The Impact of Euro-American Exploration and Settlement," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8, California (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978), 99-127, henceforth HBNAI, 8
Native American Perspectives on the Hispanic Coloniza- tion of Alta California (New York: Garland Publishing, 1991)
"Neophyte Resistance and Accommodation in the Missions of California," in The Spanish Missionary Heritage of the United States (San Antonio: National Parks Service, 1993), 60-75.
George Harwood Phillips, Indians and Intruders in Central California, 1769-1849 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993)
James A. Sandos in American Indian Quarterly 18 (Spring 1994): 266-67.
Robert H. Jackson and Edward Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on California Indians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995), 73-86
James A. Sandos, "Neophyte Resistance in the Alta California Missions," in Timothy J. O'Keefe, ed., Columbus, Confrontation, Christianity: The European-American Encounter Re- visited (Palo Alto: Forbes Mill Press, 1994), 170-78.
29
James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven: Yale University press, 1990), xi and passim.
30
Vallejo, "Historical and Personal Memoirs," I, 15.
31
Randall Milliken, "An Ethnohistory of the Indian People of the San Francisco Bay Area from 1770 to 1810" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1991), 2, 23.
Mil- liken's dissertation has been published as A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1810 (Menlo Park: Ballena Press, 1995).
32
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California (San Francisco: The History Company, 1889), 1,590 ff.
33
Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California through the Progressive Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 58.
34
Tac, "Studio garammaticali," 64-65.
35
Antonia I. Castaneda, "Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest: Amerindian Women and the Spanish Conquest of Alta California," in Adela de la Torre and Beatríz M. Pesquera, eds., Building with Our Hands: New Directions in Chicana Studies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 15-33.
36
Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance, 133, n. 46.
37
James A. Sandos, "Christianization Among the Chumash: An Ethnohistoric Ap- proach," American Indian Quarterly 15 (Winter 1991): 65-89.
38
Sandos, "Neophyte Resistance," 173.
39
George Harwood Phillips, "Indian Paintings for Mission San Fernando: An Histor- ical Interpretation," Journal of California Anthropology 3 (Summer 1976): 96-114.
Ed Castillo, "The Other Side of the 'Christian Curtain: California Indians and the Missionaries," The Californians 10 (Sept/Oct 1992): 8-17
The Californians 11 (Sept/Oct 1993): 4, 50.
40
Norman Neuerberg, "Indians As Artists In California before and after Contact with the Europeans," in Román Piña Homs, ed., Les Illes Balears i Amèrica (Palma: Congrés In- ternacional d'Estudis Històries, 1992), 43-60, quoted at 47.
Georgia Lee and Norman Neuerburg, "The Alta California Indians as Artists before and after Contact," in Columbian Consequences, I, 467-80.
Norman Neuerburg, "Indian Pictographs at Mission San Juan Capistrano," The Masterkey 56 (1982): 55-58.
41
Neuerburg, "Indians As Artists," 47.
Boscana, Chinigchinich, facing 58.
42
Neuerburg, "Indians As Artists," 48.
43
their "Chumash Baptism: An Ecological Perspective," in Lowell John Bean and Thomas F. King, eds., ?Antap: California Indian Political and Economic Organization (Ra- mona, Calif.: Ballena Press, 1974), 137-53
"The Conversion of the Chumash Indians: An Ecological Interpretation," Human Ecology 5 (1977): 309-28.
Sandos, "Christianization Among the Chumash," 68-70.
44
Milliken, "An Ethnohistory of the Indian People," 202-206.
45
John R. Johnson, "Chumash Social Organization: An Eth- nohistoric Perspective" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1988), 88.
47
Edward D. Castillo, "Gender Status Decline, Resistance, and Accommodation among Female Neophytes in the Missions of California: A San Gabriel Case Study," American In- dian Culture and Research Journal 18 (1994): 67-93, especially 78-81.
48
Edwin A. Beilharz, Felipe de Neve: First Governor of California (San Francisco: Cali- fornia Historical Society, 1971), 70, 121-29.
