Notes

Notes
1
Gunther Barth, Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850-1870 (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1964)
Sucheng Chan, This Bittersweet Soil: The Chinese in Califor- nia Agriculture, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1986)
Ping Chiu, Chinese Labor in California, 1850-1880: an Economic Study (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963)
Robert G. Lee, 'The Origins of Chinese Immigration to the United States, 1848-1882," in The Life, Influence and the Role of the Chinese in the United States, 1776-1960 (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society, 1976), 183-91
Stuart C. Miller, The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese, 1785-1882 (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1969)
Alex- ander Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1971)
Shih- Shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1986)
Stephen Williams, The Chinese in the California Mines, 1848-1860 (Stanford University Press, 1930; reprint, 1971).
2
[Abstracts of the] 8th Census (1860)
10th Census (1880)
11th Census (1890)
14th Census (1920)
15th Census (1930).
3
George Voyle interview, cited in Paden Papers, Big Oak Flat Road Notebook A (ms.), ca. 1951, University of the Pacific (hereinafter UOPWA).
4
Tuolumne City News, August 14,1868, p. 2.
5
Stanislaus Stepping Stones 14 (Winter 1990): 739-43.
6
Irene Paden, "Tulloch & Knight's Ferry," ms. notebook, UOPWA.
7
Paul Ong, "An Ethnic Trade: The Chinese Laundries in Early California," Journal of Ethnic Studies 8 (Winter 1981): 95-113.
8
Peter R. Knights, The Plain People of Boston, 1830-1860 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1971), Appendix E, 149-55.
9
Chan, This Bittersweet Soil, 404.
10
Lucie C. Hirata, "Free, Indentured, En- slaved: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth- Century America," Signs 5 (1:1979): 4-10.
11
Ibid., 13.
12
Ibid., 6-7, 11, 19
John W. Stephens, "A Quantitative History of Chinatown, San Francisco, 1870 and 1880," in The Life, Influence and Role of the Chinese, 77.
The Oakdale Leader, May 25, 1939, p. 3, c. 4.
13
This Bittersweet Soil, 391-99.
Ibid., 399.
14
This Bittersweet Soil, Table 34, 392-93.
15
Oral history session, Stockton Corral of Westerners, Stockton, April 10, 1969.
16
Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America, 34.
17
Mann, After the Gold Rush, 116-17.
18
The Modesto Bee, March 15, 1989, p. B-1.
1
Lotchin has written extensively on this subject and has brought most of it together in Fortress California, 1910-1961: From War- fare to Welfare (New York, 1992).
"The City and the Sword: San Francisco and the Rise of the Metropolitan-Military Complex, 1919-1941," Journal of Ameri- can History 65 (March 1979): 996-1020
"The Metropolitan-Military Complex in Comparative Perspective: San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego, 1919-1941," Journal of the West 18 (July 1979): 19-30
"The City and the Sword in Metropoli- tan California, 1919-1941," Urbanism Past and Present 7 (Summer/Fall 1982): 1-16
"The Political Culture of the Metropolitan- Military Complex," Social Science History 16 (Summer 1992): 275-99.
2
Roger W. Lotchin, "Conclusion: The Mar- tial Metropolis," in Roger W. Lotchin, ed., The Martial Metropolis: U. S. Cities in War and Peace (New York, 1984), 223-24.
3
Richard F. Pourade, The History of San Diego, vol. 5: Gold in the Sun (San Diego, 1965), 197, 218.
4
Richard W. Turk, "Defending the New Empire, 1900-1914," in Kenneth J. Hagan, ed., In Peace and War: Interpretations of American Naval History, 1775-1984,2nd ed. (Westport, Conn., 1984), 186-97
William Reynolds Braisted, The United States Navy in the Pacific, 1909-1922 (Austin, 1971), 1-34.
5
William Kettner, Why It Was Done and How (San Diego: 1923), passim.
Lucille Clark DuVall, "William and Marion Kettner: Brother Bill and the Lass from Tuolumne" (Master's thesis, University of San Diego, 1979).
