Notes

Notes
1
Oscar Lewis, Fabulous San Simeon (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1958)
Emil White, Full Color Guide to the Hearst Castle (Big Sur: Emil White, 1958)
W. A. Swanberg, Citizen Hearst (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961)
Carleton M. Winslow, Jr., and Nikola Frye, The Enchanted Hill (Millbrae: Celestial Arts, 1980)
Thomas Aidala, Hearst Castle: San Simeon (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1981)
Taylor Coffman, Hearst Castle (Santa Barbara: Sequoia Communications, 1985)
Hearst's Dream (San Luis Obispo: EZ Nature Books, 1989).
2
Harold Kirker, California's Architectural Frontier (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1960)
Old Forms On A New Land: California Architecture In Perspective (Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Pub- lishers, 1991), 21-38.
3
John Allwood, The Great Exhibitions (Lon- don: Studio Vista, 1977).
4
Robert W. Rydell, All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916 (Chicago and Lon- don: University of Chicago Press, 1984), 3.
5
Allwood, The Great Exhibitions, 84.
6
Michael R. Corbett, Splendid Survivors: San Francisco's Downtown Architectural Heritage (San Francisco: California Living Books, 1979), 28-37
Norman T. Newton, Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture (Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971), 393-427.
7
Allwood, The Great Exhibitions, 84.
8
Richard Longstreth, On the Edge of the World: Four Architects in San Francisco at the Turn of the Century (New York: The Archi- tectural History Foundation and the MIT Press, 1983), 223, 225.
9
Loren Partridge, John Galen Howard and the Berkeley Campus: Beaux- Arts Architecture in the "Athens of the West" (Berkeley: Architectural History Associa- tion, 1978), 12.
10
Swanberg, Citizen Hearst, 240-41.
11
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1973), 291-95.
12
Katharine Martin Cerf to Phoebe Hearst, September 15, 19[14?]
Georgiana Stoney to Phoebe Hearst, April 24, 1916, in Phoebe Apperson Hearst Collection, Bancroft Li- brary.
Simpson, Problems Women Solved (San Fran- cisco: The Woman's Board, 1915), 91.
13
Frank Morton Todd, The Story of the Expo- sition (New York and London: Putnam's Sons, 1921), vol. 1, 57-58, 63, 67.
Winifred Black Bonfils, The Life and Personality of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (San Francisco: John Henry Nash, 1928), 125.
14
The Blue Book: A Comprehensive Official Sou- venir Book of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, 1915 (San Fran- cisco: Robert A. Reid, 1915), 80, 151.
15
Mary S. Merrill to Phoebe Apperson Hearst, December 2, 1913, Phoebe Apperson Hearst Collection, Bancroft Library
Sara Holmes Boutelle, Julia Morgan, Architect (New York: Abbe- ville Press, 1988).
16
Ben Macomber, The Jewel City (San Fran- cisco and Tacoma: John H. Williams, 1915), 27.
17
Eugen Neuhaus, The Art of the Exposition (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company, 1915), 51-53
A. Stirling Calder, The Sculp- ture and Mural Decorations of the Exposition (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company, 1915).
18
The Legacy of the Exposition: Interpretation of the Intellectual and Moral Heritage Left to Mankind by the World Celebration at San Francisco in 1915 (San Francisco: Panama- Pacific International Exposition Company, 1916), 76.
19
Frank MacShane, "The Romantic World of William Randolph Hearst." Centennial Review 8 (Summer, 1964): 301.
20
Richard Oliver, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (New York: The Architectural History Foun- dation and MIT Press, 1983), 116-18.
21
William Randolph Hearst to Julia Morgan, December 31, 1919, Julia Morgan Collec- tion, Special Collections, California Poly- technic State University, San Luis Obispo (hereinafter referred to as Morgan Collec- tion, Cal Poly).
22
Walter Steilberg, "The Work of Walter Steilberg and Julia Morgan," in Suzanne B. Reiss, ed., The Julia Morgan Architectural History Project (Berkeley: 1976), vol. 1, 143.
