Notes

Notes
1
George E. Mowry's now-dated classic, Cal- ifornia Progressives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951).
Victoria Bissell Brown, "The Fear of Feminization: Los Angeles High Schools in the Progressive Era," Feminist Studies XVI (Fall 1990): 493-518
Mary E. Odem, "Delinquent Daughters: The Sexual Regula- tion of Female Minors in the United States, 1880-1920" (Unpublished Ph.D. disserta- tion, University of California, Berkeley, 1989)
John Laslett and Mary Tyler, The ILGWU in Los Angeles, 1907-1988 (Ingle- wood, California: Ten Star Press, 1988), 3-26
Judith Rosenberg Raftery, Land of Fair Promise: Politics and Reform in Los Angeles Schools, 1885-1941 (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1992)
Tom Sit- ton, John Randolph Haynes, California Pro- gressive (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1992)
"The Boss Without a Machine: Kent K. Parrot and Los Angeles Politics in the 1920s," Southern California Quarterly LXVII (Winter 1985): 365-87
Martin Schiesl, "Progressive Reform in Los Angeles Under Mayor Alex- ander, 1909-1913," California History XLIV (Spring 1975): 37-56.
Robert M. Fogelson, Frag- mented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967; reprint, Berkeley: UC Press, 1993).
2
Mary S. Gibson, CarolineM. Severance, Pioneer (Los Angeles: Friday Morning Club, 1925)
Sever- ance entry in Notable American Women (Cambridge: Belknap Press, Harvard Uni- versity, 1971), 265-68
Jacqueline Braitman, "A California Stateswoman: The Public Career of Katherine Philips Edson," Cali- fornia History LXV (June 1986): 82-96, 151-52
Dorothy Grace Miller, "Within the Bounds of Propriety: Clara Burdette and the Women's Movement," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Califor- nia, Riverside, 1984).
Mary S. Gibson, Pioneer (Los Angeles: Fri- day Morning Club, 1930)
William A. Spalding, History and Reminiscences, Los Angeles City and County, California (Los Angeles: J. R. Finnell and Sons Publishing Company, 1931), III, 36-40
Charles F. Lummis, Out West: Los Angeles and Her Makers (Los Angeles: Out West Publishing Company, 1909), 404-405.
Gloria Ricci Lothrop's valuable bibliographic essay, "California Women," in A Guide to California History, edited by Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., and Gloria Ricci Lothrop (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989), 111-28.
3
Notable American Women, 1607- 1950, edited by Edward T. James, et al. (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971, 3 vols.)
Notable American Women, the Modern Period, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge, Belknap Press of Har- vard University Press, 1980)
American Women: The Official Who's Who Among the Women of the Nation, edited by Duward Howes (Los Angeles: Richard Blank Pub- lishing Company, 1935).
American Catholic Who's Who, edited by Hermann Deny (Detroit: Walter Romig Company, 1934)
Who's Who in Califor- nia, 1942-1943, edited by Russell Holmes Fletcher (Los Angeles: Who's Who Pub- lishing Company, 1942).
Who's Who Among the Women of Califor- nia, edited by Louis S. Lyons (San Francisco: Security Publishing Company, 1922), 373.
4
Margaret M. McGuinness, "A Puzzle with Missing Pieces: Catholic Women in the Social Settlement Movement, 1897-1915," (Notre Dame, Indiana: Cushwa Center for the Study of American Catholicism, Uni- versity of Notre Dame, Working Paper Series 22, No. 2, Spring, 1990): 3-6, 9-12.
5
Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Pro- gressive Movement, 1890-1914 (rev. ed., New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers Univer- sity Press, 1984), 23, 81, 128, 151.
Trolander, Professionalism and Social Change: From the Settlement House Move- ment to Neighborhood Centers, 1886 to the Present (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987)
Carson, Settlement Folk: Social Thought and the American Settlement Movement, 1885-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)
6
Joseph M. McShane, S.J., "Sufficiently Radical": Cathol- icism, Progressivism, and the Bishops' Program of 1919 (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1986), 16-21.
7
Frederic Cople Jaher, The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los Angeles (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982), 630
J. M. Guinn, A History of California and an Extended History of its Southern Coast Counties (Los Angeles: Historic Records Company, 1907), II, 537-40
Spalding, Los Angeles City and County II, 76-80
John S. McGroarty, Los Angeles: From the Moun- tains to the Sea (New York: American His- torical Society, 1921), II, 3-8.
8
"Student Accounts, 1889-1892," Convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Oakland, 191
9
"'After College, What?': New Graduates and the Family Claim," American Quarterly XXXII (Fall 1980): 408-409.
Davis, Spearheads for Reform (1984 edition), xxii-xxiv
10
Golden Friendships: Letters of Friendship, Travel, General Interest (New York: Louis Carrier and Company, 1929).
letter LXIII, quoted in Golden Friendships, 172-75.
12
letters LX through LXV (all undated), in Golden Friendships, 166-80.
13
chapter eleven, "Progressivism and the Kindergarten, 1870-1925," in Robert L. Church, Education in the United States: An Interpretive History (New York: Free Press, 1976), 324-26
14
Carson, Settlement Folk, 36-50.
Kathryn Kish Sklar, "Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reform- ers," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society X (Summer 1985): 658-77
Trolander, Professionalism and Social Change
Lela B. Costin, Two Sisters For Social Justice: A Biography of Grace and Edith Abbott (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1983)
John Rousmaniere, "Cultural Hybrid in the Slums: College Woman and the Settle- ment House, 1889-1914/' American Quar- terly XXII (1970): 45-66
Davis, Spearheads for Reform.
15
Workman, "Opening Statement" for a panel presentation on "Social Welfare in Los Angeles, 1900-1924," (typescript, 19 February 1947), 3
16
He also authored The City That Grew: Los Angeles, 1840-1936 (Los Angeles: Southland Publishing Com- pany, 1935).
17
M. M. Fette, comp., "Selections from Records of the 'Friday Morning' Club of Los Angeles, from June '93-June 28,1895. Prepared for the Exhibit of Gen'l. F. W. C. at the Atlanta, Geo. Exposition, 1895," (typescript, 1895), 5, in the Caroline Sever- ance Collection, Box 29, Huntington Li- brary, San Marino, California, hereinafter referred to as HL
"A Settlement in Adobe," The Commons II (May 1897): 3-4
Kath- arine Coman, "Casa Castelar," The Com- mons VII (January 1903): 12-13.
18
First Report of the Work of the Los Angeles Settlements Association at Casa de Castelar (Los Angeles: B. R. Baumgardt and Com- pany, 1897), 23.
19
Bessie D. Stoddart, "The Courts of Sonoratown," Charities and The Commons XV (2 December 1905): 296.
"Report of the Housing Commission of the City of Los Angeles," (1908), 2, 5-6.
20
Robert A. Woods and Albert J. Kennedy, eds., Handbook of Settle- ments (New York: Charities Publication Committee, 1911), 12
"A Settlement in Adobe," The Commons (May 1897): 3-4
Los Angeles City Directory, 1911-1918, passim.
21
Mary Julia Workman, notes for a panel presentation, "Social Welfare in Los Ange- les," (1947)
22
letter to Sister Mary Leopold, found in Golden Friendships, 201.
23
Mary J. Workman, quoted in Mrs. George Neville Warwick, "Beginnings of Settlement Work in the Diocese of Los Angeles and San Diego," in Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference of Catholic Charities (Washington, D. C: National Conference of Catholic Charities, 1927), 304.
24
Workman, "Brownson House," Queen's Work (November 1914), 299
brochure, "Brownson House," [ca. 1916], n.p.
Workman, "Opening Statement" (type- script, 19 February 1947), 3
25
Letters, Workman to Conaty, 21 February 1907 and 27 February 1907, both Los Ange- les, and Conaty to Workman, 20 March 1907, Los Angeles
Francis J. Weber, Thomas James Conaty: Pas- tor, Educator, Bishop (Los Angeles: Western- lore Press, 1969), 24.
26
Workman, "Brownson House," The Queen's Work (November 1914), 303.
27
Woods and Kennedy, Hand- book of Settlements (1911), 9.
28
Louise Wade, Graham Taylor: Pioneer for Social Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964).
29
Taylor, "From Social Settlement Centers," The Commons X (September 1905): 525-26.
30
Bartlett, The Better City: A Sociological Study of A Modern City (Los Angeles: Neuner Company Press, 1907), 89.
31
Workman to Leopold, Golden Friendships, letter 95, 237-38
Clementina de Forest Griffin, "Brownson House Dispensary," The Queen's Work HI (October 1915): 189-90
"Activities of Brownson House: Calendar of House Activities, December, 1914," The Queen's Workll (April 1915): 216
Los Ange- les Times 15 October 1916
Woods and Kennedy, Handbook of Settlements, 11
Workman, "Opening Statement," (type- script, 1947), 4.
32
Los Angeles Tribune, 18 October 1914
Los Angeles Times, 17 May 1914; 17,24,27, 31 May, and 1 June 1915; 22 October 1916; 31 March, 4 April 1918; and 8 June, 27 July 1919.
33
Letter, Mary J. Workman to Katherine Philips Edson, 5 February 1918, Los Ange- les, in Box 2, Katherine Philips Edson Col- lection, Department of Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles
Mary J. Workman, "Brownson House," Catholic Charities Review II (September 1918): 212-13.
34
Workman, "Opening Statement," (type- script, 19 February 1947), 3-4
Letter, Reverend William E. Corr to Mary J. Work- man, 6 May 1917, Fall River, Massachu- setts, MJWLMU
Los Angeles Tribune, 15 October 1914
Sister Mary Leopold, Golden Friendships, 265
"Summer Course of Lectures" (Los Angeles, 1914)
35
Robert E. Brennan, A History of St. ElizabethParish, 1918-1968 (Altadena, California: St. Elizabeth Parish, 1968), 50-52.
36
The Tidings, 18 January through 28 June 1916, passim.
37
Carson, Settlement Folk, 142.
38
Michael Rogin's "Progressivism and the California Electorate," Journal of American History LV (September 1968): 297-314
John D. Buenker, "The Urban Political Machine and the Seventeenth Amendment," Jour- nal of American History LVI (September 1969): 305-22.
39
McShane, Sufficiently Radical, 7-56
Francis L. Broderick, Right Reverend New Dealer: John J. Ryan (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1963), 76-92.
40
"Brownson House," Catholic Charities Review II (September 1918): 212-13.
Broderick, Right Rever- end New Dealer, passim.
41
Annual Report, Associated Catholic Chari- ties, Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles (1920), 3.
42
Francis J. Weber, Cen- tury of Fulfillment: the Roman Catholic Church in Southern California, 1840-1946 (Mission Hills, California: Archives of the Archdio- cese of Los Angeles, 1990), 424-26.
43
"Brownson House," brochure [1916]
44
Workman, "A California Social Settle- ment," The Queen's Work VIII (February 1918): 31.
45
Workman, "Social Service: Underlying Prin- ciples of Social Settlements are Explained," Los Angeles Examiner, 16 May 1915.
46
Workman, "Brownson House: A Catholic Social Settlement," The Queen's Workl (No- vember 1914): 300
Workman, "Brown- son House," Catholic Charities Review II (September 1918): 213.
47
Cantwell, "The Organization of Catholic Charities," Proceedings of the National Con- ference of Catholic Charities (1927): 11
Bureau of Catholic Charities, Report for 1919, quoted in Weber, Century of Fulfillment, 424-25.
48
James P. Gaffey, Citizen of No Mean City: Archbishop Patrick Riordan of San Francisco, 1841-1914 (Wilming- ton, North Carolina: Consortium Books, 1976), 104-106
Weber, John Joseph Cantwell, His Excellency of Los Angeles (Hong Kong: Cathay Press, 1971), 6-7, 38.
Donald P. Gavin, The National Conference of Catholic Charities, 1910-1960 (Milwaukee: Bruce Press, 1962), 37-39.
49
Letters (copies), Workman to Corr, 31 July 1919 and 26 October 1919, both Los Ange- les, MJWLMU
undated letter quoted in Sister Mary Leopold, Golden Friendships, 268-69.
50
Letter, Corr to Workman, 4 December 1919, Los Angeles
letter (copy), Workman to Corr, 28 December 1919, Los Angeles
letter (copy), Workman to Cantwell, 8 February 1920, Los Angeles
letter (copy), Workman to Reverend John Cawley, secretary to Cantwell, 6 June 1920, Los Angeles
51
Letter (copy), Workman to Cantwell, 8 Feb- ruary 1920, Los Angeles
52
Letter (copy), Workman to Reverend John Cawley, 6 June 1920, Los Angeles
54
Undated letter to Sister Mary Leopold, probably late 1919, in Golden Friendships, 267-68.
55
letter, Workman to John R. Haynes, 8 July 1921, Los Angeles
copy of Memo, Mary Stanton to George Wyman, 17 July 1962, Re: "History of Social Welfare in Los Angeles," 2, MJWLMU.
56
Letters, Reverend Robert Lucey to Work- man, 17 June, 2 September, 10 October, 6 and 27 November, 22 and 26 December 1922, and 28 February 1923, Los Angeles, MJWLMU
Bulletin of the Los Angeles Municipal League I (August 1923): 3
"History of the Los Angeles Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women," (typescript, Los Angeles: Office of the Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women, n.d.): n.p.
57
Golden Friendships, 274.
58
"Miss Workman Honored by Pope Pius," [Los Angeles] The Tidings, 19 November 1926.
59
Stephen A. Privett, S.J., The U. S. Catholic Church and Its Hispanic Members: The Pastoral Vision of Archbishop Robert E. Lucey (San Antonio, Texas: Trinity University Monograph Series in Religion, vol. IX, 1988), chapter one, "The Making of the Archbishop," 3-26
Saul E. Bronder, Social Justice and Church Authority: The Public Life of Archbishop Robert E. Lucey (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982).
60
Twenty-third Annual Report, Civil Serv- ice Commission for the City of Los Angeles (1924-1925), 2,3
Twenty-fifth Annual Report (1926-1927), 2-4
Louise B. Perry and Richard S. Perry, A History of the Los Angeles Labor Movement, 1911-1941 (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1963), 215-16.
61
Good Government Orga- nization advertisement in the (L. A.) Inde- pendent Review, 27 April 1939
"Agenda for a Town Hall Meeting," American Commit- tee for Peace Through Democracy, 29 April 1939, Los Angeles, in Box 2, Marshall Stimson Collection, HL
Letter, Leland W. Cutler [President, Golden Gate Interna- tional Exposition] to Workman, 3 January 1939, San Francisco
letterhead of League of Women Voters, Los Angeles Chapter (1935), found in the John Ran- dolph and Dora Haynes Foundation Papers, Department of Special Collections, UCLA
Brochure, "The Los Angeles Commit- tee to Postpone Action on Peacetime Con- scription," found in Carton 6, John Anson Ford Collection, HL.
62
Los Angeles Times, 21 March 1924, 2 April 1924, 29 May 1925.
boxes 73 and 74, fold- ers on the League of Nations, the United Nations, and UNESCO, and Carton 6 (printed materials).
George C. Martin, The Recollection of George C. Martin (Los Angeles: Privately Printed, 1968), 58- 59.
63
United Nations, Los Angeles chapter, in Scrapbook III, 65, Marshall Stimson Collection, HL.
Carton 6 and Box 74, Peace Organizations folder; both in the Ford Col- lection, HL
letter, Workman to Miss Norma Ann Krauss, committee secretary, Catholic Association for International Peace, 11 July 1953, [Los Angeles], found in Series 10, Box 5, of the Catholic Associa- tion for International Peace Collection in the Department of Special Collections and Archives of Marquette University, Mil- waukee, Wisconsin, hereinafter cited as CAIPMU.
64
Letter, Reverend Robert E. Lucey to Mary J. Workman, 11 August 1931, Long Beach, California
Lucey to Workman, 25 August 1931, Long Beach, both in series 3-A, Box 2
E. B. Sweeney, Executive Sec- retary, Catholic International Association for Peace, to Lucey, 18 October 1931, n.p., Series 3-B, Box 1
Workman to E. B. Sweeney, 8 April 1932, Los Angeles, Series 3-B, Box 7
65
Letter, Mary J. Workman to Reverend Joseph A. Vaughan, 9 March 1935, n.p.
letter, Workman to Elizabeth B. Sweeney, 10 March 1935, Los Angeles
Vaughan to Sweeney, 17 October 1935, Los Angeles
66
Letter, Workman to Sweeney, 26 July 1936, [Los Angeles], Series 3-A, Box 7, CAIPMU.
67
Letter, Workman to John Anson Ford Cam- paign Committee, 17 March 1937, Los Ange- les
Workman, radio address, 28 March 1937, station KHJ, Los Angeles
Workman, brochure to voters, 26 April 1937
68
Guy W. Finney, Angel City in Turmoil (Los Angeles: Amer Press, 1945), 144,155
John Anson Ford, Thirty Explosive Years in Los Angeles County (San Marino, California: The Huntington Library, 1961), 27
same author, Honest Politics My Theme: The Story of a Veteran Public Official's Trou- bles and Triumphs (New York: Vantage Press, 1978), 90.
Thomas J. Sitton, "Urban Politics and Reform in New Deal Los Ange- les: The Recall of Mayor Frank Shaw" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univer- sity of California, Riverside, 1983).
69
Workman, radio broadcast, 8 September 1938 (typescript)
letter, Clifford E. Clinton [Chairman, Civic Committee] to Workman, 9 September 1938, Los Angeles
letter to "Friends of Good Government," 10 Sep- tember 1938, Los Angeles, all in MJWLMU
letterhead, Citizens' Committee to Reelect Mayor Bowron, Inc., 1941, in File "Cam- paign, 1941," Box 40A
"Re-Elect Mayor Bowron on His Record," [1941], in File: Campaign, 1941, Box 40A
letter, Bowron to Workman, 7 May 1941
70
"United Democratic League" stationery letterhead, Correspondence, 1934-1939, file 6, Box 46
"Democratic Luncheon Club" speakers' list (typescript, [1944]), in Cor- respondence, 1940-1949, file 5, Box 46
Jefferson-Jackson Day Din- ner, 23 April 1951, Carton 6; all in John Anson Ford Collection, HL.
71
Letters, Workman to John C. Packard [Chairman, Democratic National Commit- tee] 26 September 1940, Los Angeles
John L. Akerman [Executive Secretary, Demo- cratic National Committee] to Workman, 7 October 1940, Los Angeles
Edward J. Flynn [Chairman, Democratic National Committee] to Workman, 9 October 1940, New York
letters, Helen Gahagan to Workman, 12 October 1940, 19 October 1940,3 November 1940,12 November 1940, 12 February 1941, 10 May 1941, 9 June 1941, and 22 August 1941
letter, Workman to Gahagan, 5 July 1941, Los Angeles; all in MJWLMU.
72
her autobiography, A Full Life: Helen Gahagan Douglas (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982), 158-61
Ingrid Winther Scobie, Center Stage: Helen Gahagan Douglas, A Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 117-18.
73
Letter, Biscailuz to Workman, 15 July 1942, Los Angeles
Workman, "Franklin D. Roo- sevelt for President," (typescript) [No date, no place]
letter, Kilsoo K. Haan to Work- man, 9 September 1940, Los Angeles
Workman, "Why I'll Vote For Roosevelt," Los Angeles Sunday Examiner, 8 Septem- ber 1940
Workman, "The Fateful Election of 1944," California Democrat, 17 March 1944
untitled article in the California Dem- ocrat, 21 May 1944
"Some Platform Pitfalls of 1944," California Democrat, 31 July 1944
74
Letter, Workman to Bowron, 7 June 1943, Los Angeles
75
Dunne's Hollywood Labor Dispute: A Study in Immorality (Los Angeles: Conference Publishing Company, 1952).
Dunne's autobiog- raphy, King's Pawn (Chicago: Loyola Uni- versity Press, 1990), 147-66.
Garry Wills, Reagan's America: Innocents At Home (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Incorporated, 1987), chapter 25: "CSU: Hots Sets," 231-40.
76
Interview with Dunne, 28 January 1992.
77
Dunne, King's Pawn, 161-62.
78
Letters (copies), Workman to Dunne, 2 July 1946, Los Angeles
Workman to Bowron, 2 July 1946, Los Angeles
Carol Davis, "Tale of a Two 'Storey' Treasury: Thomas More Library-of Course," [Los Angeles] Tidings 30, December 1949.
79
Charles Wollenberg, All Deliberate Speed: Segregation and Exclusion in California Schools, 1855-1975 (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1976), 131-32, and 108,127-28, 130,179.
Ricardo Romo, "Southern California and the Origins of Latino Civil- Rights Activism," Western Legal History III (Summer/Fall 1990), 396-400.
80
Carton 6, John Anson Ford Collection, HL.
81
her obituary in the Los Angeles Times, 12 January 1964.
1
John Laslett and Mary Tyler, The ILGWUinLos Angeles, 1907-1988 (Los Ange- les: Ten Star Press, 1989), 141.
2
Ibid., 46-49.
3
Ibid., passim.
4
Louis Levine [Lorwin], The Women's Gar- ment Workers: A History of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (New York: B.W Huebsch: 1924), chaps. 15-36.
5
my Labor and the Left: A Study of Socialist and Radical Influences in the American Labor Move- ment, 1881-1924 (New York: Basic Books, 1970), chap. 6.
6
Joan M. Jensen, "Inside and Outside the Unions," in Joan M. Jensen and Sue David- son (eds.), A Needle, a Bobbin, a Strike: Women Needle Workers in America (Philadel- phia: Temple Univ. Press, 1984), 187-88.
7
Elaine J. Leeder, "The Gentle Warrior: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1985), 5-14
Nancy MacLean, "The Culture of Resistance: Female Insti- tution Building in the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union, 1905-1925," Michigan Occasional Paper, No. xxi (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1982), chap. 3
Rose Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, ed. John Nicholas Beffel (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 1944), 9.
8
MacLean, "Culture of Resistance," 72-94, 117
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 24-25.
9
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 36.
10
Clementina Duron, "Mexican Women and Labor Conflict in Los Angeles: The ILGWU Dressmakers Strike of 1933," Aztlan (Spring 1984): 149-50.
11
Ibid., 149.
12
Ibid., 150.
13
Philip S. Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement, From World War I to the Present (New York: Free Press, 1980), chap. 1.
14
Roger Waldinger, "Another Look at the International Ladies Garment Workers Union: Women, Industry Structure, and Collective Action," inRuthMilkman (ed.), Women, Work and Protest: A Century of U.S. Women's Labor History (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987), 92-93.
15
George Sanchez, "Becoming Mexican- American: Ethnicity and Acculturation in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1943" (Unpub- lished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford Uni- versity, 1989), 279-80.
16
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 21.
17
Ibid., 21-22.
18
"Success of Mexican Women in Industrial Work," and "Changes in Life and Social Attitudes of Mexican Woman After Her Entrance Into Industry," typewritten notes by Paul Taylor on Mexicans in Los Angeles industry, Paul Taylor Collection, 74/187c, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
19
Ibid.
20
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 21-22.
Rose Pesotta to David Dubinsky, December 13, 1933
21
Rose Pesotta to David Dubinsky, Septem- ber 28, 1933, Dubinsky Collection.
22
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 23-24.
23
Alice Kessler-Harris, "Problems of Coalition- Building: Women and Trade Unions in the 1920s," in Milkman, Women, Work, and Protest, 125-26.
24
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 21-22.
Kessler-Harris, "Problems of Coalition-Building," 124.
25
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 27.
26
Bill Busick to David Dubinsky, January 25, 1936, and February 14, 1936, Dubinsky Collection.
27
"Report of I. Lutsky, Manager of LA Joint Board to Dubinsky," November 30, 1938, Dubinsky Collection.
28
Pesotta to Dubinsky, September 30, 1933, Dubinsky Collection.
29
Ibid.
30
Laslett and Tyler, ILGWU in Los Angeles, 35^36.
Pesotta to Dubinsky, November 22, 1933, Dubinsky Collection.
31
Dubinsky to Pesotta, September 28,1933, Dubinsky Collection.
32
Ibid.
33
Laslett and Tyler, ILGWU in Los Angeles, 34
34
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," chap. 5
Ivan Greenberg, "Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer: Ideology and Human Needs in the 1920's and 1930's" (Unpub- lished paper, Cornell University, 1984).
35
Pesotta to Dubinsky, September 30, 1933, Dubinsky Collection.
36
Louise B. Perry and Richard S. Perry, A History of the Los Angeles Labor Movement, 1911-1941 (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1963), 234.
37
Duron, "Mexican Women and Labor Con- flict." 156.
38
Duron, "Mexican Women and Labor Conflict," 156-57.
39
Ibid.
40
Laslett and Tyler, ILGWU in Los Angeles, 35-36.
41
Pesotta to Dubinsky, November 20, 1933, Dubinsky Collection.
42
Duron, "Mexican Women and Labor Con- flict," 158.
43
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 77.
44
Pesotta to Dubinsky, November 7, 1939.
Leeder, 93.
45
Ibid.
46
Rose Pesotta, "Report to the General Exec- utive Board of the ILGWU," Atlantic City, June 15,1942, p. 1, Dubinsky Collection.
47
Ibid.
48
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 96-97
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 352-55.
49
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 335-58.
50
Pesotta to Rae Brandstein, August 9,1941.
Leeder "Gentle Warrior," 99.
51
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 102.
52
Sheldon Maram, "Hispanic Undocumented Workers and Unionism: Historical Perspec- tives on Unionization in the Garment Industry in Los Angeles" (Unpublished paper, California State University, Fuller- ton, no date), 15-17.
53
Pesotta to Max Danish, December 13,1933, Pesotta Papers, New York Public Library.
54
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 346.
55
Louis Levy, "Report of the Pacific Coast Region, September 10,1941," Fourth Quar- terly Meeting of the General Executive Board, Sept. 15-19, 1941, Dubinsksy Collection.
56
Laslett and Tyler, ILGWU in Los Angeles, 48.
57
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 98-101
Pesotta, Bread Upon the Waters, 362-66.
58
Louis Levy to David Dubinsky, February 10,1942
Leeder, "Gentle Warrior," 101.
59
Ibid., 100-101.
60
Ibid., 101.
61
Ibid., 100.
62
Rose Pesotta to President Dubinsky and Members of the General Executive Board, June 15, 1942, Dubinsky Collection.
63
Ibid.
64
David Dubin- sky to Rose Pesotta, February 20, 1941, Dubinsky Collection.
65
Kessler-Harris, "Problems of Coalition- Building," 125-26.
66
Alice Kessler-Harris, "Where are The Orga- nized Women Workers?" Feminist Studies (Fall 1975): 105.
67
Perry and Perry, History of Los Angeles Labor, chaps. 13-14
68
Kessler-Harris, "Problems of Coalition- Building," 129.
69
Note 36.
70
Laslett and Tyler, ILGWU in Los Angeles, 99-108.
1
New York Times, January 26, 1955.
2
she was nominated for Stella Dallas (1936)
Ball of Fire (1941)
Double Indemnity (1944)
Sorry, Wrong Number (1948).
3
Molly Haskell, From Rever- ence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974)
Marjorie Rosen, Pop- corn Venus: Women, Movies and the American Dream (New York: Avon Books, 1974).
4
Sandra Schackel, "The Civilizer, The Saloon Singer, and their Modern Sister," in Archie P. McDonald, ed., Shooting Stars: Heroes and Heroines in Western Film (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 196-217.
Cheryl J. Foote, "Changing Images of Women in the Western Film," Journal of the West 22 (October 1983): 64-71.
5
Stephen Harvey, "The Strange Fate of Barbara Stanwyck," Film Comment 17 (March-April 1981): 34, 36.
Gerald Peary, American Film 14 (July-August 1989): 60-63.
6
Ella Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1974), 1.
Jane Ellen Wayne, Stanwyck (New York: Arbor House, 1985)
Al DiOrio, Bar- bara Stanwyck: A Biography (New York: Coward-McCann, 1983)
Jerry Ver- milye, Barbara Stanwyck (New York: Pyra- mid Publications, 1975).
7
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 1-11.
8
Joseph Lewis, "Barbara Stanwyck: A Fiery Devotion," in Danny Peary, ed., Close- Ups: The Movie Star Book (New York: Work- man Publishing Company, 1987), 441-43
DiOrio, Barbara Stanwyck, 206
Smith, Star- ring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 125, 263.
9
Bernard Drew, "Stanwyck Speaks," Film Comment 17 (March-April 1981): 43.
10
Drew, "Stanwyck Speaks," 45.
11
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 75.
12
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 125.
13
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 125.
14
Drew, "Stanwyck Speaks," 45.
15
Ibid.
16
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 247.
17
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 247.
18
Ibid., 255
DiOrio, Barbara Stanwyck, 180.
19
Wayne, Stanwyck, 150
DiOrio, Barbara Stanwyck, 180.
20
Jon Tuska, The American West in Film: Criti- cal Approaches to the Western (Westport, Con- necticut: Greenwood Press, 1985), 227-28.
21
Cat Ballou (1965)
Electric Horseman (1969)
Comes a Horseman (1978).
22
DiOrio, Barbara Stanwyck, 182.
23
Jay Hyams, The Life and Times of the Western Movie (New York: Gallery Books, 1983), 61-62
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stan- wyck, 151-52.
24
New York Times Film Reviews, Aug. 17, 1950.
25
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 229.
26
Brian Garfield, Western Films: A Complete Guide (New York: Rawson Associates, 1982), 338
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 255.
27
Phil Hardy, The Film Encyclopedia (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1983), 249-50
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 259.
29
Phil Hardy, Samuel Fuller (New York: Praeger Publication, 1970), 124-28
Nicho- las Garnham, Samuel Fuller (New York: Viking Press, 1972), 141-43.
30
Hardy, Film Encyclopedia, 254
Smith, Star- ring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 263
Hyams, Life and Times, 93.
31
The Searchers (1956)
The Tin Star (1957)
Two Rode Together (1961).
32
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 263
JohnLenihan, Showdown: Confronting Mod- ern America in the Western Film (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980), 73-78.
33
Vermilye, Barbara Stanwyck, 131.
34
Wayne, Stanwyck, 157.
35
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stanwyck, 293.
36
DiOrio, Stanwyck, 202-203.
37
Gary A. Yoggy, "When Television Wore Six-Guns: Cowboy Heroes on TV," in McDonald, Shooting Stars, 218-57.
38
Wayne, Stanwyck 168
DiOrio, Stanwyck, 203-204
Smith, Starring Miss Barbara Stan- wyck, 293-94.
39
Rita Parks, The Western Hero in Film and Television: Mass Media Mythology (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982), 140.
40
Wayne, Stanwyck, 194.
41
New York Times, January 22, 1990.
42
Wayne, Stanwyck, 136.
43
Wayne, Stanwyck, 181, 197.
1
Jacques Levy's book, Cesar Chavez: Auto- biography of La Causa (New York: W.W. Norton, 1975)
2
Sunny Merik, Santa Clara Spectrum, 14 February 1990.
Richard A. Garcia, Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1991)
Mario T. Garcia, The Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology & Identify (New Haven: Yale Uni- versity Press, 1990)
Albert Camarillo, Chicanos in California (San Francisco: Boyd and Eraser, 1984).
Marcelo Rodriguez, "Sorrows of the Orchard," San Francisco Weekly, 9 May 1990, 9-10.
3
Richard Rorty, Essays on Heidegger and Others Vol. 2 (New York: Cambridge Uni- versity Press, 1991), 85-87, 119^31
4
Judith Coburn, "Dolores Huerta: La Pasio- naria of the Farmworkers," MS 5 (Novem- ber 1976): 12.
5
Margaret Rose, "Traditional and Nontradi- tional Patterns of Female Activism in the United Farm Workers of America, 1962- 1980," Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies 11 (1990): 34, note 44, 27
Levy, Cesar Chavez, 145.
6
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 31, note 11
Manuel Servin, The Mexican- Americans: An Awakened Minority (Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1974), 287
Coburn, "Huerta," 12
Ruth Carranza, "From the Fields into the History Books," Intercambios Femeniles 3 (Winter 1989): 11.
7
Gloria Anzaldua, Borderlands, La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Spinsters/ Aunte Lute, 1987), preface.
8
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 294
Joan M. Jensen, With These Hands: Women Working on the Land (Old Westbury, New York: The McGraw Hill Book Co., 1981), 219
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 29.
9
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional" 26.
10
Jensen, With These Hands, 218
Carranza, "Fields," 12
Rose, "Traditional and Non- traditional," 28
Alan Brown, Modern Polit- ical Philosophy: Theories of the Just Society (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1986), 55
Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, ed. and trans. H.M. Parshley (New York: Modern Library, 1968).
11
Janet Morey and Wendy Dunn, Famous Mexican Americans (Dutton, New York: Cobblehill Books, 1989), 41.
Linda W. Wagner- Martin, Sylvia Plath: A Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987).
12
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 41-44.
Coburn, "Huerta," 13.
Carranza, "Fields," 12
Dolores Huerta, "Reflections on the UFW Experience," Center Magazine 18 Quly/August, 1985): 8
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 28.
14
Regeneracion 1 (1971)
Olivarez's statements are on page 5.
15
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 28-30.
Huerta, "Reflections," 4.
16
Anzaldúa, Borderlands, 194.
17
Jensen, With These Hands, 216.
18
Ibid, 215
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 284
Carranza, "Fields," 12.
19
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 42-43
Coburn, "Huerta," 12
Servin, Mexican- Americans, 285.
20
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 284-85
Jensen, With These Hands, 216.
21
Jensen, With These Hands, 216
Morey, Famous Mexican Americans, 41-42.
N. A., "Living History: Emma Tenayucca Tells Her Story," The Texas Observer 28 (October 1983): 1
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 285.
22
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 284, 285, 287
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 41-43
Jensen, With These Hands, 216.
23
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 285.
24
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 285
Jensen, With These Hands, 216-17.
25
Ibid.
Margaret Rose's two chap- ters on Huerta in "Women in the United Farm Workers: A Study of Chicana and Mexicans' Participation in a Labor Union, 1950-1980" (Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 1988).
26
Jensen, With These Hands, 216
Jean Mur- phy, "Unsung Heroine of La Causa," Regeneracion 1 (1991): 20.
27
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 41-42.
28
Murphy, "Unsung Heroine," 20
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 27
note 13
Jensen, With These Hands, 217, 220
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 286, 288.
Coburn, "Huerta," 12,13.
"An Organ- izer's Organizer," Progressive (December 1988): 12-13.
29
Professor Ramon Chacon's "Introductory Comments" written to introduce Huerta's lecture at Santa Clara University, 1990
30
his Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971).
Huerta, "Reflections."
Sara M. Evans, Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America (New York: Free Press, 1989)
Alma M. Garcia, "The Development of Chicana Feminist Discourse, 1970-1980," Gender and Society 3 June 1989): 217-39.
31
Editor, "Dolores Huerta" Caminos 3 (Feb- ruary 1982): 15
Jensen, With These Hands, 220
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans.
32
Sidney Hook, Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1974), 13-14.
33
Ibid.
34
Olivia Mercado, "Chicanos: Myths and Roles," Comadre 1 (Summer 1977): 30
Rose, "Traditional and Nontraditional," 27, 29
Murphy, "Unsung Heroine," 20
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 288
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 45-46
Coburn, "Huerta," 12.
35
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 40-44.
Octavio Paz, The Bow and the Lyre (Austin: University of Texas, 1987).
36
Hook, Pragmatism
chapter 11: "The Moral Vision of Reinhold Niebuhr," 184- 89.
37
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 48.
38
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 287- 90.
39
Ibid., 292.
40
Luis Valdez, "Dolores Huerta: A Tribute," San Francisco Examiner Sunday Image Maga- zine, 12 August 1990, 10.
41
Huerta, "Reflections," 8.
42
Ibid.
43
Ibid.
44
Editor, "Dolores Huerta," 15
Chacon, "Introductory," 2.
45
John K. Rhoades, Critical Issues in Social Theory (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991), chapter 5, "Durkheim Defines Morality," 16-165
Dominick LaCapra, Emile Durkheim (Chi- cago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985)
Richard A. Garcia, "Creating a Con- sciousness, Memories and Expectations: The Burden of Octavio Romano," ed. Tatcho Mindiola, Jr., and Emilio Zamora (Houston: Mexican American Studies, Uni- versity of Houston Press, 1992), 6-31
Saul D. Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971)
John Rawls, A The- ory of Justice (Princeton, New Jersey: Prince- ton University Press, 1977)
Alan Brown, Modern Political Philosophy: Theories of a Just Society (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1986) 72.
46
Brown, Modern, 55-68
J.G. Mer- quior, Liberalism: Old and New (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991), chapter 5, "The Neocontractarians: Rawls, Nozick, and Bobbio," 138-48
Huerta, "Reflec- tions."
47
Ibid.
48
Huerta, "Reflections," 5, 6
Brown, Modern, 134, 155, 190
Rhoades, Critical Issues, 258-62
49
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 48
Hook, Pragmatism, 3-4.
comments in Carranza, "Fields," 12
Coburn, "Huerta," 12.
50
Servin, Mexican-Americans, 292.
51
Ibid., 294.
52
Bar- bara Johnson's article in Robert Young, ed., Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader (Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981), 162-74.
53
The New York Times, 16 April 1973.
54
Rorty, Essays on Heidegger, 85-107, 119-28
Anzaldua, Borderlands, 77-91.
Sonia Saldivar Hull, "Feminism on the Border: From Gender Politics to Geo- Politics," in Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture and Ideology, eds. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar (Durham: Duke Univer- sity Press, 1991), 203-20
Morey, Famous Mexican-Americans, 49.
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