6
Clarence Alan McGrew, City of San Diego and San Diego County: The Birthplace of Califor- nia (Chicago, 1922), I-195-96, 301-302
San Diego Union, 1 November 1912,2 November 1912,6 November 1912, 15 November 1916, 17 November 1916
William Issel, "'Citi- zens Outside the Government': Business and Urban Policy in San Francisco and Los Angeles, 1890-1932," Pacific Historical Review 57 (May 1988): 117-20
Arnold Klaus, "History of the Chamber of Commerce," 4 vols. (Typescript, 1967, San Diego Chamber of Commerce), 3:407.
Christopher Silver, "Norfolk and the Navy: The Evolution of City- Federal Relations, 1917-46," in Lotchin, ed., Martial Metropolis, 110-11.
7
Pourade, Gold in the Sun, 223-25, 264
U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, 9:78, 2:139
U. S., Depart- ment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, 9:86, 91, 3:110-11.
ibid.
Grace Louise Miller, "The San Diego Progressive Movement, 1900-1920" (Mas- ter's thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1976).
8
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 12-15, 25, 41
Rufus Choate, "A Taped Interview of Reminiscences . . . ," Journal of San Diego History 11 (June 1965): 46-49.
9
Roger W. Lotchin, "The Darwinian City: The Politics of Urbanization in San Fran- cisco Between the World Wars," Pacific Historical Review 48 (August 1979): 363.
10
Edward J. P. Davis, The United States Navy and U. S. Marine Corps at San Diego (San Diego, 1955), 68-71
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 57-58, 60-62
Union, 15 November 1916, 16 November 1916, 17 November 1916, 2 August 1919, 7 August 1919, 4 August 1920, 1.
11
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 73-98
Pourade, Gold in the Sun, 225-27, 231-33
Josephus Daniels, The Wilson Era: Years of Peace (Chapel Hill, 1944), 314.
12
Pourade, Gold in the Sun, 225
David F. Trask, "The American Navy in a World at War, 1914-1919," in Hagan, ed., In War and Peace, 218
Donald W. Mitchell, History of the Modern American Navy (New York, 1946), 279-80.
13
Union, 4 August 1919, 7 August 1919
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 115-16.
14
Union, 1 August 1919, and 2 August 1919.
George W. Hopkins, "From Naval Pauper to Naval Power: The Development of Charleston's Metropolitan- Military Complex," in Lotchin, ed., The Martial Metropolis, 3
Silver, "Norfolk and the Navy," 114-15
Lotchin, "The Metropolitan-Military Complex in Comparative Perspective," 25.
15
Union, 7 August 1919.
16
Union, 9 August 1919, and 10 August 1919.
17
U. S., Congress, House, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1919, 66th Cong., 2nd sess., H. Docs., n. 729, pp. 177, 186-90
Union, 8 August 1919.
18
Richard F. Pourade, The History of San Diego, vol. 6: The Rising Tide (San Diego, 1967), 13
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 174-75
Martin K. Gordon, comp., Joseph Henry Pendleton, 1860-1942: Register of His Personal Papers (Washington, D. C., 1975), 150-53, 203, 209.
19
Kettner, Why It Was Done, 62-63, 73-76, 110, 156-57, 162, 165.
Lotchin, in Fortress California, xvii, 27, 30, 39, 41
20
Beverley Bowen Moeller, Phil Swing and Boulder Dam (Berkeley, 1971).
T. C. Mac- aulay, "The Lighter-Than-Air Affair," San Diego Magazine, February 1930, 4-6, 21
Union, 24 September 1935, 27 September 1935, and 15 October 1935
Lotchin, "The City and the Sword in Metropolitan California," 10
Klaus, "History of the Chamber," 3:437.
21
House, Annual Reports of the Navy Depart- ment, 1919, 190
Union, 11 August 1919, 1.
22
Wayne Ray Irwin, "The Port of San Diego: An Economic Geography of Waterborne Trade" (Master's thesis, San Diego State College, 1970), 14, 69-72, 174-80
Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropo- lis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), 108-32.
23
Pourade, Rising Tide, 80, 226
City of San Diego, Harbor Department, The Port of San Diego, 1929, 30
Irwin, "The Port of San Diego," 22-24.
24
Harbor Department, Port of San Diego, 1929, 31
Joe Brennan, "Progress at Lindbergh Airport," San Diego Magazine, August 1928, 32-33
"Build Lindbergh Field," ibid., November 1927, 3
Howard E. Morin, "Solid Bottom for Harbor Department Found in Special Tax Levy," ibid., August 1929, 8-9, 22
Joseph W. Brennan, "What a Dime Can Do," ibid., June 1931, 5-7.
25
Gerald D. Nash, The American West in the Twentieth Century: A Short History of an Urban Oasis (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973), 77-78, 84-85, 90-91
Lotchin, "The City and the Sword in Metropolitan California," 2-3.
26
U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States of America, 1920, 3:111
idem, Fifteenth Census of the United States of America, 1930, 3:245
Ernst C. Griffin, "San Diego's Population Patterns," in Philip R. Pryde, ed., San Diego: An Introduction to the Region, 2nd. ed. (Dubuque, Iowa, 1984), 65-66.
27
Oscar W. Cotton, The Good Old Days (New York, 1962), 115-17, 131-33, 155
28
"Lots of People, Lots of Lots," San Diego Magazine, October-November 1930, 6-7.
29
E. Robert Anderson, "San Diego's Record of Home Building," San Diego Magazine, April 1928,3
Pourade, Rising Tide, 80-81, 133-35
Thomas A. Jamison, "La Jolla Hermosa: A Subdivision Triumph," Journal of San Diego History 31 (Summer 1985): 210-26
Union, 1 January 1929, Special Section, 3.
30
Pourade, Rising Tide, 80, 119, 132.
31
Cotton, Good Old Days, 155.
32
Gregg R. Hennessey, "City Planning, Progressivism, and the Development of San Diego, 1908-1926," (Master's thesis, San Diego State University, 1977), 58-59
Kenneth A. Gardner, comp., "Report on the Survey for San Diego, California," (Typescript, Cambridge, Mass., 1924), John Nolen Papers, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., 25-26
John G. Clark, "It Will Keep Your Children," San Diego Maga- zine, October-November 1930,4
Pourade, Rising Tide, 132.
33
Ed Hetcher, Memoirs of Ed Fletcher (San Diego, 1952), 459-60
Union, 1 January 1923.
34
Pourade, Rising Tide, 30,84,138-39
Gregg R. Hennessey, "Junipero Serra Museum: Architectural, Cultural, and Urban Land- mark," Journal of San Diego History 25 (Summer 1979): 221-41.
35
San Diego County, County Clerk, "Articles of Incorporation," (1869-1940), San Diego Historical Society, Research Archives, here- inafter cited as SDHSRA.
36
U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States of America, Manufacturing, 1919, 9:110, 130-31.
37
Thomas F. Bomar, "First in Industrial Gains," San Diego Magazine, October 1929, 10, 46-49
U. S., Department of Com- merce, Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States of America, Manufacturing, 1929, 3:79.
38
Daniel Edward Stone, "The Evolution of Municipal Budgeting in the City of San Diego, California," (Master's thesis, San Diego State College, 1967), 76
City of San Diego, Auditor Controller, "Annual Reports," (1912-1943), SDHSRA.
39
Pourade, RisingTide, 36
Errett Killion, comp., "Growth of San Diego from 1900 to 1931" (Typescript, 1931, San Diego Public Library, California Room), 7
Bertram B. Moore, "Road Development in San Diego County," in Carl H. Heilbron, ed., History of San Diego County (San Diego, 1936), 384-86
Gardner, "Survey for San Diego," 15-18
F. M. Lockwood, "Operating Department: It Operates 24 Hours a Day," San Diego Magazine, July 1930, 7-8.
Fletcher, Memoirs, 279-328.
40
Union, 1 January 1924, 1 January 1925, Outdoor Section, 2,1 January 1929, Special Section, 3,12
M. B. Fowler, "History of Gas and Electric Service in San Diego County," in Heilbron, ed., History of San Diego County, 201-202
Killion, comp., "Growth of San Diego," 8
Lockwood, "Operating Department," 7-8.
41
Union, 1 January 1923 and 1 January 1927
William E. Kettner, "Uncle Sam—Booster for San Diego," San Diego Magazine, March 1927, 12-13.
42
Pourade, Gold in the Sun, 228
U. S., Con- gress, Special Joint Committee on Pacific Coast Naval Bases, San Diego Naval Activi- ties, 66th Cong., 3rd sess., 1920
Union, 26 November 1920, 1, 6, and 27 November 1920,1, 6
U. S., Department of the Navy, Annual Rqjorts of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1921,1159.
43
Union, 1 January 1923, Special Military Section, 2-4.
44
Union, 1 January 1925, Special Military Section, 8
Howard E. Morin, "Uncle Sam Builds a Naval Base," San Diego Busi- ness, August 1925, 7, 10-11, 16
U. S., Department of the Navy, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1925, 869.
45
George A. McKay, Captain, USN, "Navy's Importance in San Diego Increases 50%," San Diego Magazine, November 1927, 18-19, quoting 18.
46
Union, 1 January 1930, Special Military Section, 2 quoting
Captain Qharles] M. Tozer, "The Navy's Relationship to San Diego's Business," San Diego Magazine, February 1930, 7-11.
47
U. S., Department of the Navy, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1930, 1233, 1230
Annual Reports . . . 1921,1159.
48
Union, 1 January 1923, Spe- cial Military Section, 2-4, and 1 January 1925, Special Military Section, 8
Morin, "Uncle Sam Builds a Navy Base," passim
Tozer, "Navy's Relationship to San Diego's Business," passim.
Tozer, ibid.
49
House of Representatives debate over "Naval Policy and Equitable Distribution of Naval Construction and Expenditures," 73d Cong., 2nd sess., 5 March 1934, Congressional Record 78:3751.
50
Department of Navy, Annual Reports . . . 2930, 1051, 1060-63.
51
Philip T. Rosen "The Treaty Navy, 1919- 1937," in Hagan, ed., In War and Peace, 227-29.
Lotchin writes in "The Martial Metropolis," 230
Joan M. Jensen, "When Women Worked: Helen Marston and the California Peace Movement, 1915-1945," California History 67 Qune 1988).
52
Union, 3 August 1923, 9 August 1923, 11 August 1923.
53
Union, 12 August 1923.
54
Captain George A. McKay and Captain George Brown, Jr., "How to Get Navy Business," San Diego Magazine, February 1930, 18
Tozer, "Navy's Relationship to San Diego's Business," 7-11, quoting, 7.
55
Rear Admiral Luke McNamee, "What the Destroyer Squadrons Mean to San Diego!" San Diego Magazine, November 1927, 11, 26-27.
"Report of the Paymaster General, Chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts," in Annual Reports of the Navy
56
Lotchin, "Darwinian City,"
57
Hennessey, "City Planning and San Diego," 49-58, 75-79, 89-94
John Loretz Hancock, "John Nolen and the American City Planning Movement: A History of Cul- ture and Community Response, 1900-1940" (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1964), 530-31.
John Nolen, City Plan for San Diego, California ([Boston], 1926).
Lotchin, "The Metropolitan-Military Complex in Comparative Perspective," 25
58
Fred D. Pyle, "City Water System," in Heilbron, ed., History of San Diego County, 243
Col. Ed Fletcher, "San Diego County Water Development," ibid., 388-97
Pourade, Rising Tide, 49-75, 88-89
Harold A. Stone, et al., City Manager Government in San Diego (Chicago, 1939), 13-14.
59
Silver, "Norfolk and the Navy," 111, 117-19
Lotchin, "Darwinian City," 369-71.
Jackson K. Putnam, "The Persistence of Progressivism in the 1920s: The Case of California," Pacific Historical Review 35 (November 1966): 395-411
"The Pattern of California Politics," ibid. 61 (February 1992): 23-52.
60
John Clark Brownlee, "Challenges of Change: The Evolution of San Diego Municipal Government, 1850-1931," (Mas- ter's thesis, University of San Diego, 1984), 94-99
Stone, "Evolution of Munici- pal Budgeting," 79-84
Stone, et al., City Manager Government, 9-12, 14-18
Hancock, "John Nolen and American City Planning," 528.
Stone, et al., 14-18
Hancock, 528-31.
61
Stone, et al., City Manager Government, 21-26
Shelly J. Higgins, This Fantastic City, San Diego (San Diego, 1956), 259-60.
62
Souvenir Book ["In honor of the visit of the Pacific Fleet. . . August 7 and 8, 1919."] (San Diego, 1919)
U. S. Marine Corps, Marine Corps Base, San Diego, Califor- nia (San Diego, 1931)
San Diego [County] Board of Supervisors, "Souvenir Pamphlet, Navy Day, October 27,1933" ([San Diego, 1933])
U. S. Navy, Eleventh Naval District, Historical Booklet of the United States Navy at San Diego, California (San Diego, [1935]).
63
George B. Mangold, Community Welfare in San Diego (San Diego, 1929), 20-23
Clare V. McKanna, Jr., "Prostitutes, Progressives, and Police: The Viability of Vice in San Diego, 1900-1930," Journal of San Diego History 35 (Winter 1989): 58,62.
64
Mangold, Community Welfare in San Diego, 24-26
Raymond Starr, "The Beginnings of Philanthropy in San Diego, 1900-1929," Southern California Quarterly 71 (Sum- mer/Fall 1989): 257-64.
65
William Kettner, "The Army and Navy's Conquest of San Diego," San Diego Maga- zine, November 1927, 3, 17, quoting 17.
1
Gerald D. Nash in The American West in the Twentieth Century: A Short History of An Urban Oasis (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1973).
same author, The American West Transformed: The Impact of the Second World War (Bloomington: Indiana Univer- sity Press, 1985)
World War II and The West: Reshaping the Economy (Lincoln: Uni- versity of Nebraska Press, 1990).
2
Francis Clement Kelley, Francis Clement Kelley and the American Catholic Dream, 2 vols. (Bensenville, Ill.: The Her- itage Foundation, 1980)
Christopher Kauffmann's biography of W. Howard Bishop, founder of the Glenmary Home Missioners, Mission to Rural America: The Story of W. Howard Bishop (New York: Paulist Press, 1991).
3
his American Catholic Experience (Garden City: Doubleday, 1985), 360-62.
Francis Weber's "Catholicity in California," Ameri- can Ecclesiastical Review 159 (October 1963): 233-57.
her excellent essay, "The Ameri- can Catholic Parish in the Inter Mountain West," in Jay P. Dolan (ed.), The American Catholic Parish, Vol. II (New York: Paulist Press, 1987), 169
Wilfrid Schoenberg's History of the Church in the Pacific Northwest (Washing- ton: Pastoral Press, 1987)
4
Henry L. Walsh, S.J., Hallowed Were The Gold Dust Trails (Santa Clara: University of Santa Clara Press, 1946).
John T. Dwyer, Condemned to the Mines: The Life of Eugene O'Connell (New York: Vantage Press, 1976).
Francis J. Weber, "The Development of Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the California," Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia 75 Qune 1964): 93-102.
5
William Breault, S.J., The Miner Was a Bishop: The Pioneer Years of Patrick Manogue (Rancho Cordova, Calif.: Landmark Enterprises, 1988)
John B. McGloin, S.J., "Some Letters of Patrick Manogue, Gold Miner and Bishop of Nevada and California," Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia 71 (March-June 1960): 3-13.
6
James Kidder, "The Cathedral: Life and Witness of the New Diocese," Catholic Herald (May 26, 1986).
7
Thomas O'Loughlin's "The Demand and Supply of Priests to the United States from All Hallows College, Ireland, Between 1842 and 1860," Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia 94 (March-December 1983): 39-60
8
"Diocese of Sacramento," Official Catholic Directory (New York: P.J. Kenedy, 1930).
9
Gaffey, Francis Clement Kelley, 73-202; 299-361.
10
Edmund A. Balcerak, general secretary of Catholic Church Extension Society in a letter to author, August 18, 1987.
11
Steven M. Avella, "Robert Armstrong and the Changing Landscape of Northern California Catholic Life," Catholic Herald (March 2, 1987).
12
Richard Lowitt, The New Deal and the West (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984), 172-202.
13
"Gait Pastor Will Mark Golden Jubilee of His Ordination Next Month," Superior California Catholic Register (June 11, 1944).
15
Statua Dioecesis Sacramentensis, Lata ac Promulgata in Synodo Dioecesana Secunda Die 18 Mensis Decembris 1929, copy in ADS.
16
"Reno will be scene of Colorful Ceremo- nies," Superior California Catholic Register (August 16, 1931)
"Bishop Thomas K. Gorman Welcomed to Nevada," Superior California Catholic Register, (August 30, 1931).
17
"Social Service Worker Appointed for the Diocese," Superior California Catholic Register (April 30, 1930).
18
"Diocese Will Have Catholic Welfare Bureau," Superior California Catholic Register (August 3, 1930).
19
Interview with Monsignor Harry Markham, August 1986.
20
"Needs of Poor in Sacramento Create Prob- lem," Superior California Catholic Register (March 1, 1931).
21
"Quarter Million Dollar Campaign An- nounced," Superior California Catholic Regis- ter (March 8, 1931)
"Bishop R. J. Armstrong Turns First Shovel of Ground for Sac- ramento Orphanage," ibid., (October 25, 1931).
22
"Rev. Stephen J. Keating is Named Dioc- esan Director of Schools, Bishop An- nounces," Superior California Catholic Register (May 31, 1931).
24
"Report of Mexican Activities in Sacra- mento," Superior California Catholic Register (December 28, 1930).
25
John Kouba, "The Hispanic Presence in the Diocese of Sacramento," Catholic Herald (November 17 and 24, 1986).
26
Hugh L. Boyle to Patrick Keane, February 8,1927, ADS.
27
S. Yovanovitch to Armstrong, July 1,1929, ADS.
28
Armstrong to Blase Jerkovic, July 17, 1931, ADS.
29
Novatus Benzing, O.F.M., to Armstrong, September 3, 1931, ADS.
30
Armstrong to Blaise Jerkovic, September 9, 1931, ADS.
31
Armstrong to Croatian Community, n.d., ADS.
32
Amleto Cicognani to Armstrong, May 9, 1934
Armstrong to Cicognani, May 19, 1934
Cicognani to Armstrong, April 27, 1940
Armstrong to Cicognani, May 8, 1940, ADS.
33
Mark J. Hurley, "Church-State Relationships in Education in Califor- nia" (Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1948), 110-43.
34
"The Sacramento Union and the Dempster Bill," Superior California Catholic Register (April 30, 1931).
35
"Dempster Bill is Passed by Senate," Superior California Catholic Register (May 14, 1933).
36
Hurley, 130.
37
ibid., 149-50.
38
"Released Time Program for Religious Edu- cation Will Be Put Into Effect in Capitol," Superior California Catholic Register (October 1, 1944).
39
"Newly Organized Confraternity Holds Meeting," Superior California Catholic Register (November 16, 1930).
40
Nash, The American West Transformed.
41
Joseph A. McGowan, History of the Sacra- mento Valley (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1961), 321.
42
Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., to Thomas Horgan, July 27, 1928
Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., to Armstrong, March 1,1929, ADS.
43
Mother Gerard to Armstrong, June 7, 1929, ADS.
44
Mother Gerard to Armstrong, July 4, 1934, and July 20, 1934, ADS.
45
Dillon S. Meyer, Uprooted Americans (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1971)
Roger Daniels, Concentration Camps USA: Japanese Americans and World War II (New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1972)
Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1976).
46
Life magazine's March 20, 1944, issue had an impressive photo essay on the Tule Lake Camp, pp. 25-34.
47
Kirby to Mrs. Charles J. O'Connor, June 4, 1942, ADS.
48
Ibid.
49
James M. Drought, M.M., to Armstrong, July 1, 1942, ADS.
51
December 24, 1944, "Japanese Americans Vindicated," Superior California Catholic Register
"Victory Over Racial Hatred," ibid., (July 15, 1945)
"Troops Resent Anti-Japanese Attitude, Professor Asserts," ibid., (April 22, 1945).
52
McGowan, 326.
54
"City-Wide Census Urged by Bishop in Letter to Catholic Organizations," Superior California Catholic Register (Februarys, 1948).
55
"Establishment of Three New Parishes Keep Pace with Growth of Diocese," Superior California Catholic Register (Novem- ber 9, 1947).
56
"Bishop Announces Clergy Changes, New Parishes," Superior California Catholic Herald (October 21, 1949).
57
"Five New Deaneries are Established by Most Rev. Bishop," Superior California Catholic Register January 25, 1948).
58
"Reports on Registration Reveal Growing Numbers of Pupils Are Enrolling," Superior California Catholic Register (September 3, 1944).
59
"The Growth of the Church," Superior California Catholic Register (July 27, 1947).
60
"Diocese Will Publish Own Paper," Superior California Catholic Herald (August 5, 1949).
61
Avella, "Robert J. Armstrong and the Changing Landscape of Northern Califor- nia Catholic Life," Catholic Herald (March 2, 1987).
62
Interview with Monsignor Thomas Kirby, August 5, 1986.
63
Kirby to Reverend Brother Leo, January 5, 1951, ADS.
64
"Measure is Introduced to Seek Tax Exemp- tion for Non-Profit Schools," Superior California Catholic Herald (March 23,1951).
65
"Tax Exemption Bill Signed by Governor Warren," Superior California Catholic Herald (May 11, 1951).
66
"San Francisco, Los Angeles Public School Chiefs Back Proposition 3" (October 23, 1952) and "Newspapers, Civic, Religious Groups Endorse Proposition 3" (Octo- ber 30, 1952), all in Superior California Catholic Herald.
67
Margaret Harrison, "Labor-Economic Forums Are Evaluated by Local Catho- lics," Superior California Catholic Register (November 3, 1946).
68
"The Passing of Thomas Augustine Connelly," Catholic Herald (December 21, 1929)
"Catholic Herald to Discontinue," ibid., (December 28, 1929).
69
"Development of Diocesan Paper Traced," Superior California Catholic Herald (August 5, 1949).
70
Letter of Monsignor James Casey to author, August 26,1986.
71
"Sacramento Prepares for First Mass Cen- tennial," Superior California Catholic Herald (April 21, 1950).
72
"Bishop Armstrong," Superior California Catholic Herald (April 22, 1954).
73
Letter of Reverend Walter Albrecht to the author, January 12, 1988.
74
Steven M. Avella, "The Salvatorians in the Diocese of Sacramento," Catholic Herald January 26, 1987).
1
San Francisco Chronicle, 21 October 1989.
2
Senior Bridge engineer Ray Zelinski com- menting in the Los Angeles Times, 27 May 1983.
3
Los Angeles Times, 27 May 1983.
4
Competing Against Time: Report to Governor George Deukmejian from the Governor's Board of Inquiry on the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, by George W. Housner, Chairman (Sac- ramento: Office of State Printing, 1990), 1-11.
5
Housner, 6, 8, 130.
6
Housner, 188.
7
Housner, 4-5.
8
Annual Budget Reports to the Governor of California by the Director of Transportation, 1970-1988.
9
Webster's New Collegi- ate Dictionary (Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam Webster, 1975), 890.
10
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982.
11
Brian Marony, "Prioritization in Phase II Retrofit Program, Structure Notes 13 (September 1988):5.
12
California Journal 4 (January 1973):29.
13
Herbert Mar- shall Goodwyn, "California's Growing Freeway System." (Ph.D. diss., Univer- sity of California, Los Angeles, 1969).
David W. Jones, California's Freeway Era in a Historical Perspective (Berkeley: Institute of Transportation Studies, 1989).
14
Leo Trombatore, Interview by Sharon A. Linger, 1 March 1988, interview 1, transcript. Transportation Oral History Col- lection, Transportation Library, University of California, Berkeley, California.
15
Trombatore interview and Califor- nia Assembly, Transportation Improvement Program Project Delays: Hearing Before the Transportation Committee and Commission on California State Government and Economy (hereinafter referred to as PSTIPP), 30 September 1987, 92.
16
California Department of Transportation (CalTrans). California Journal 4 January 1973):29.
17
Ibid., (March 1973):86.
18
Ibid., (March 1973):83.
19
Ibid., (February 1973):68.
20
Ibid., (February 1973):70.
21
Los Angeles Times, 21 August 1972.
22
Los Angeles Times, 13 August 1972
Los Angeles Times, 21 August 1972.
23
Trombatore, 19-20.
24
Bruce A. Phillips, The Impact of Inflation Upon Highway Maintenance and Construction Costs (Warren, Michigan: General Motors Research Laboratories, 22 February 1980), 22.
25
PSTIPP, 30 September 1987, 95
Jones, 14
California Legislative Analyst, The Budget, Six Year Plan, Cash Flow, and Management of the Department of Transportation (herein- after referred to as CASH), 9 May 1977, 8
California Senate, Highway User Tax Equity, Hearing Before the Senate Transportation Com- mittee (hereinafter referred to as EQUITY), 28 November 1979, 12.
26
California Journal 15 (November 1973):350.
27
Director of Transportation, Annual Budget Report to the Governor of California by the Director of Transportation, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, and 1975.
28
Los Angeles Times, 26 October 1989.
29
Ed Salzman, Jerry Brown: High Priest and Low Politician (Sacramento: California Journal Press, 1976), 39.
30
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982.
31
Director of Transportation, Annual Budget Report to the Governor of California by the Director of Transportation, 12 January 1976, 418.
32
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982.
33
California Senate. Transportation Financing, Public Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Transportation (hereinafter referred to as FORAN), 12 November 1980, 177.
34
Phillips, 22.
35
CASH, 9.
36
PSTIPP, 95.
37
EQUITY, 25.
38
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982
CASH, 1.
39
EQUITY, 6.
40
EQUITY, 72.
41
EQUITY, 71-75
FORAN, 22.
42
CASH, 17.
43
Los Angeles Times. 1 March 1981.
44
FORAN, 99.
45
FORAN, 25 and 31.
46
Jones, 13.
47
FORAN, 22.
48
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982.
49
Editorial in Los Angeles Times, 30 November 1982.
50
Los Angeles Times, 1 March 1982.
51
Los Angeles Times, 22 February 1983.
52
San Francisco Chronicle, 15 January 1990.
53
Los Angeles Times, 27 May 1983.
54
Legislative Analyst, "An Analysis of Proposition Four, The Gann 'Spirit of Proposition Thirteen' Initiative," report prepared by Peter Schoaf sma, Mack Taylor, et. al., Sacramento: Office of State Print- ing, December 1979, p. 1, (hereinafter referred to as GANN).
55
Phillips, 1.
56
GANN, 54.
57
GANN, 65 and 103.
58
California Journal 16 (September 1985):381.
59
Dan Smith, "California Transportation Commission: A Study in Conflicts," Cali- fornia Journal 20 (May 1989):202.
60
California Journal 16 (September 1985):381- 385.
61
Housner, 132.
62
William J. Jurkovich, explained the 1984 decision: "[T]here's only so much money, so why fix it? It's like a leaky roof when it isn't raining, why fix it?" Los Angeles Times, 26 October 1989.
Housner, 51.
63
Los Angeles Times, 11 May 1988.
64
Foran, 173.
65
California Journal 15 (July 1984):252-53.
66
Interview with Matthew B. McGowan, former president of Associated General Contractors of California, 16 February 1991, transcript in author's possession.
67
California Journal 18 Quly 1987):319.
68
PSTIPP, 52.
69
California Journal 15 Quly 1984):252-53.
70
Los Angeles Times, 25 October 1989.
72
San Francisco Chronicle, 1 June 1990.
73
Housner, vii.
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