49
Sandos, "Christianization Among the Chumash," 73-74
Robert F. Heizer, "A Cali- fornia Messianic Movement of 1801 Among the Chumash," American Anthropologist New Series 43 (1941): 128-29.
50
Steven Hackel, "Indian-Spanish Relations in Alta California: Mission San Carlos Borromeo, 1770-1833" (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1994), 202 and passim.
51
Colonial Russian America: Kyrill T. Khlebnikov's Reports, 1817-1832, trans. and anno. by Basil Dmytryshyn and E. A. P. Crownhart-Vaughan (Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1976), 130.
52
James A. Sandos, "Levantamiento!: The 1824 Chumash Uprising Reconsidered," Southern California Quar- terly 67 (Summer 1985): 109-33.
Sandos, "Christianization Among the Chumash," 76-86.
53
Phillips, Indians and Intruders, 65-106
C. Alan Hutchinson, "The Mexican Government and the Missions of Upper California, 1821-1835," The Americas 21 (April 1965): 335-62
Manuel Servin, "The Secularization of the California Missions: A Reappraisal," Southern California Quarterly 47 (June 1965): 133-49.
54
Sherburne F. Cook, "Expe- ditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1820-1840," Anthropological Records 20 (1962): 168-80, 205-206
Osio, The History of Alta California, 89-94
Richard J. Orsi, "Es- tanislao's Rebellion, 1829," in Richard B. Rice, William A. Bullough, and Richard J. Orsi, The Elusive Eden: A New History of California, 2nd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 53-68
Rosenus, General M. G. Vallejo, 11-12.
55
George C. Yount, "Memoirs," ms., Huntington Library
Rosenus, General M. G. Vallejo, 13-14.
56
Colonial Russian America, 106-34
[no author given], "The Russian Colonies in California: A Russian Version,"E. O. Essig, "The Russian Settlement at Ross," and Adele Ogden, "Russian Sea-Otter and Seal Hunting on the California Coast, 1803-1841," all from the Quarterly of the California Historical Society 12 (September 1933): 189-239
Robert A. Thomp- son, The Russian Settlement in California Known as Fort Ross (Santa Rosa: Sonoma Democrat Publishing Co., 1896), 1-34.
57
Otto von Kotzebue, A New Voyage Round the World in the Years 1823, 1824, 1825, and 1826, 2 vols. (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1830), II, 123-24.
58
Vallejo, "Historical and Personal Memoirs," I, 4-5, passim
Pro- ceedings in Land Commission Case Number 243, George C. Yount, Claimant, vs. the United States, Defendant, for the Place Named "Caymus," Case 32nd in District Court, 1852, Hun- tington Library
59
Sherburne F. Cook, "Smallpox in Spanish and Mexican California, 1770-1845," Bul- letin of the History of Medicine 12 (February 1939): 182, 184-87.
60
Ibid., 185, n. 45
Joseph Warren Revere, A Tour of Duty in California Including a De- scription of the Gold Region and an Account of the Voyage around Cape Horn (New York: CCS Francis and Co., 1849), 119
61
Sherburne F. Cook, "The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon," University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 3 (1955): 318.
62
J. J. Warner, "The Indian Pestilence in 1833," Los Angeles Daily Star, August 23, 1874
Kern County Weekly Courier, August 29, 1874, both newspapers in the Cali- fornia Section of the California State Library.
63
Cook, "The Epidemic of 1830-1833," 322.
Phillips, Indians and Intruders, 94-95, 181 n. 4
64
Owens, ed., John A. Sutter and a Wider West, presents essays by historians Howard R. Lamar, Albert L. Hurtado, Iris H. W. Engstrand, Richard White, and Patricia Nelson Limerick.
66
Marguerite Eyer Wilbur, trans, ed., anno., A Pioneer at Sutter's Fort, 1846-1850: The Adventures of Heinrich Lienhard (Los Angeles: The Calafía Society, 1941), 77.
