Notes

Notes
1
Fray José Señán to Viceroy Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, May 14, 1796, in Lesley B. Simpson, ed., The Letters of José Señán O.F.M.: Mission San Buenaventura, 1796-1823 (San Francisco: John Howell Books, 1962), 2.
2
Engels quoted in E. J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975), 62.
3
John J. McCusker, "Mercantilism," in The Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies (New York: C. Scribner & Sons, 1993), 1:459-65.
4
Edwin A. Beilharz, Felipe de Neve: First Governor of California (San Francisco: Cali- fornia Historical Society, 1971), 34.
5
Robert Archibald, The Economic Aspects of the California Missions (Washington, D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1978), 3.
Sergio Or- tega Noriega, Un ensayo de historia regional: el noroeste de México, 1530-1880 (Mexico: Univer- sidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1993).
Hubert Howe Bancroft's monumental History of California, 7 vols. (San Francisco: History Company, 1884-1886).
6
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 3-4.
7
Michael E. Thurman, The Naval Department of San Blas: New Spain's Bastion for Alta California and Nootka, 1767 to 1798 (Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1967).
8
Junípero Serra, Memorandum, June 20, 1771, San Carlos de Monterey, in Antonine Tibesar, ed., Writings of Junípero Serra, 4 vols. (Washington D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1955-66), 1:226-35.
9
Serra, Writings of Serra, 1:295-329.
Echeveste Reglamento, dated May 19, 1773
Fray Francisco Palóu, Historical Memoirs of New California, trans. and ed. Herbert E. Bolton, 4 vols. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1926), 58-77.
10
Ibid., 69.
11
Serra to Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Mexico City, March 13, 1773, Writings of Serra, 1:308-309.
12
Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, 86-92
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 10.
Regulations for governing the province of the Californias, approved by His Majesty by Royal order, dated Oc- tober 24, 1781, trans. John Everett Johnson (San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1929).
14
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 164
Ortega Noriega, Un ensayo de historia regional, 121.
15
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 163-64, and 167.
16
Terry G. Jordan, North American Cattle-Ranching Frontiers: Origins, Diffusion, and Differentiation (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993), 159-69.
Hubert Howe Bancroft's California Pastoral, 1769-1848 (San Francisco: History Company, 1888)
Jordan, North American Cattle-Ranching Fron- tiers, 159-61
L. T. Burcham, "Cattle and Range Forage in California: 1770-1880," Agricul- tural History 35 (July 1961): 140-49
R. Louis Gentilcore, "Missions and Mission Lands of Alta California," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 51 (March 1961): 46-72.
Thomas C. Blackburn and Kat Anderson, eds. Before the Wilderness: Environmen- tal Management by Native Californians (Menlo Park, Calif.: Ballena Press, 1993).
17
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 179-81.
18
David Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion in Alta California, 1784- 1846," Journal of Historical Geography 4 (October 1978): 371-90, especially 374-76.
H. W. Engstrand, "California Ranchos: Their Hispanic Heritage," Southern California Quarterly 67 (March 1985): 281-90.
19
Steven W. Hackel, "Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California: Mission San Carlos Borromeo, 1770-1834" (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1994), 269-75
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 74-114.
20
Daniel J. Garr, "A Frontier Agrarian Settlement: San José de Guadalupe, 1777-1850," San José Studies 2 (November 1976): 93-105, especially 94-97.
21
Felipe de Neve, September 1782, quoted in Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, 165.
22
Francis Florian Guest, "Municipal Institutions in Spanish California, 1789-1821" (Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1961), 261-74
Antonio Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region, 1781-1850: Continuity and Adaptation on the North Mexican Periphery" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1985), 108-20.
23
Daniel J. Garr, "Villa de Branciforte: Innovation and Adaptation on the Frontier," The Americas 35 (July 1978): 95-109
Francis F. Guest, "The Foundation of the Villa de Branciforte," California Historical Society Quarterly 46 (De- cember 1967): 307-35
Guest, "Municipal Institutions," 130-92.
24
Guest, "Municipal Institutions," 247.
26
Guest, "Municipal Institutions," 275, 289-91
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles," 112.
27
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region," 182-91.
28
Sanford A. Mosk, "Price-Fixing in Spanish California," California Historical Society Quarterly 17 (1938): 118-22.
Archibald in ch. 2 of Economic Aspects
29
Mosk, "Price-Fixing," 120
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 17-18.
30
Governor Diego de Bor- ica, June 26, 1799, Monterey, Archivo General de la Nación, Californias (hereinafter cited as AGN CA) 48:2:426
Lasuén, June 19, 1801, Mission San Carlos de Monterey, Archivo Gen- eral de la Nación, Provincias Internas (hereinafter cited as AGN PI) 216: 76r and 76v.
31
Mosk, "Price-Fixing," 121.
32
Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941).
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 116-18.
33
Ogden, California Sea Otter Trade, 6 and 15.
34
Ibid., 20-24
35
Sanford A. Mosk, "Subsidized Hemp Production in Spanish California," Agricul- tural History 13 (October 1939): 171-75
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 119-20.
36
Mosk, "Hemp Production in Spanish California," 171.
37
Fray Fermín Francisco de Lasuén to Father Guardian Tomás Pangua, December 16, 1793, Mission San Diego, Writings of Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, trans. and ed. Finbar Ken- neally (Washington, D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1965), 2 vols. 1:328-29
Mosk, "Hemp Production in Spanish California," 172
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 118.
38
Governor Diego de Borica to Comisionado of San José, December 23, 1795, Monterey, Archives of California, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 23:517.
39
Mosk, "Hemp Production in Spanish California," 172.
40
Ibid., 173
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 120.
41
Joaquín Sanchez to Arrillaga, August 30, 1805, San José, Archives of California 11:184
Mosk, "Hemp Production in Spanish California," 174.
42
Viceroy José de Iturrigaray to Governor of California [José Joaquín de Arrillaga], De- cember 4, 1805, Mexico, Archives of California 12:74.
43
Mosk, "Hemp Production in Spanish California," 175.
44
Arrillaga to Sánchez, February 22, 1811, Monterey, Archives of California 26:12.
45
María del Carmen Velázquez, Notas sobre sirvientes de las Californias y proyecto de obraje en Nuevo México (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1979), 41-45.
Archibald, Eco- nomic Aspects, 146-52
Edith Buckland Webb, Indian Life at the Old Missions (Lincoln: Uni- versity of Nebraska, 1982 reprint, orig. 1952), 122-48
Bancroft, History of California, 1:615-18.
46
Lasuén to Don José Joaquín de Arrillaga, Mission San Carlos, December 21, 1792, Writings of Lasuén, 1:263
Lasuén to Don Diego de Borica, Mission San Carlos, July 23, 1796, ibid., 1:389.
Bancroft, History of California, 1:615 n. 29
Writings of Lasuén, 1:389.
Mardith K. Schuetz-Miller, Buildings and Builders in Historic California, 1769-1850 (Tucson: Southwestern Mission Research Center; Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation; Presidio Research Publication, 1994).
47
Webb, Indian Life, 130
Bancroft, History of California, 1:618.
48
Borica to Branciforte, December 3, 1795, Monterey, AGN CA 49:1:265-67.
49
Lasuén to Don José Joaquín de Arrillaga, Mission San Carlos, December 21, 1792, Writings of Lasuén, 1:263-64.
50
Peter Gerhard, The North Frontier of New Spain, rev. ed. (Norman: University of Ok- lahoma Press, 1993), 309.
51
Robert Archibald, "Indian Labor at the California Missions[:] Slavery or Salvation?" Journal of San Diego History 24 (Spring 1978): 172-83.
Rupert Costo and Jeannette Henry Costo, eds., The Missions of California: A Legacy of Genocide (San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1987).
52
Sherburne F. Cook, The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization (Berke- ley: University of California Press, 1976), 91-94.
Maynard Geiger, ed. and trans., As the Padres Saw Them: California Indian Life and Customs as Reported by the Franciscan Missionaries, 1813-1815 (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Mission Archive Library, 1976), 82-83.
53
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI 216:69v
Lasuén, Writings of La- suén, 2:207
Cook, Conflict, 94
Douglas Monroy, Thrown among Strangers: The Making of Mexican Culture in Frontier California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), 65.
54
Maynard Geiger, The Indians of Mission Santa Barbara in Paganism and Christianity (Santa Barbara, 1982), 32
Richard Steven Street, "'We Are Not Slaves': A History of California Farmworkers, 1769-1869—The Formative Years" (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1995), 165-66.
55
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI 216:70v
Lasuén, Writings of La- suén, 2:211.
56
Virginia Mayo Bouvier, "Women, Conquest, and the Production of History: Hispanic California, 1542- 1840" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1995), 156-61.
57
Fray Luís Gil [y Taboada], December 31, 1825, Mission Santa Cruz, Documentos para la Historia de California, C-B 50 4:2:607-9, Bancroft Library.
58
Ibid.
59
Hackel, "Indian-Spanish Relations," 319-23.
Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá to Fray Mariano Payeras, March 25, 1820, Alexander S. Taylor Collection, Doc. no. 1075, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
60
Paul Farnsworth, "The Economics of Acculturation in the California Missions: A Historical and Archaeological Study of Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1987), 303.
61
Cook, Conflict, 91-101
Robert H. Jackson and Edward Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on California Indians (Albu- querque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995), 44
Robert H. Jackson, Indian Popu- lation Decline: The Missions of Northwestern New Spain, 1687-1840 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994), 126, 165-66.
62
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI 216: 69v
Lasuén, Writings of Lasuén, 2:207.
63
Fray Luís Gil [y Taboada], December 31, 1825, Mission Santa Cruz, Documentos para la Historia de California, C-B 50 4:2:607-9.
64
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI 216: 69v
Lasuén, Writings of Lasuén, 2:207.
65
Cook, Conflict, 101
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 52, 54, and 58.
66
Diane Everett Barbolla, "Alta California Troops: Acculturation and Material Wealth in a Presidio and Mission Context, 1769-1810" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, River- side, 1992).
67
"Report of Corporal Periquez to Captain Callis," n.d., Writings of Serra, 1:402-6.
68
Lasuén to Don Jacabo Ugarte y Loyola, October 20, 1787, Mission San Carlos, Writ- ings of Lasuén, 1:168.
69
Economic Aspects, 103
Robert F. Heizer, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8, California (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978), 102.
70
Hackel, "Indian-Spanish Relations," 272-73.
71
Hackel, "Indian Labor in Colonial California: A Reappraisal of the Spanish Pre- sidios" (Paper delivered at the 35th Annual Conference of the Western History Association, Denver, Colorado, October 1995).
72
Hackel, "Indian-Spanish Relations," 297-308
Randall Milliken, A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1810 (Menlo Park: Ballena Press, 1995), 104-107.
73
Pedro Fages to Jacobo Ugarte y Loyola, June 2, 1790, Monterey, AGN CA 46:31.
74
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI: 216: 71r
Lasuén, Writings of Lasuén, 2:212.
75
Señán to Lasuén, October 2[?], 1800, Mission San Buenaventura AGN PI 216:96.
76
Lasuén, Mission San Carlos, June 19, 1801, AGN PI: 216: 71v
Lasuén, Writings of Lasuén, 2:213.
77
Randall T. Milliken, "An Ethnohistory of the Indian People of the San Francisco Bay Area from 1770 to 1810" (Ph.D. diss., University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, 1991), 510.
Governor Fages incorporated these regulations into the guide- lines he issued for the comisionado of San José, Fages to [Ignacio] Vallejo, Instrucciones al di- rector de San José, July 18, 1785, Monterey, Archives of California 22:338-41.
78
William Mason, "Indian-Mexican Cultural Exchange in the Los Angeles Area, 1781-1834," Aztlán 15 (Spring 1984): 123-44.
George Harwood Phillips, "Indians in Los Angeles, 1781-1875: Economic Integration, Social Disintegration," Pacific Historical Re- view 49 (August 1980): 427-51.
79
Ortega to Fages, April 18, 1784, Pueblo de la Reyna de los Angeles, Archives of Cali- fornia 22:176-77.
80
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region," 110.
81
Fages to Captain Vicente Feliz, San Gabriel, January 13, 1787, Archives of California 4:148-55
William Marvin Mason, "Fages' Code of Conduct Toward Indians, 1787," Journal of California Anthropology 2 (Summer 1975): 90-100.
82
Geiger, As the Padres Saw Them, 129.
83
Mason, "Indian-Mexican Cultural Exchange," 129.
84
Ibid., 131-33
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region," 90-96.
85
Lasuén to Don Jacabo Ugarte y Loyola, October 20, 1787, Mission San Carlos, Writ- ings of Lasuén, 1:168.
86
Fray Mariano Payeras to Reverend Father Guardian, June 18, 1821, Mission San An- tonio de Padua, Writings of Mariano Payeras, trans, and ed. Donald Cutter (Santa Barbara: Bellerophon Books, 1995), 294, 299.
87
Ibid., 299.
88
Archibald, Economic Aspects, 124.
89
Ibid., 133-38.
90
David J. Weber, The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846 (New Haven: Yale Uni- versity Press, 1982), 125.
91
Weber, Mexican Frontier, especially, 122-57.
Bancroft's History of California
Jessie Davies Francis, "An Economic and Social History of Mexican California, 1822-1846: Volume I, Chiefly Economic" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1935; New York: Arno Press, 1976).
92
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 51.
ibid., 23-51
Bancroft, History of California, 3:2-6
C. Alan Hutchinson, Frontier Settle- ment in Mexican California: The Híjar-Padrés Colony, and Its Origins, 1769-1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969), 115-21.
93
Francis, "Economic and Social History of Mexican California," 344-48 and 364-68
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 112.
94
Bancroft, History of California, 3:67-86.
95
Ibid., 85.
96
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 151.
97
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 265-89.
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 149.
98
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 156-57 and 255-60.
99
History of California, 2:458.
Adele Ogden, "Hides and Tallow: McCulloch, Hartnell and Company, 1822-1828," California Historical Society Quarterly 6 (September 1927): 255-56
Ban- croft, History of California, 2:475-77.
100
Fray Mariano Payeras to Reverend Father Guardian José Gasol, Mission La So- ledad, June 26, 1822, Writings of Payeras, 322.
101
Ogden, "Hides and Tallow," 255.
102
David Hornbeck, "Economic Growth and Change at the Missions of Alta Califor- nia, 1769-1846," in David Hurst Thomas, ed., Columbian Consequences, Volume 1: Archaeo- logical and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London, 1989), 423-33, especially 426-29.
Julia G. Costello, "Variability among the Alta California Missions: The Economics of Agricultural Produc- tion," in Columbian Consequences, 435-49.
Thrown among Strangers, 69.
103
Robert H. Jackson, "The Changing Economic Structure of the Alta California Missions—A Reinterpretation," Pacific Historical Review 61 (August 1992): 387-415.
104
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 162, 180-81
Hutchinson, Frontier Settlement, 112-13, 137.
Bancroft, History of California, 2:515-16, n. 8
ibid., 3:34, n. 7
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 378.
105
Paul W. Gates, California Ranchos and Farms, 1846-1862 (Madison: The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1967), 3.
106
Robert Glass Cleland, The Cattle on a Thousand Hills: Southern California, 1850-1870, 2d ed. (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1964), 23
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 196
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 478-83.
107
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 383-88.
108
Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 83.
109
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 388
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 205-6 and 350 n. 89.
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 388.
110
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 388
Jordan, North American Cattle-Ranching Frontiers, 166.
111
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), 10.
112
Hornbeck, "Land Tenure and Rancho Expansion," 385
Gates, California Ranchos, 7-9.
113
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 532
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 138-39.
114
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 525-26
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 138-39.
Adele Ogden, "Boston Hide Droghers Along California Shores," California Historical Society Quarterly 8 (Decem- ber 1929): 289-305.
115
Odgen, "Boston Hide Droghers," 302
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 524.
116
Ogden, "Boston Hide Droghers," 299-300.
117
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 125
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities, 53-56.
118
Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in Cal- ifornia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 48-51.
Cook, Conflict, 304.
119
Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines, 49.
"Life of a Rancher by Don José del Carmen Lugo," Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 32 (September 1950): 185-236.
120
Roberta S. Greenwood, "The California Ranchero: Fact and Fancy," in Columbian Consequences, 451-65.
121
Cook and others have described the ranchos as a peonage system, Conflict, 51
We- ber, Mexican Frontier, 211.
Thrown among Strangers, 100-102 and 150.
Racial Fault Lines, 50.
Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines, 49
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 100.
122
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 211.
123
Francis, "Economic and Social History," 505-509.
124
Albert L. Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), especially 55-71.
Ricardo D. Salvatore, "Modes of Labor Control in Cattle-Ranching Economies: California, Southern Brazil, and Argentina, 1820-1860," Journal of Economic History 55 (June 1991): 441-51.
125
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 136-38.
126
Howard J. Nelson, "The Two Pueblos of Los Angeles: Agricultural Village and Embryo Town," Southern California Quarterly 59 (Spring 1977): 1-10.
Antonio Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region,"
Michael J. González, "Searching for the Feathered Serpent: Exploring the Origins of Mexican Culture in Los Angeles, 1830-1850" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1993).
Garr, "A Frontier Agrarian Settlement: San José de Guadalupe."
127
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region," 195-96.
Iris Ann Wilson, "Early Southern California Viniculture, 1830-1865," Southern California Quarterly 39 (September 1957): 242-50.
Webb, Indian Life, 84-99 and 217-30.
128
Nelson, "The Two Pueblos," 5-6
Ríos-Bustamante, "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Re- gion," 192-94.
"Searching for the Feathered Serpent," 47, 53-59.
129
Nelson, "The Two Pueblos," 8.
130
Mason, "Indian-Mexican Cultural Exchange," 138-39.
131
J. Gregg Layne, ed., "The 1836 Census of Los Angeles," Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 18 (September-December 1936): 159-163.
132
"Indian-Mexican Cultural Exchange," 139.
"Indians in Los Angeles," 436.
134
Census of 1844, 603-626
"Indians in Los Angeles," 436.
135
"Indians in Los Angeles," 436.
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 128.
136
Phillips, "Indians in Los Angeles," 436
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 128.
137
Donald Cutter and Iris Engstrand, Quest for Empire: Spanish Set- tlement in the Southwest (Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1996), 301
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 206.
Weber, Mexican Frontier, 179-206.
138
Hasting to Larkin, November 9, 1845, quoted in Ogden, "Boston Hide Droghers," 300, n. 74.
139
Pitt, Decline of the Californios, 15-16.
James Rawls, Indians of California: The Changing Image (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984), especially 60-65.
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