Keith N. Morgan, Charles A. Platt: The Artist as Architect (New York: The Architectural History Foundation and the MIT Press, 1985).
23
Eugen Neuhaus, The Galleries of the Expo- sition (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Com- pany, 1915), 7
Neuhaus, The Art of the Exposition (1915), 24, 32-33
Juliet James, Palaces and Courts of the Exposition (San Francisco: California Book Company, 1915), 51.
24
Carol Green Wilson, Gump's Treasure Trade (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1949), 121
25
Art in California (San Francisco: R.L. Bernier, 1916), pl. 204, p. 178
26
William Randolph Hearst to Julia Morgan, March 16, 1925. Morgan Collection, Cal Poly.
27
William Randolph Hearst to Julia Morgan, April 4, 1925. Morgan Collection, Cal Poly.
28
"Odd Notes For Guide Information," no date, Hearst Monument Collection
J.T. Chaffee to Newton B. Drury, August 11, 1952, Hearst Monument Collection
Swan- berg, Citizen Hearst, 532
Charles Lyden, interview with Robert Pavlik, February 4, 1992.
1
Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1887.
2
Lydia Maria Child to Sarah Shaw, August 3, 1856, in Milton Meltzer and Patricia G. Holland, eds., Lydia Maria Child: Selected Letters, 1817-1880 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982), 291.
3
Jessie Benton Fremont (hereinafter JBF) to Thomas Starr King, December 29, 1861, in Pamela Herr and Mary Lee Spence, eds., The Letters of Jessie Benton Fremont (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 304.
4
JBF to Charles De Arnaud, February 13, [1888], Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
5
Howard Shaff and Audrey Karl Shaff, Six Wars at a Time: The Life and Times of Gutzon Borglum, Sculptor of Mount Rushmore (Sioux Falls, South Dakota: Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, 1985), 33- 34.
6
she wrote, "but you in full active life must have many who could be of deciding value there" (April 20 [1888]; Collis P. Huntington Papers, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York).
7
Herr and Spence, Letters, 527.
8
JBF to Nelly Haskell Browne, April 28 [1889], Frémont Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1888
Glenn S. Dumke, The Boom of the Eighties in Southern Cal- ifornia (San Marino, California: Huntington Library, 1944), 61-63.
9
JBF to John Greenleaf Whittier, [January 21-22, 1880], in Herr and Spence, Letters, 480.
10
Elizabeth Blair Lee to S. Phillips Lee, July 21, 1883, Blair-Lee Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.
11
Preston King to Gideon Welles, March 3, April 9 and 21, 1860, Welles Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C
Welles to Francis Preston Blair, April 9, 1860, Blair Papers, ibid.
Frederick Billings to Trenor W. Park, Feb- ruary 22, 1861, Park-McCullough House Archives, North Bennington, Vermont
George W. Wright to Montgomery Blair, March 12 [1861], Blair Papers
12
Press Reference Library: Notables of the West (New York: International News Service, 1913), 1:579
New York Times, July 15, 1890.
13
JBF to Henry Brace, August 18, 1890, Borglum Papers, Library of Congress
14
Herr and Spence, Letters, 531.
15
Morton to JBF, July 22, 1890, Frémont Papers, Bancroft.
16
JBF to William A. Croffut, September 22, 1894, Croffut Papers, Library of Congress.
17
Century 41 [April 1891], 923
18
ibid., 927
Neal Harlow, California Conquered: War and Peace on the Pacific, 1846-1850 (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1982), 118-23.
19
Harlow, California Conquered, 132-33
20
ibid., 132-34
21
JBF, A Year of American Travel [San Francisco: Book Club of Cali- fornia, 1960], 95
22
Herr and Spence, Letters, 532-34.
23
San Francisco Morning Call, September 17, 20, and 24-26, 1890
New York Times, September 18, 1890.
24
Committee statement, n.d., Frémont Pa- pers, Bancroft
San Francisco Morning Call, September 25, 1890
New York Times, July 26, 1891.
25
Elizabeth Benton Frémont to William Carey Jones, Jr., August 6, 1890 (courtesy of Mrs. Lincoln Reynolds, Corvallis, Oregon).
26
Harry L. Wells, "Who was the Pathfinder?" Overland Monthly 16 (September 1890): 249
Josiah Royce, "Fremont," Atlantic Monthly 66 (October 1890): 550.
27
JBF to William Carey Jones, Jr., Decem- ber 8 [1890] (courtesy of Mrs. Lincoln Reynolds).
28
Robert Underwood Johnson to JBF, Octo- ber 13, 1890, copy, Jones Papers, Bancroft.
29
Robert Underwood Johnson to William Carey Jones, Jr., October 15, 1890, ibid.
30
Spencer Crump, Ride the Big Red Cars: How Trolleys Helped Build Southern California (Corona del Mar, California: Trans-Anglo Books, 1977), 32-38, 173.
31
Charles L. Webster & Company had been established by Samuel Clemens to publish Huckleberry Finn.
Clemens had also arranged for Webster to issue Ulysses S. Grant's Personal Memoirs (1885)
Julia Grant's Memoirs
William S. McFeely, Grant: A Biography [New York: W. W. Norton, 1981], 501, 504, 518
33
Herr and Spence, Letters, 535-37.
35
Herr and Spence, Letters, 540-41.
36
Ibid., 541-43.
37
JBF to Gutzon Borglum, January 17, 1891 [92], ibid., 545-46.
38
Joan Jensen, "After Slavery: Caroline Sev- erance in Los Angeles," Southern Califor- nia Quarterly 48 Qune 1966): 175-86.
39
Ella Giles Ruddy, The Mother of Clubs: Caroline M. Seymour Severance (Los Angeles: Baumgardt Publishing, 1906), 127.
40
ibid., 128-29.
41
JBF to Caroline Severance, November 28, 1894, Severance Papers, Huntington.
42
Jane Apostol, "They Said It with Flowers: The Los An- geles Flower Festival Society," Southern California Quarterly 62 (Spring 1980): 67- 76
Thelma Lee Hubbell and Gloria Ricci Lothrop, "The Friday Morning Club: A Los Angeles Legacy," ibid. 50 (March 1968): 59-90
Gloria Ricci Lothrop, "Westering Women and the Ladies of Los Angeles: Some Similarities and Differ- ences," South Dakota Review 19 (Spring/ Summer 1981): 41-67.
43
Henry Winfred Splitter, "Education in Los Angeles, 1850-1900," pt. 2, Historical Soci- ety of Southern California Quarterly 33 (Sep- tember 1951): 232-34
Ruddy, The Mother of Clubs, 87-88.
44
Los Angeles Times, June 28 and 29, 1892.
45
Herr and Spence, Letters, 546-47.
46
JBF to Nelly Haskell Browne, March 18, 1895, in ibid., 550-51.
47
JBF to John Gutzon Borglum, May 26, 1896, Borglum Papers, Library of Congress.
48
Fed- eral Writers' Project, California: A Guide to the Golden State [New York: Hastings House, 1939], 157.
50
Theodore Roosevelt to John Charles Fremont, Jr., March 16, July 15 and 25, 1899, Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Library of Congress
51
Herr and Spence, Letters, 552-53.
52
Theodore Roosevelt to JBF, September 2, 1899, Theodore Roosevelt Papers.
53
JBF to Charlotte (LeMoyne) Wills, July 5, 1891, Nevins Papers, Columbia Univer- sity, New York City.
55
JBF to Edward William Bok, March 28, 1901, Copley Library, La Jolla, California.
56
The Sky Pilot (1899) was a best-selling novel by Ralph Connor
57
Herr and Spence, Letters, 553-55.
59
New York Herald, April 14 and 28, 1895, and May 20, 1900
New York Times, February 13, 1925
60
Herr and Spence, Letters, 555-56.
61
JBF to Emma Ballard, February 10, 1902, Benton Papers, Missouri Historical Soci- ety, St. Louis.
62
JBF to Ward, December 23, 1865, and two undated letters [December-January 1865-66], Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, New York
63
Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment (New York: St. Mar- tin's Press, 1965), 142-43.
64
Friedrich von Schiller, The Death of Wal- lenstein, act 5, scene 3.
65
Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 15
66
Herr and Spence, Letters, 557.
1
Zutano, "Earthquake Echos," The Argo- naut (San Francisco), Oct. 13, 1883.
2
Thomas Rogers, "Where Does the Hay- ward Fault Go?" Mineral Information Serv- ice, Apr. 1969, 54-55
California Division of Mines and Geology, Earthquake Planning Scenario for a Magnitude 7.5 Earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (Sacramento: Special Publications 78, 1987), 25-30
Clyde Wahrhaftig, Field Trip Via BART to the Hayward Fault (Berkeley, 1976), 1-19.
3
Tousson Toppozada and David Parke, "Area Damaged by the 1868 Hayward Earthquake and Recurrence of Damag- ing Earthquakes Near Hayward," Pro- ceedings, Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the Eastern San Francisco Bay Area (Sacra- mento: Division of Mines and Geology, Special Publications 62, 1982), 321-23
Toppozada, C.R. Real, and D.L. Parke, "Earthquake History of California," Cali- fornia Geology (Feb. 1986), 27-33
Jerry Coffman and Carl von Hake, Earthquake History of the United States (Boulder: United States Geological Survey Publication 41-1, 1982), 158.
Alameda County Gazette (San Leandro), Nov. 14, 1868.
4
Alameda County Gazette, Oct. 24, 1868
Ala- meda County Democrat (San Leandro), Oct. 22, 1868
Oakland Daily Transcript, Oct. 22, 1868
Oakland Daily News, Oct. 26, 1868.
5
Alta California (San Francisco), Oct. 22, 23, 1868
San Francisco Evening Bulletin, Oct. 21, 22, 23, 1868
San Francisco Daily Morn- ing Call, Oct. 22, 1868
The Times (San Francisco), Oct. 22, 1868
Edward Holden, A Catalogue of Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1897 (Washington, 1898) 76-80
The California EarthquakeofApril 18, 1906:Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commit- tee (Washington, 1908), 434-36.
6
Daily Transcript, Oct. 22, 1868
Daily News, Oct. 21, 23, 26, 1868.
7
Alta, Oct. 22, 23, 1868
Bulletin, Oct. 21, 22, 23, 1868
Sacramento Daily Record, Oct. 21, 1868
Toppozada and Parke, 321-25
Holden, 76-80.
8
Mel Scott, The San Francisco Bay Area: A Metropolis in Perspective (Berkeley, 1985), 50.
9
William Issel and Robert Cherny, San Francisco, 1865-1932 (Berkeley, 1986), 23- 25
Scott, 50.
10
Henry George, "What the Railroad Will Bring Us," Overland Monthly (Oct. 1868), 297-306.
11
Alta, Oct. 22, 1868
Call, Oct. 22, 1868.
12
note 11
Bulletin, Oct. 21, 23, 1868
Times, Oct. 22, 23, 1868
The California Earthquake of . . . 1906, 434-36.
13
Alta, Oct. 22, 1868
Issel and Cherny, 18, 21-22
Roger Lotchin, San Francisco, 1846- 1856 (New York, 1974), 234, 270, 275.
14
Annual Reports to the Chamber of Commerce of San Francisco (San Francisco, 1870), 9.
15
Ibid.
Alta, Oct. 22, 1868.
16
Alta, Nov. 9, 1868
William Prescott, "Cir- cumstances Surrounding the Preparation and Suppression of a Report on the 1868 Earthquake," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (Dec. 1982), 2392.
17
Bulletin, Oct. 24, 1868.
18
Alta, Oct. 22, Nov. 7, 1868.
19
Bulletin, Oct. 21, 1868
Times, Oct. 22, Nov. 7, 1868
Alta, Nov. 7, 1868.
20
Daily News, Oct. 23, 24, 1868.
21
Alta, Oct. 22, 1868
Bulletin, Oct. 22, 1868
Call, Oct. 29, 1868
Times, Nov. 4, 1868.
22
Albert Shumate, The California of George Gordon (Glendale, 1976), 164.
23
San Francisco Newsletter and California Adver- tizer, Oct. 31, 1868
Shumate, 219.
24
Alta, Nov. 11, 1868
Shumate, 220.
25
Alta, Nov. 15, 22, 25, 1868
Prescott, 2389- 90.
26
Alta, Dec. 1, 1868
Shumate, 223.
27
Alta, Dec. 5, 1868
Prescott, 2390.
28
Michael Smith, Pacific Visions: California Scientists and the Environment 1850-1915 (New Haven, 1987), 7
J.D.B. Stillman, Wanderings in the Southwest in 1855 (Spo- kane, 1990), 16
"Concerning the Late Earthquake," Overland Monthly (Nov. 1868), 474, 479.
29
Oscar Lewis, George Davidson: Pioneer West Coast Scientist (Berkeley, 1954), 54-55.
30
Newsletter, Dec. 5, 1868
Jan. 2, 16, 1869.
31
Annual Reports to the Chamber . . . , 11, 14-15.
32
George Davidson to Seismological Society of America, Apr. 14, 1908, reprinted in Prescott, 2391-92.
33
Annual Reports to the Chamber. . . , 8-10
Michele Aldrich, Bruce Bolt, Alan Leviton and Peter Rodda, "Report of the 1868 Haywards Earthquake," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 76, n. 71-76.
34
Shumate, 224.
35
United States Geological Survey, The Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989 (Wash- ington, 1990)
Steve McNutt, "Loma Prieta Earthquake," California Geology, (January, 1990), 3-7
David Montgomery, "Effects of the Loma Prieta Earthquake," California Geology Oanuary, 1990), 9-13, 24
United States General Accounting Office, Loma Prieta Earthquake (Washington, 1990).
36
Jeffery Kahn, "LBL Geologist Digs Deep Into the Hayward Fault," Currents (Law- rence Berkeley Laboratory), Jun. 29, 1990
San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 28, 1991.
37
Walter Huber, "San Francisco Earthquakes of 1865 and 1868," Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, v. 20, n. 4, 261-72
U.S. Geological Survey, The Loma Prieta Earth- quake, 4
San Francisco Chronicle, Mar. 26, 1991.
38
California Division of Mines and Geology, Earthquake Planning Scenario for a Magni- tude 7.5 Earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (Sacramento, Division of Mines and Geology, Special Publication 78, 1987)
Laura Hagar, "Our Fault," East Bay Express (Berkeley), Nov. 23, 1990.
39
Alta, Oct. 25, 1868.
40
Fenton Johnson, "Aftershock in San Fran- cisco," New York Times Magazine, June 17, 1990
"Letters to the Editor," ibid, July 15, 1990.
1
John Noble Wilford, "Columbus and the Labyrinth of History," Wilson Quarterly 15 (1991): 66.
Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Para- dise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy (New York: Plume, 1990).
2
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Soci- ety, The Larger Agenda Series (Knoxville, Tennessee: Whittle Direct Books, 1991), 2-3.
3
Schlesinger, Disuniting of America, 17.
4
Visitor's Guide to Amador County (Jackson, California: Amador County Chamber of Commerce, 1988), 9
Amador Ledger (Jackson, California) 29 February 1988.
1989 Testi- monial Banquet [Program] in honor of Christo- pher Columbus (Buffalo, New York, 1989) 21.
5
Robert Anthony Orsi, The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880-1950 (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1985), xiii.
6
Wilford, "Columbus," 80.
7
John Noble Wilford, The Mysterious His- tory of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), 250.
8
Jane W. Hatch, The American Book of Days (New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1978), 919.
Robert J. Myers, Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1972).
Noble, Mysterious History of Columbus, 251.
9
Andrew F. Rolle, The Immigrant Upraised: Italian Adventurers and Colonists in an Expand- ing America (Norman, Oklahoma: Univer- sity of Oklahoma Press, 1968), 20-21.
10
Christopher Hibbert, Garibaldi and His Ene- mies: The Clash of Arms and Personalities in the Making of Italy (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1987), 121-23.
11
Hennig Cohen and Tristram Potter Coffin, eds., The Folklore of American Holidays (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1987), 302.
12
Deanna Paoli Gumma, The Italians of San Francisco, 1850-1930 (New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1978), 3, 5, 47.
13
San Francisco Chronicle, 19 October 1869.
Charles Speroni, "The Develop- ment of the Columbus Day Pageant of San Francisco," Western Folklore 7 (1948): 329.
San Francisco Chronicle (16 October 1875)
14
Gumina, Italians of San Francisco, 3.
15
Angelo Noce, Columbus Day in Colorado (Denver: Angelo Noce, 1910), 22.
Giovanni Perilli, Colorado and the Italians (n.p.: 1922).
16
Angelo Noce, "Italian Pioneers in Denver, Colorado, and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Italians Today" [ca. 1917], Col- orado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library, Denver, Colorado (hereinafter cited as CHSD)
Noce, Columbus Day, 21, 70.
17
Barry and Patten, Men and Memories of San Fran- cisco, 30.
18
Noce, Columbus Day, 69.
19
Orsi, The Madonna of 115th Street, 34.
20
Gumina, Italians of San Francisco, 3, 7, 83.
21
Dolores Liptak, Immigrants and Their Church (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), 68-69,71.
"The Philanthropist's View," Charities [New York] 12 (1904): 443-55
Lydio F. Tomasi, ed., The Italian in America: The Progressive View, 1891-1914 (New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1978), 109.
22
Noce, Columbus Day, 23-24.
23
Gumina, Italians of San Fran- cisco, 47-49
24
"Philanthropist's View," 109.
25
Leonard Covello, The Heart is the Teacher (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958), 43.
26
San Francisco Chronicle, 16 October 1876.
27
Philip A. Roach, "Address of the Hon. Philip A. Roach on the Three Hundred and Eighty-fifth Anniversary of the Discovery of America by Columbus, Delivered Octo- ber 14, 1877, at South San Francisco Park, by Invitation of the Italian Population of San Francisco," Bancroft Library, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley.
Victor R. Greene, American Immigrant Leaders, 1800-1910: Marginality and Identity (Balti- more: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987), 135.
28
Noce, Columbus Day, 23-24.
29
Noce, "Italian Pioneers," CHSD.
30
Noce, "Italian Pioneers," CHSD.
31
Noce, Columbus Day, 43
Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 19 April 1905.
32
Noce, Columbus Day, 22.
33
Lydio F. Tomasi, ed., Italian Americans: New Perspectives in Italian Immigration and Ethnicity (New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1985), 93.
34
Greene, American Immigrant Leaders, 129.
35
Noce, "Italian Pioneers," CHSD.
La Stella (Denver), 24 October and 3 October 1885, CHSD.
36
La Stella (Denver, Colorado), 21 Novem- ber 1885.
La Patria in 1891
La Nazione in 1894
La Giustizia in 1896
"Italian Periodical Presses in Colorado," 4 pp. typescript, in "Italians in Colorado" Collection, CHSD.
37
Gino C. Speranza, "Handicaps in Amer- ica," The Survey 23 (1910)
Tomasi, ed., The Italian in America, 94.
Greene, American Immigrant Lead- ership, 123-32.
38
Statuti della Compagnia Garibaldina, Riveduti ed Approvati nella Riunione Generale del 6 Gennaio, 1889 (Denver: Tipografia diPierson & Williams, 1889).
39
La Stella, 3 October and 7 November 1885.
40
Noce, Columbus Day, 23.
Denver Times, 12 and 26 September 1898.
41
Noce, "ItalianPioneers," CHSD.
42
La Stella, 24 October 1885.
43
La Stella, 10 October 1885.
La Stella, 14 November 1885.
44
New York Times (21 Sep- tember 1874)
45
The Pueblo Chief- tain, 13 October 1905
Denver Post, 12 October 1905.
46
Bollettino dell'Emigrazione (Roma: Tipografia Nazionale di G. Bertero, 1904), 126-27, CHSD.
47
Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 1 May 1883.
48
Rolle, Immigrant Upraised, 174-77.
49
Denver Tribune, 4 June 1882, Italian Collection, CHSD.
50
The Daily Chieftain (Pueblo, Colorado), 17 January 1884.
51
The Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 16 October 1887.
52
Rolle, Immigrant Upraised, 173-74.
Noce, Colum- bus Day, 76.
53
Tomasi, The Italian in America, 109
"The Philanthropists' View," Charities 12 (1904): 443-55.
Rudolf J. Vecoli, ed., Italian Immigrants in Rural and Small Town America (Staten Island, New York: The American Italian Historical Associa- tion, 1987), 174.
Wilford also describes the transformation in Mysterious History of Columbus, 256-57.
54
Myers, Celebrations, 244-45.
55
"Columbus Day," Bulletin (November, 1911), 891.
56
Christopher J. Kauffman, Faith and Frater- nalism: The History of the Knights of Columbus, 1882-1982 (Cambridge: Harper & Row, 1982), 79-80.
57
Myers, Celebrations, 245.
58
"Columbus Day Fittingly Commemorated," The Columbiad 12 (November 1905): 1.
59
Denver Catholic Register, 29 September 1905, Archives of the Catholic Archdiocese of Denver, Colorado (hereinafter cited as ACAD).
60
Denver Catholic Register, 17 October 1907.
61
John J. Barrett, "Columbus the Christian Scientist," May 15, 1892, in "Columbus Volume," MS, 79-82, Santa Clara Univer- sity Archives, Santa Clara, California.
62
Denver Catholic Register, 19 October 1906.
63
Denver Catholic Register, 20 October 1905.
64
Denver Catholic Register, 20 October 1905.
Wilford, Mysterious History of Columbus, 255-56.
65
The Rocky Mountain News, 17, 18, and 20 October 1892.
Noce, Columbus, 30.
66
The Rocky Mountain News, 20 and 21 Octo- ber 1892.
67
Denver Evening News, 16 January 1905
Noce, Columbus Day, 40.
68
Rolle, Immigrant Upraised, 179.
69
Noce, "Italian Pioneers," CHSD.
70
"Columbus Day Fittingly Commemorated," The Columbiad 12 (November 1905): 1
77m? Pueblo Chieftain, 13 October 1905.
71
The Denver Post, 1 April 1907.
72
The Denver Post, 7 and 12 October 1907.
73
Jonathan Dedmon, "Columbus Day was Denverite's Favorite," The Denver Post, 9 October 1974.
Noce's death was reported in The Denver Post, 5 January 1922
Denver Catholic Regis- ter, 12 January 1922
The Rocky Moun- tain News, 7 January 1922.
74
Maurice Francis Egan and John B. Ken- nedy, The Knights of Columbus in Peace and War (New Haven, Connecticut: Knights of Columbus, 1920), I: 183-86.
75
Charles W. Churchill, The Italians of Newark: A Community Study (New York: Arno Press, 1975), 22, 41
"Columbus Day Legalized," The Columbiad 14 (May 1907): 1.
Churchill, Italians, 151
Hatch, American Book of Days, 920.
76
The Denver Post, 7 and 12 October 1907.
77
Denver Catholic Register, 19 October 1906.
78
Gumina, Italians of San Francisco, 49.
Charles Speroni, "The Development of the Columbus Day Pag- eant of San Francisco," Western Folklore 7 (1948): 325-35.
79
Rolle, Immigrant Upraised, 31.
80
"Editorial Notes," The Columbiad 9 (October 1902): 8.
81
"Columbus Day," The Columbiad 13 (Octo- ber 1906): n.p.
82
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