67
John A. Sutter, "Personal Reminiscences of General John Augustus Sutter," ms., 22, Bancroft Library.
68
Dorothy Hill, The Indians of Chico Ranchería (Sacramento: State of California Re- sources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, 1978), 1-7.
Annie K. Bidwell, Rancho Chico Indians, Dorothy Hill, ed. (Chico: Bidwell Mansion Cooperating Associa- tion, 1980).
69
Lorrin L. Morrison, Warner: The Man and the Ranch (Los Angeles: Published by the Author, 1962), 20-22.
70
"Princeton Woman Furnishes Much Historical Data on Life of James Savage," Princeton, Illinois, Bureau County Record, July 17, 1929, clipping in the file "Material Relat- ing to James D. Savage," compiled by Lilbourne Winchell, Bancroft Library.
71
Annie R. Mitchell, Jim Savage and the Tulareño Indians (Los Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1957)
Albert L. Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 112-42
Mitchell, p. 34
72
George Harwood Phillips, Chiefs and Challengers: Indian Resistance and Cooperation in Southern California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 47-165
"José del Carmen Lugo, Life of a Rancher," Helen Pruitt Beattie, trans., Historical Society of Southern Califor- nia Quarterly 32 (September 1950): 185-236
Roy Elmer Whitehead, Lugo: A Chronicle of Early California (Redlands: San Bernardino County Museum Association, 1978), 130-376
George William Beattie, "San Bernardino Valley before the Americans Came," Quarterly of the California Historical Society 12 (June 1933): 11-124.
73
"Crumbs of' 49," Journal of Benjamin Butler Harris, Part 1, Huntington Library
Morrison, Warner: The Man and the Ranch, 39
74
Robert F. Heizer and Alan J. Almquist, The Other Californians: Prejudice and Dis- crimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1971), 39-58, 212-17
Rosenus, General M. G. Vallejo, 211.
75
David Hurst Thomas, "Harvesting Ramona's Garden: Life in California's Mythical Mission Past," in Columbian Consequences, Vol. 3, The Spanish Borderlands in Pan-American Perspective, David Hurst Thomas, ed., (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 119-57.
76
Starr, Inventing the Dream, 58.
77
James A. Sandos, "Junípero Serra's Canonization and the Historical Record," The American Historical Review 93 (December 1988): 1253-69
"Junípero Serra, Canoniza- tion, and the California Indian Controversy," The Journal of Religious History 15 (June 1989): 311-29
78
David J. Weber, "Blood of Martyrs, Blood of Indians: Toward a More Balanced View of Spanish Missions in Seventeenth Century North America," in Columbian Consequences, vol. 2, Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East, David Hurst Thomas, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990), 429-48
O'Keefe, Columbus, Confrontation, Christianity, 128-50.
79
Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America, 115.
80
Sherburne F. Cook, The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1976).
81
Sherburne F. Cook, "Historical Demography," HBNAI, 8, pp. 91-98
Sherburne F. Cook and Cesare R. Marino, "Roman Catholic Missions in California and the Southwest," HBNAI, Vol. 4, His- tory of Indian-White Relations (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988), 472-80
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Fron- tier, 1
John R. John- son, "Mission Registers as Anthropological Questionnaires: Understanding the Limitations of the Data," American Indian Culture and Research Journal 12 (1988): 9-30
his "Chumash Social Organization"
Milliken, "An Ethnohistory of the Indian People," and A Time of Little Choice
Hackel, "In- dian-Spanish Relations in Alta California"
Robert Jackson, Indian Population Decline: The Missions of Northwestern New Spain, 1687-1840 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994)
Jackson and Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization.
Rupert and Jeannette Henry Costo, eds., The Missions of California: A Legacy of Genocide (San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1987).
82
Sandos, "Neophyte Resistance in the Alta California Missions," 171-72, 178, n. 8.
83
Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
William McCawley, The First Angelenos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles (Banning, Calif.: Malki Museum Press/Ballena Press Co- operative Publication, 1996).
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview