Notes

Notes
1
John S. Hittell, The Commerce and Industries of the Pacific Coast of North America, 2d ed. (San Francisco, 1882), 317
Gerald T. White, Formative Years in the Far West: A History of the Standard Oil Company of California and Predecessors through 1919 (New York, 1962), 16-18
"California's Other Mineral," Pa- cific Historical Review 34 (May 1970): 140
W. H. Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics: The California Career of Thomas Robert Bard, 2 vols. (Norman, OK, 1965), 1:140-43.
2
Titus Fey Cronise, Natural Wealth of Califor- nia (San Francisco, 1868), 598, 626, 675.
3
White, Formative Years, 59-89
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics, 1:330-39
"Our Oil In- terest," The Resources of California (October 1883): 7.
4
The [Weekly] Price Current (San Francisco, 26 February 1883): 1
"Los Angeles Oil" and "The Oil Trade," Resources of California (No- vember 1883): 7
(November 1884): 16.
5
California State Mining Bureau, Seventh An- nual Report of the State Mineralogist, for the Year Ending October 1, 1887 (Sacramento, 1887), 76
Fourth Annual Report, 280 (hereinafter referred to as State Mineralogist regardless of year)
White, Formative Years, 134
"The Oil Trade," Resources of California (November 1884): 16.
Mansel G. Blackford, The Politics of Business in California, 1890-1920 (Columbus, OH, 1977), 41 and 185, n. 3.
6
R. G. Paddock, "Liquid Fuel—Its Applica- tion, Past and Present," Journal of the Asso- ciation of Engineering Societies 28 (April 1902): 233-46
State Mineralogist, 1884, 107, 284-85, 303, and 1887, 76
White, Formative Years, 43, 85
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics, 1:327- 29
2:13, 72.
7
California State Mining Bureau, Bulletin No. 32, Production and Use of Petroleum in Cal- ifornia, by P. W. Prutzman (Sacramento, 1904), 100
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Poli- tics, 2:13
White, Formative Years, 616, n. 59
W. C. Watts, "Oil as Fuel in Los Angeles County," State Mineralogist, 1896, 662
Ad- miral Selwyn, "The Existing State of the Fluid Fuel Question," Transactions of the Technical Society of the Pacific Coast 10 (Sep- tember 1893): 187-98.
8
White, Formative Years, 233-34
"Cali- fornia's Other Mineral," 142
Prutzman, Pro- duction and Use, 43, 45
Petroleum in Califor- nia: A Concise and Reliable History of the Oil Industry of the State (Los Angeles, 1900), 97- 99
Engineering and Mining Journal 78 (7 July 1904): 2
Neill C. Wilson and Frank J. Tay- lor, Southern Pacific: The Roaring Story of a Fighting Railroad (New York, 1952), 219,221
Ralph Andreano, "The Structure of the Cal- ifornia Petroleum Industry, 1895-1911," Pa- cific Historical Review 34 (May 1970): 174-81
Blackford, Politics of Business, 8-9.
9
White, Formative Years, 136
State Mineralogist, 1887, 23-30.
10
White, Formative Years, 135, 137
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics, 2:8-19.
11
Prutzman, Production and Use, 114-15, 124-25
"California Petroleum as Fuel for Steam- ers," Engineering and Mining Journal 77 (28 April 1904): 678
Santa Maria Chamber of Commerce, The Santa Maria Oil Fields, No. Santa Barbara Co., Cal. (June 1907), pamphlet, "Energy Products—oil, gas, etc." box, Ro- maine Trade Catalog Collection, University of California, Santa Barbara
Paddock, "Liq- uid Fuel," 247
U.S. Department of the Navy, Report of the U.S. Naval 'Liquid Fuel' Board (Washington, D.C., 1904), 396
J. H. Hopps, "Marine Use of Fuel Oil," Journal of Electric- ity, Power and Gas 26 (18 March 1911): 245- 47 (hereinafter JEPG)
Harold F. Williamson, et al, The American Petroleum Industry, 2 vols. (Evanston, IL, 1959, 1963), 2:182
White, "Cal- ifornia's Other Mineral," 140.
12
Petroleum in California, 99
"Petroleum Fuel on the Pacific Coast," Industry 1 (May 1889): 151
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics, 2:47, 64, 73
Richard Charles Schwarzman, The Pinal Dome Oil Company: An Adventure in Business, 1901-1917 (New York, 1976), 47-49
Watts, "Oil as Fuel," 662-63.
13
J. A. Graves, Seventy Years in California, 1857- 1927 (Los Angeles, 1927), 381
Hutchinson, Oil, Land and Politics, 2:80-81
Gerald D. Nash, "Oil in the West: Reflections on the Historiography of an Unexplored Field," Pa- cific Historical Review 34 (May 1970): 199
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Resources of the United States, 1900 (Washington, D.C, 1900), 354,1901, 350, and 1910, 89 (hereinafter re- ferred to as Mineral Resources regardless of year)
U.S. Federal Trade Commission, Re- port of the Federal Trade Commission on the Pa- cific Coast Petroleum Industry, 2 parts (Wash- ington, D.C, 1921 and 1922), 1:51-52
Arthur M. Johnson, "California and the National Oil Industry,' Pacific Historical Review 34 (May 1970): 157.
14
Report of the Federal Trade Commission, 1:51
Arthur F. L. Bell, "Present and Future Sup- ply of Petroleum as Fuel on the Pacific Coast," JEPG 26 (18 March 1911): 237-39
D. M. Folsom, "The Fuel Oil Situation," Trans- actions of the Commonwealth Club of Califor- nia 15 (December 1920): 367.
15
Mineral Resources, 1934, pt. 1, 663
Joe S. Bain, The Economics of the Pacific Coast Pe- troleum Industry, 2 vols. (Berkeley, 1945), 1:15-26, 2:8, 17
Johnson, "California and the National Oil Industry," 165
F. H. Rosetti, "Pinching Back the Oil Wells," California Journal of Development 13 (July 1923): 6
Kenny A. Franks and Paul F. Lambert, Early California Oil: A Photographic History, 1865- 1940 (College Station, TX, 1985), 131-213, passim.
16
White, Formative Years, 155-57,239
Hutchin- son, Oil, Land and Politics, 2:82-83
'A New California Pipeline," Engineering and Mining Journal 78 (3 November 1904): 712.
17
White, Formative Years, 239-41.
18
Ibid., 241, 259
Report of the Federal Trade Commission, 1:22,155-57
Williamson, et al., American Petroleum Industry, 2:72.
19
State Mineralogist, 1887, 55, 75, 181-83.
1888, 560-61
1896, 349-52, 567-69
Min- eral Resources, 1883/84, 238-42
Louis Stotz and Alexander Jamison, History of the Gas In- dustry (New York, 1938), 79-80.
20
Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Eighth Annual Report of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 1913 (San Francisco, 1914), 22
Sixteenth An- nual Report, 1921 (1922), 6
Kempster B. Miller, "Oakland's Gas System," JEPG 24 (25 June 1910): 585
L. H. Newbert, "Suburban Gas Distribution," JEPG 25 (8 October 1910): 322-25
E. C. Jones, "Distribution of Gas," Pacific Service Magazine 5 (July 1913): 49-54.
21
Jones, "Distribution of Gas," 50-57
Leon B. Jones, "Welding of High Pressure Pipe Lines," JEPG 24 (21 September 1912): 257- 60
Newbert, "Suburban Gas," 322-25
E. C. Jones, 'A Recent High Pressure Installation," JEPG 19 (28 September 1907): 271-74
Guy R. Kinsley, "System of Heating and Lighting by Gas—P.P.I.E.," JEPG 32 (21 March 1914): 241-43.
22
C. S. S. Forney, "High Pressure Gas Distri- bution,' JEPG 27 (7 October 1911): 326-27
"Transmission Lines in the San Diego Dis- trict," Electrical World 60 (23 November 1912): 1099
Rudolph Van Norden, "Central California Gas Company's Sys- tem," JEPG 31 (29 November 1913): 477-91
G. L. Bayley, "Discussion of Papers at San Francisco Meeting," Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 37 (December 1915): 698.
23
Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Nine- teenth Annual Report of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company for the Fiscal Year Ended De- cember 31,1923 (San Francisco, 1924), 26.
Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930 (Baltimore, 1983), 262-84
lames C. Williams, "Otherwise a Mere Clod: California Rural Electrification," IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 7 (De- cember 1988): 13-19.
24
White, Formative Years, 420, also 356-60
California State Board of Agricul- ture, Annual Report of the Statistician (Sacra- mento, 1912), 223
Mineral Resources, 1912, 337.
25
California Railroad Commission, Report of the Railroad Commission of California from July 1, 1919 to June 30, 1920 (Sacramento, 1920), 100
July 1,1922 to June 30,1923 (1924), 86
Mark Requa, "The Fuel Resources of California," Transactions of the Common- wealth Club 7 dune 1912): 198
White, For- mative Years, 411, 419
California State Board of Agriculture, Annual Report of the Statisti- cian (Sacramento, 1913), 191
Mineral Re- sources, 1915, 983-84
Charles T. Hutchinson, "Compressor Plant of the Southern Cali- fornia Gas Company," Western Engineering 4 (May 1914): 344
U.S. Geological Survey, Hydroelectric Power Systems of California and Their Extensions into Oregon and Nevada, Wa- ter Supply Paper 493, by Frederick Hall Fowler (Washington, D.C, 1923), 874.
26
"High Pressure Gas Transmission," JEPG 31 (16 August 1913): 158
California Depart- ment of Natural Resources, Division of Mines, Bulletin No. 156, Mineral Commodities of California (San Francisco, 1950), 72
Mineral Resources, 1938, 938
Elizabeth M. Sanders, The Regulation of Natural Gas: Policy and Pol- itics, 1938-1978 (Philadelphia, 1981), 24-25
"Western Power and Fuel Outlook-2, Nat- ural Gas," Federal Reserve Bank of San Fran- cisco, Monthly Review (May 1949): 58-59.
27
White, Formative Years, 145-48, 244, 250-51.
28
Ibid., 420-21, 477-78, 559-60
Minerals Year- book, 1919, pt. 2, 521, 1921, pt. 2, 243
Kenyon L. Reynolds, "The Natural Gasoline Indus- try," California Engineer 3 (October 1924): 38- 39.
29
Federal Trade Commission, 1:168-74
Williamson, et al., 2:154-59, 391-93
Reynolds, "Natural Gasoline," 38.
30
Mineral Resources, 1930, Pt. 2,452
1934, 742
E. F. English, "The Small Town Gas Company," California Journal of Develop- ment 21 (September 1931): 12-13, 50
"Gas Competition," JEPG 65 (1 August 1930): 58- 61.
2
F. F. Latta, Handbook of the Yokuts Indians (Bakersfield: Kern County Museum), 46
James B. Snyder, Inventory of the Ethnographic Papers of Frank Forrest Latta (Yosemite National Park: National Park Service Research Li- brary, 1990), 6.
4
Latta, Handbook, 28, 45.
5
Mark J. Stegmaier and David H. Miller, James F. Milligan: His Journal of Fremont's Fifth Expedition (Glendale: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1988), 105n.
"Lwx v. Haggin, 69 Cal. Case 255, Transcript of Tes- timony," April 15,1881, Vol. I, 46, 47
Donald Jackson and Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John C. Fremont (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), Vol. 1, 274-81, 666
Andrew Rolle, John Charles Fremont: Character as Destiny (Nor- man: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 41-42, 55, 61-62.
6
Jerry MacMullen, Paddle-Wheel Days in California (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1944), 45-47.
S. T. Harding, Water in California (Palo Alto: N. P. Publications, 1960), 71-78.
7
C. F. Read, C. E. Grunsky, and J. J. Crawford, Re- port of the Examining Commission on Rivers and Harbors (Sacramento: State Printing Of- fice, 1890), 107-37
Re- port of the Board of Commissioners on the Irri- gation of the San Joaquin, Tulare, and Sacramento Valleys of the State of California (Washington, D. C, Government Printing Office, 1874)
William L. Preston, Van- ishing Landscapes: Land and Life in the Tulare Basin (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961), 18, 94, 97, 107, 143.
8
lohn Barker, April 18,1881, in "Lux v. Haggin" Vol. II, 47, 202, 205-206, 215- 16, 223, 225, 227.
9
Wallace M. Morgan, History of Kern County, California (Los Angeles: Historic Record Co., 1914), 49-50, 222-23, 1292-94.
10
M. Catherine Miller, Flooding the Courtrooms: Law and Water in the Far West (Lincoln: Uni- versity of Nebraska Press, 1993), 11
11
J. C. Crocker, April 19,1881, Vol. Ill, "Lux v. Haggin," 390-91,591-93,607-610, 616-18.
12
Elisha Stephens, April 15,1881, ibid., Vol. 1,58-60.
13
J. C. Crocker, ibid., Vol. II, 390- 91
Vol. VII, 591-93.
Naomi E. Bain, "The Story of Colonel Thomas Baker and the Founding of Bakersfield" (M. A. the- sis, University of Southern California, 1941), 33, 73.
14
William Harland Boyd, A Californian Middle Border: The Kern River Country, 1720-1880 (Richardson, Texas: Hav- ilah Press, 1972), 120.
15
Miller and Lux Collection, Huntington Library 1 (4), documents 282, 291, and 572.
correspondence as ML-1A, 466-67.
16
C. W Clark, April 21, 1881, "Lux v. Haggin," Vol. V, 1082-83.
Miller, Flooding the Court- rooms, 11.
17
Edward F. Treadwell, The Cattle King (New York: Macmillan, 1931), endpapers
Miller and Lux Collections, Huntington Library, Maps L2 and 6 (1) 23).
18
F. A. Tracy, April 20, 1881, "Lux v. Haggin," Vol IV, 918-19.
Stephen Johnson, Gerald Haslam, and Robert Dawson, The Great Central Valley: Californias Heartland (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)
Haslam's "The Lake That Will Not Die," California His- tory LXXII (Fall 1993): 271
Wallace W. Elliot & Co., History of Tulare County, California... (1883).
19
Elisha Stephens," Lux v. Hag- gin Transcript," Vol. I, p. 87, MLSA Box 1.
20
Latta, Handbook, 81,147.
21
E. W. Fowler, one of his- torian H. H. Bancroft's interviewers, Miller and Lux Collection, Huntington Library, Box 6, 1A-1.
22
Miller and Lux Collection, Huntington Li- brary, 1 (4) 579
Morgan, History of Kern County, 48.
23
Morgan, History of Kern County, 23-24.
24
Andrew Rolle and Iris Engstrand's three volume manuscript treatise entitled A Study of Laws and Custom Pertaining to the Use of Water in California Under Spain and Mex- ico, prepared for Los Angeles Superior Court Case No. 650,079.
Daniel Tyler, The Mythical Pueblo Rights Doctrine... (El Paso: Texas West- ern Press, 1990).
25
Lux v. Haggin, 69, Cal. 255
Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water, 1770s-1990s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 91-97.
26
endnote 1, above.
1
"Richmond Took a Beating," Fortune Maga- zine, February 1945, 267.
author's Ph.D. dis- sertation, "Women and Defense Industries in World War II" (University of California, Berkeley, 1993).
2
Fore 'N' Aft, April 20,1945.
3
Charles J. McClain, In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1994), 70-73
Sucheng Chan, "The Exclusion of Chinese Women, 1870-1943," in Sucheng Chan, ed., Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Com- munity in America, 1882-1943 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 94-146
Jeff H. Lesser, 'Always 'Outsiders': Asians, Nat- uralization, and the Supreme Court," Am- erasia 12 (1985-86): 83-100
Jack Chen, The Chinese of America (San Francisco: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980), 147-48.
4
Act of September 22, 1922, 42 United States Statutes at Large (First Part)1021
Chan, "The Exclusion of Chinese Women," 109.
5
Interview with Maggie Gee, February 20, 1994, and March 27, 1994
interview with Florence Gee Tom, August 23, 1994.
6
Ruth Milkman, Gender at Work: The Dy- namics of Job Segregation by Sex during World War II (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987)
Sherna Berger Gluck, Rosie the Riv- eter Revisited: Women, the War, and Social Change (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987)
Sheila Tropp Lichtman, "Women at Work, 1941-1945: Wartime Employment in the San Francisco Bay Area" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, 1981)
Miriam Frank, Marilyn Ziebarth, and Connie Field, The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter: The Story of Three Million Working Women During World War Two (California: Clarity Educational Pro- ductions, 1982).
Deborah Ann Hirshfield, "Rosie Also Welded: Women and Technology in Shipbuilding During World War II" (Unpublished Ph.D. disser- tation, University of California, Irvine, 1987), 127.
Charles Wol- lenberg, Marinship at War: Shipbuilding and Social Change in Wartime Sausalito (Berkeley: Western Heritage Press, 1990).
7
Time, December 22, 1941.
8
Jinshan shibao. July 4, 5, 1942.
9
Ibid., April 22, May 11, 20, 24, 30, June 20, 23, 24, August 12, 22, and November 16, 1942; March 1, 2, 17, April 13,19, August 12, November 16,1943.
10
Charles S. Johnson, The Ne- gro War Workers in San Francisco, A Local Self- Survey (San Francisco, 1944), 3
Jinshan shibao, April 28, 1942, and March 17, 1943
Chinese Press, August 21,1942.
11
Shih-shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese Ex- perience in America (Bloomington and Indi- anapolis: Indiana University Press, 1986), 116.
12
Marshall Maslin, ed., Western Shipbuilders in World War II (Oakland, 1954), 59.
13
Fore 'N' Aft, July 1943.
14
Chinese Press, August 21,1942.
15
Wollenberg, Marinship at War, 3-4
Jinshan shibao, March 21,1943.
17
Stanford M. Lyman, Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 1974), 59
Victor G. and Brett de Bary Nee, Longtime Californ': A Documentary Study of An American Chinatown (New York: Pantheon Books, 1973), 148-49.
Renqiu Yu, To Save China, to Save Ourselves: The Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance of New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), 10-11
Chen, The Chinese of America, 197-98.
18
Nee and Nee, Longtime Calif orn , 63
Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1988), 94-95
interview with Ben Fee by Ben Tong and Kathleen Chin, Oral History Pro- ject, Bancroft Library, University of Califor- nia, Berkeley, 3.
20
Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, Population: Characteristics of the Nonwhite Population by Race, 5-6.
22
Jade Snow Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1989), 6
interview with Jade Snow Wong, November 25, 1991.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, "Split Household, Small Producer, and Dual Earner: An Analysis of Chinese- American Family Strategies," Journal of Mar- riage and the Family (Feb. 1983): 39-41.
23
Ginger Chih, "Immigration of Chinese Women to the U.S.A., 1900-1940" (Unpub- lished M.A. thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 1977), 27-28.
San- fanshi nugong shehui diaocha zhi shitting (Sur- vey of Social Work Needs of the Chinese Pop- ulation of San Francisco), California SERA Project 2F 2-256,1936, Bancroft Library, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, 1-2.
Lyman, Chinese Ameri- cans, 154-55
Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America, 109-110
Judy Yung, "Unbinding the Feet, Unbinding their Lives: Social Change for Chinese Women in San Francisco, 1902-1945" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1990), 223.
Judy Yung's dissertation has been revised and published as Unbound Feet: A Social His- tory of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berke- ley and Los Angeles: University of Califor- nia Press, 1995).
Ruth Hall Whitefield, "Public Opinion and the Chinese Question in San Francisco, 1900-1947" (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of California, Berke- ley, 1947).
24
Chinese Press, October 9,1942.
25
Jinshan shibao, February 9,22, April 1, 1942
Chinese Press, January 30, 1942.
26
San Francisco Chronicle, April 17, 1943
Jin- shan shibao, April 19, 20, 1943.
27
Sanfanshi nugong shehui diaocha zhi shiqing, 1:35-36
Nee and Nee, Longtime Californ', 289
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 165.
28
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 165
Sanfanshi nugong shehui diaocha zhi shiqing, 3
inter- view with Mrs. F. J. Chin by Sharlene Chinn, 1977, in "Combined Asian Ameri- can Recourse Oral History Project," Ban- croft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1-9.
29
Lucy Jen Huang, "The Chinese American Family, " in Charles H. Mindel and Robert W. Habenstein, eds., Ethnic Families in Amer- ica (New York: Elsevier, 1981), 124.
Fore 'N' Aft, Sept. 3, 1943.
30
Sanfanshi nugong shehui diaocha zhi shiqing, 38.
33
Chinese Press, May 29, 1942.
34
Jinshan shibao, Nov. 29, 1942.
35
Fore 'N' Aft, Nov. 19,1942.
36
Interview with Maggie Gee, November 24, 1992.
37
Chinese Press, Dec. 18, 1942.
38
Jinshan shibao, June 7, 1942.
39
Fore 'N' Aft, Dec. 31, 1942.
40
Fore 'N' Aft, April 16, 1943, and April 14, 1944.
41
Richard Kock Dare, "The Economic and So- cial Adjustment of the San Francisco Chinese for the Past Fifty Years" (Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1959), 20
interview with Maggie Gee, June 1991, Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 189.
42
Interview with Aimei Chen, July 11, 1994.
44
Interview with Yulan Liu, January 8, 1993.
45
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 4-5, 12-15, 18, 29, 33, 52- 55, 71, 73, 90, 92, 95, 109, 188-99.
46
Fore 'N' Aft, April 20,1945.
48
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 92-93, 189-91, 194-98.
49
Interview with Joy Yee, August 18,23,1994.
50
Interview with Yulan Liu, January 8, 1993.
52
Vera S. Williams, WASPs, Women Airforce Service Pi- lots of World War II (Osceola, WI: Moterbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers, 1994), 24, 31, 54, 69, 76, 77, 115, 126, 129, 140, 144.
53
Chinese Press, September 29, 1943.
Jinshan shibao, September 9, 1943.
54
Constance Wong, "Marinship Chinese Workers Are Building Ships to Free Their Home Land," Marin-er (June 26, 1943): 3.
in- terview with Peter Lew, August 23, 1994.
56
Fore N' Aft, April 7, 1944.
57
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 94, 233-34, 237.
58
Interview with Jade Snow Wong, November 23, 1991
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 236.
59
Wong, Fifth Chinese Daughter, 237.
60
Interview with Lanfang Wong, August 20, 1994.
61
Interview with Yuqin Fu, August 19, 1994.
64
Looking Back at Berkeley: A Pictorial History of a Diverse City (Berkeley: Berkeley Book Committee of the Berkeley Historical Society, 1984), 28.
66
Ibid.
interview with Lili Wong, August 10, 1994.
70
Interview with Limin Wong, July 19, 1994.
1
U.S. War Department, Compilation of War Department General Orders, Bulletins, and Circulars, Janu- ary 1, 1943.
3
David Ritchie, Su- perquake: Why Earthquakes Occur and When the Big One Will Hit Southern California (New York: Crown Publishers, 1988), particularly Chapter 1, "California: The Earthquake State," 1-36.
4
John Walton Caughey, California (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1964), 112-34
Walton Bean, California, An Interpretive History (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1968), 34-49.
5
Norman E. Tutorow, The Mexican- American War: An Annotated Bibliography (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981).
6
"An Act for the Admission of the State of Cal- ifornia into the Union," U.S. Statutes at Large, 31st Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 9, Chap. 50, Sep- tember 9,1850, pp. 452-53.
7
CIS Index to Presidential Executive Orders & Proclamations: Chronological List (Washington: Congressional Information Service, 1987), Microfiche 1850-41-1.
U.S. War Department, Outline Description of Military Posts and Reservations in the United States and Alaska (Washington: GPO, 1904), 379.
8
CIS Index, Microfiche 1851-41-5.
U.S. Statutes at Large, 33rd Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. 10, Chap. 171, p. 640.
9
"An Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen," U.S. Statutes at Large, 5th Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. 1, Chap. 72, July 16, 1798, pp. 605-606.
Annual Report of the Su- pervising Surgeon of the Marine-Hospital Ser- vice of the United States for the fiscal year 1873 (Washington: GPO, 1873), 8-9.
Annual Report, 1927, p. 263.
Henry Campbell Black, Black's Law Dictionary (4th ed., St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1951).
10
John Godfrey, "Historical Sketch of the United States Marine-Hospital Service at San Francisco, Cal.," in Annual Report, 1896, pp. 277-79.
11
Treasury Department Records, Marine Hos- pitals, No. 2, p. 146.
Godfrey, "His- torical Sketch," 277.
12
Cong. Globe, App. (31st Congress, 1st Sess.), p. 1351
U.S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 9, Chap. 90, p. 534.
San Francisco, Laws of the State of Califor- nia, 1st Sess., Chap. 65, pp. 164-67. This law was amended on April 22,1850
ibid., Chap. 126, p. 343.
"An Act to amend An Act to Pro- vide a Revenue for the State Marine Hospi- tal at San Francisco,' passed March twenty- sixth, eighteen hundred and fifty-one," Statutes of California, 3rd Sess., Chap.6, pp. 45-46.
Compiled Laws of the State of California, Con- taining all the Acts of the Legislature of a Pub- lic and General Nature, Now in Force, Passed at the Sessions of 1850-51-52-53, Chap. 204, pp. 926-27.
ibid., Chap. 214, pp. 938- 44
Statutes of California, 4th Sess., Chap. 179, pp. 281-87
Ralph Chester Williams, The United States Public Health Service, 1798-1950 (Washington: United States Public Health Service, 1951), 45-46
Williams, USPHS.
The United States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service (Chicago: Press of the American Medical Association, 1904).
13
Godfrey, "Historical Sketch," 278.
14
First Annual Report, 1872, p. 17.
15
Godfrey, "Historical Sketch," 278.
16
Annual Report, 1872, p. 17.
17
Godfrey, "Historical Sketch," 278.
18
Ibid., 279.
19
Annual Report, 1872, p. 17
Annual Re- port, 1875, p. 27.
20
Godfrey, "Historical Sketch," 279.
21
U.S. Statutes at Large, 42nd Cong., 3rd Sess., Vol. 17, Chap. 72, January 28,1873, pp. 420- 21.
22
Ibid.
23
William Belknap, Secretary of War, to the Secretary of the Treasury, January 24, 1874.
SacDist Corps of Engineers, "Cul- tural Resources Inventory Update, Presidio of San Francisco" (1988), 95-96
Work- ers of the Writers' Program of the Work Pro- jects [sic] Administration in Northern Cal- ifornia (compilers), "The Army of the Golden Gate: A Guide to Army Posts in the San Francisco Bay Area," typescript, no date
Erwin N. Thompson and Sally B. Woodbridge, Presidio of San Francisco: An Outline of Its Evolution as a U.S. Army Post, 1847-1990 (Denver: National Park Service, 1992), copies in PHF.
24
George B. Davis, Judge Advocate General, to Adjutant General, April 13, 1909.
letter in War Department, Office of Chief of Engineers, was sent to Engineer's Office Department of California, March 2, 1910, copy in PHF.
25
U. S. Treasury Department, Annual Report on the State of the Finances to the 43rd Congress, First Session, Dec. 1, 1873 (Washington: GPO, 1873), 687.
26
Outline Description of Military Posts, p. 378.
San Francisco Examiner of January 24, 1974, in "Looking Back a Century," reported that on January 22, 1874
27
Godfrey, "Historical Sketch," 279.
U. S. Trea- sury Department, Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the State of the Finances for the Year 1875 (Washington: GPO, 1875), 626, ex- cerpted from the "Report of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury."
28
Outline Description of Military Posts, p. 379.
29
Ibid., 380.
30
Ibid.
31
Daily Alta California, April 7, 1870.
32
Ferdinand von Leicht, Plat of the Pueblo Lands of San Francisco, Finally Confirmed to the City of San Francisco, Surveyed under Instructions from the US. Surveyor General (San Fran- cisco: Schmidt Label and Litho Co., 1887).
33
Ernest Hebersmith to the Surgeon General, U.S. Marine Hospital Service, Washington, D.C., July 7, 1881, copy in PHF.
34
General Irvin McDowell to Adjutant Gen- eral, September 22, 1881, in War Department Files, No. 72, copy in PHF.
35
General Irvin McDowell to Adjutant Gen- eral, February 24, 1881, in War Department Files, No. 73.
Ernest Hebersmith to General Irvin Mc- Dowell, December 11, 1880, in Marine Hos- pital Correspondence, File 73, copy in PHF.
37
Dr. John Vansant, Marine Hospital Custo- dian, to Commanding General [John Pope], Presidio of San Francisco, August 8, 1884, copy in PHF.
38
Dr. John Vansant to the Supervising Surgeon General, U.S. Marine Hospital Service, Washington, D.C., April 8, 1884
Surgeon Gen- eral John B. Hamilton to Secretary of the Treasury Charles J. Folger, April 25, 1884, copy in PHF.
39
SacDist, Corps of Engineers, "Cultural Re- sources," 96-97
Alta California, February 24, 1874, quoting Secretary of War William Belk- nap, copy in the PHF.
40
Presidio of San Francisco, California, Octo- ber 25, 1882, Special Orders No. 173, copy in PHF.
41
Dr. John Vansant to the Supervising Surgeon General, U.S. Marine Hospital Service, Washington, April 8, 1884, copy in PHF.
42
Williams, USPHS, 121.
San Francisco Business Directory and Mercantile Guide for 1864-1865 (San Francisco: B.F. Stil- well & Co., 1864).
Charles Caldwell Do- bie, San Francisco's Chinatown (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1936), 237.
Loren G. Lipson, "Plague in San Fran- cisco: The United States Marine Hospital Service Commission to Study the Existence of Plague in San Francisco," Annals of Inter- nal Medicine 77(July-December 1972): 303.
Walter Wyman, The Bubonic Plague (Washington: GPO, 1900)
43
Annual Report, 1900, p. 20.
44
Annual Report, 1900, pp. 19-22.
45
Annual Report, 1901, p. 16.
46
Annual Report, 1900, p. 21.
47
Lipson, "Plague," 303.
48
Annual Report, 1900, p. 20
Lipson, "Plague," 305.
49
Annual Report, 1900, p. 20.
50
Telegram, Joseph J. Kinyoun to Surgeon General Walter Wyman, May 15, 1900, in An- nual Report, 1900, p. 537.
51
Annual Report, 1900, p. 20.
Lipson, "Plague," 304-305.
52
Wilfred H. Kellogg, "Present Status of Plague, with Historic Review," American Journal of Public Health 10 (November 1920): 835-44.
53
Williams, USPHS, 137.
54
Annual Report, 1900, p. 22.
Lipson, "Plague," 304.
55
Annual Report, 1901, pp. 502-516.
57
Annual Report, 1900, pp. 22-23.
58
Lipson, "Plague," 305.
59
San Francisco Board of Health Biennial Report 1898-1900 (San Francisco: Hinton Printing Company, 1900), 13.
60
"First Biennial Message of Governor Henry T. Gage," in Appendix to Journals of Senate and Assembly of California, 34th Sess., Vol. 1, Jan- uary 7, 1901, pp. 3-44.
"Bubonic Plague Scare" is on pp. 7-18.
61
Annual Report, 1901, pp. 15-16
Williams, USPHS, 124.
62
Annual Report, 1901, pp. 502-516.
64
'An act to add a new section to the Political Code of the State of California, relating to the preservation of public health," Statutes of California, 34th Sess., Chap. 85, March 6, 1901, p. 99.
65
Lipson, "Plague," 309.
66
Williams, USPHS, 121ff.
67
Annual Report, 1908, pp. 11-12.
68
Annual Report, 1909, p. 11.
Frank Mor- ton Todd, Eradicating Plague from San Fran- cisco (San Francisco: Report of Citizens' Health Committee, 1909), frontispiece.
69
Annual Report, 1909, p. 14.
70
Annual Report, 1909, p. 13.
71
Annual Report, 1917, p. 214.
72
Annual Report, 1922, p. 95
Annual Report, 1923, pp. 68-69.
73
Annual Report, 1925, p. 67.
Lipson, "Plague," 309.
74
Annual Report, 1898, p. 59.
75
letter dated September 4,1894, in Annual Report, 1895, p. 30.
76
Annual Report, 1907, pp. 86-87
Alta Califor- nia, February 21,1874, quoting Secretary of War William Belknap.
77
Annual Report, 1921, p. 300.
78
Annual Report, 1926, p. 232.
79
Annual Report, 1924, p. 216
Annual Report, 1925, p. 215.
80
Annual Report, 1925, p. 214.
81
Annual Re- port for 1926, p. 232
82
Annual Report, 1927, p. 262.
U.S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 69-744], 69th Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. 44 (Part 2), Chap. 341, March 3, 1927, pp. 1378-79.
83
Annual Report, 1927, p. 262.
84
Annual Report, 1928, p. 259.
85
Annual Report, 1929, p. 243.
U.S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 93], 70th Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 45, Chap. 126, pp. 162-93, p. 181 cited.
86
Annual Report, 1930, p. 262
Annual Re- port of 1931 gives this date as April 7,1930.
87
Annual Report, 1931, p. 254.
88
Annual Report, 1931, p. 254
U.S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 869], 71st Cong., 3rd Sess., Vol. 46 (Part 1), Chap. 522, pp. 1552-1627, p. 1601 cited.
89
Annual Report, 1932, p. 148.
91
U.S. Statutes at Large, 76th Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 53 (Part 2), Sect. 201, Reorganization Plan No. 1, July 1,1939, pp. 1424-25.
92
Alan W. Donaldson, acting chief, Communicable Disease Center, to post engineer, Presidio of San Francisco, August 15, 1962.
letter from Creed B. Card, chief, Real Estate Department, SacDist Corps of Engineers, and accepted on Octo- ber 31,1964, by Rufus E. Miles, Jr., of HEW, copy in PHF.
93
U.S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 97-35], Vol. 95,97th Cong., 2nd Sess., August 13,1981, pp. 602-605.
95
U.S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 92-589], Vol. 86, 92nd Cong., 2nd Sess., October 27, 1972, pp. 1511-16
Boundary Map number NRA-GG-80.003, sheets 1-3, July 1972, copy of map is in PHF.
96
Ronald D. Hofman, acting state director, Bureau of Land Management, to CA. Pat- terson, HEW, November 5, 1981, copy in PHF.
97
David C Gray, director of real estate, De- partment of the Army, to SacDist Corps of Engineers, March 9,1984, copy in PHF.
98
Colonel Eugene D. Hawkins, garrison com- mander, to U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), Fort McPherson, Georgia, Sep- tember 21, 1982, copy in PHF.
100
Joseph Duncan, chief, Acquisition Branch, to Jake Ours, GSA, December 1, 1982, copy in PHF.
101
Howard W. Ours, GSA Disposal Branch, Real Estate Division, San Francisco Regional Office, to Joseph Duncan, chief, Acquisition Branch, Sacramento District, Corps of En- gineers, January 19,1983, copy in PHF.
102
Morgan Wheeler, chief, Real Estate Divi- sion, SacDist Corps of Engineers, to CDR USACE (DAEN-REA), Washington, D.C, January 25,1983, copy in PHF.
103
Morgan Wheeler, Request for Transfer of Real and Related Personal Property (Form 1334), to GSA, San Francisco, January 25, 1983.
Harry S. Hanashiro, SacDist Corps of Engineers appraiser, April 5,1983, copy in PHF.
104
Max E. Follmer, chief, Acquisition Divi- sion, to Commander, FORSCOM, Ft. McPherson, Georgia, December 5, 1983, copy in PHF.
105
Morgan Wheeler, chief, Real Estate Divi- sion, SacDist Corps of Engineers, to Com- mander, Headquarters, PSF, February 7, 1984.
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Edger- ton, Directorate of Engineering and Hous- ing (DEH) [now Directorate of Public Works (DPW)], PSF, to FORSCOM, January 9,1984, copy in PHF.
106
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Edgerton, DEH, to SacDist Corps of Engineers, Janu- ary 25,1984, copy in PHF.
107
James F. McCabe, Jr., supervisory regional appraiser, GSA, to Director, Disposal Divi- sion, June 21,1984, copy in PHF.
108
Colonel Howard D. Graves, deputy chief of staff, Engineers, to HQDA (DAEN-ZCI-A), Washington, D.C., January 28,1984, copy in PHF.
109
Gwendolyn M. Cornell, director, Real Property Disposal Division, GSA, San Fran- cisco, to Morgan Wheeler, chief, Real Prop- erty Division, SacDist Corps of Engineers, May 21,1984, copy in PHF.
110
Max E. Follmer, chief, Acquisition Divi- sion, SacDist Corps of Engineers, to Office of Chief of Engineers, Washington, May 29, 1984, copy in PHF.
111
Gwendolyn M. Cornell to Joseph C. Dun- can, acting chief, Real Estate Division, SacDist Corps of Engineers, August 1, 1984, copy in PHF.
113
National Defense Authorization Act. U. S. Statutes at Large [Public Law 100-180], Vol. 101, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., December 4, 1987, pp. 1019-1248.
Section 2331, Title III, pp. 1222-23
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989, House of Rep- resentatives, House Reports, 100th Cong., 1st Sess. (Report 100-446), pp. 212-13.
115
"Jack is At Rest: The Secluded Cemetery for Sailors Among the Presidio Hills,"Saw Francisco Call, March 29, 1896.
116
"Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Presidio of San Francisco Military Reservation, San Francisco, California EPA, November 1989," by U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (THAMA), Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland.
December 1992 "Final Remedial In- vestigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS)" for the PHS Hospital, copy in PHF.
117
Mary L. Maniery, Summary of the San Francisco Marine Hospital Cemetery, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Sacramento: Par Environmental Services, 1994), 8, 12-15.
118
Maniery, Summary, 11.
125
Federal Register 59 (188) September 29, 1994, 49711.
126
Togo D. West, Jr., to Bruce Babbitt, Sep- tember 30,1994.
127
San Francisco Chronicle, June 24,1995.
128
U. S. Department of the Interior, Creating a Park for the 21st Century, from Military Post to National Park: Final General Management Plan Amendment, Presidio of San Francisco (San Francisco: National Park Service, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, 1994), 80-83.
129
Ibid., vi.
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