Notes

Notes
1
Moratto (1984)
Heizer (1978).
2
Lewis (1973)
Bean and Lawton (1973).
3
Bean (1972)
Bean and King (1974)
Bean and Lawton (1973).
4
Bean (1992b): 22.
5
Bean (1992b).
6
Bean (1992b).
7
Bean (1992b).
8
Bean (1992b): 21-32.
9
Bean (1992a)
Heizer (1978).
10
Bean (1978).
11
Bean (1992b).
12
Bean and Vane (1992)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
13
Bean and Vane (1992)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
14
Heizer (1978).
15
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925)
Moratto (1984).
16
Heizer (1978).
17
Heizer (1978).
18
Bean and Lawton (1973).
19
Heizer (1978).
20
Bean (1978)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
21
Bean (1978).
22
Heizer (1978).
23
Dobyns (1966).
24
Heizer (1978).
25
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
26
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
27
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
28
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
29
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
30
Bean (1978)
Bean and King (1974)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925)
White (1963).
31
Bean (1978)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
32
Bean (1972)
Heizer (1978)
Kroeber (1925).
33
Bean (1978)
Heizer (1978).
35
Heizer (1978)
Bureau of Indian Affairs (1991).
1
Vane and Bean (1990).
Bean and Vane (1991).
Heizer and Elsasser' s Bibliography of California Indians (1977)
Nunis and Loth- rop's Guide to the History of California (1989)
2
Bolton (1908)
Heizer (1947).
3
Engelhardt (1930)
Costo and Costo (1987)
4
Patencio (1943
1971).
5
Reid (1968).
Beattie and Beattie (1951)
6
Borah (1970): 16.
7
Blackburn and Hudson (1990).
8
Vancouver (1984)
Mahr (1932)
Kotzebue (1930)
Dmitry Gibson (1973)
Wrangel (1980)
Pierce and Winslow (1979)
Alekseev (1987)
Wilbur (1937)
C. Viola and Margolis (1985)
Cutter (1960)
Langsdorff (1927)
Golovnin (1979)
Botta (1952).
Thomas C. Blackburn, personal communication, 1992
9
Sitgreaves (1853)
Whip- ple (1856)
Ives (1861)
Mollhausen (1858).
10
Brooks (1977): 71-76n.
Kroeber (1925).
12
Bunnel (1911).
13
Jackson and Kinney (1884).
14
Du Bois (1939)
Gayton (1930).
15
Blackburn and Hudson (1990).
16
Blackburn and Hudson (1990).
17
Blackburn and Hudson (1990): 144.
18
Vane and Bean (1990): 198, 215.
19
he and Margaret A. Whipple edited: The California Indians: A Source Book (1971).
California ethnography and archaeology circa 1970
20
Blackburn and Hudson (1982-1987)
Hudson, Timbrook, and Rempe (1978)
Bean and Vane (1981)
Underhay and Hudson (1978).
21
Stewart (1978): 706-709.
22
(Stewart 1978): 707.
The Autobiography of Delfino Cuero (1968
1990)
Delfino Cuero (1991).
23
Castillo (1978): 121
Bureau of Indian Affairs (1991).
24
Heizer (1978): 709-712.
25
Bureau of Indian Affairs (1991).
26
Bean's article, "The Language of Stereo- type, Distortion, Inaccuracy" (1969)
Helen Bauer's California Indian Days
27
Lowell Bean, Temalpakh (1972)
28
Bean and King (1974).
29
Alfonso Ortiz (1983)
Warren L. d'Azevedo (1986)
32
William Blight's California Bibliography of the Languages of Native California, Including Closely Related Languages of Adjacent Areas (1982)
33
Theodoratus and La Pena (1992)
Norton (1992)
Buckskin (1992)
Bean (1992).
1
Robert F. Heizer, ed., Califor- nia, vol. 8 of Handbook of North American Indians (Washington, D.C, 1978), 509.
2
James J. Rawls, Indians of California: The Changing Image (Norman, Okla., 1984), 14-21, 34-65.
3
Jean Francois Galaup de La Perouse, A Voyage Round the World in the Years 1785, 1786,1787,1788, ed. M. L. A. Milet-Mureau (London, 1798), 2: 201-206.
4
Ibid., 2: 212-14, 218-20.
5
Rawls, Indians of California, 34-43.
6
Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly, "Duhaut- Cilly's Account of California in the Years 1827-1828," California Historical Society Quar- terly 8 (Dec. 1929): 214-15, 242, 317.
7
Ibid.
8
Frederick William Beechey, Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific. . . in the Years 1825, 26, 27, 28 (London, 1831), 2: 22, 71, pas- sim
Thomas Coulter, Notes on Upper Cali- fornia (Los Angeles, 1951), 26
George Simpson, Narrative of a Voyage to California Ports (San Francisco, 1930), 67
Edward Belcher, H.M.S. Sulphur at California (San Francisco, 1969), 46.
Donald C. Cut- ter, Malaspina in California, (San Francisco, 1960), 50, 53, 58, 62-65
Cutter, Cali- fornia in 1792 (Norman, Okla., 1990), passim.
9
Rawls, Indians of California, 42-43.
Phillip Wayne Powell, Tree of Hate: Propaganda and Prejudice Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World (New York, 1971).
10
Richard Henry Dana, Two Years Before the Mast (Los Angeles, 1964), 1:84, 87,121-22, 168, 170-72.
11
Thomas Jefferson Farnham, Life and Adven- tures in California (New York, 1846), 110-11.
Charles B. Churchill, "Thomas Jefferson Farnham: An Exponent of Amer- ican Empire in Mexican California," Pacific Historical Review 60 (Nov. 1991): 517-37.
12
Farnham, Life and Adventures, 99-100,110- 12, 350-51, 363.
13
Robert B. Forbes, Personal Reminiscences (Boston, 1878), 95-96, 335-36.
Benjamin David Wilson, "Observations on Early Days in California and New Mexico," Annual Pub- lication of the Historical Society of Southern California (1934): 90.
Jack D. Forbes, Native Americans of California and Nevada (Healdsburg, Calif., 1969), 29.
14
Dana, Two Years Before the Mast, I: 172.
15
Rawls, Indians of California, 64-65.
16
Paul C. Johnson, ed., The California Missions (Menlo Park, 1964), 66-70, passim.
17
Gertrude Atherton, "A Native on the Cali- fornia Missions," The Critic 9 (1878): 271.
18
Rawls, Indians of California, 81-133, 171-201.
ibid., 171.
Walton Bean and James J. Rawls, California: An Interpretive History (New York, 1988), 132.
19
James D. Hart, American Images of Spanish California (Berkeley, 1960), 34.
20
Rawls, Indians of California, 206.
Robert Louis Stevenson's essay on Monterey, "The Old Pacific Capi- tal," first published in 1880
Stevenson, Across the Plains, with Other Memories and Essays (London, 1892).
21
Valerie Sherer Mathes, Helen Hunt Jackson and her Indian Reform Legacy (Austin, 1990)
Nancy Wilkman, "Ramona Lives," Los Angeles Magazine (May 1988): 36-43.
22
Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California through the Progressive Era (New York, 1985), 58.
23
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 (New York, 1973), 397- 401.
Edwin R. Bingham, Charles F. Lummis: Editor of the Southwest (1955)
Turbese Lummis-Fiske and Keith Lummis, Charles F. Lummis: The Man and His West (1975).
24
Charles F. Lummis, "The Old Missions," Drake's Magazine 7 (March 1889): 191.
25
Johnson, The California Missions, 44-45.
26
Karen J. Weitze, California's Mission Revival (Los Angeles, 1984).
Eric Sandweiss, California History 68 (Fall 1984): 330-31.
27
Starr, Inventing the Dream, 81-89.
28
The Rose of Carmelo: A Romantic Idyl of the Mission San Carlos (Car- mel, n.d), 4, 7, 9.
29
Lola B. Hoffman, California Beginnings (Sacramento, 1933, rev. 1948), v, 25.
30
Helen M. Roberts, Clemente's Christmas: A Tale of Mission Soledad (Stanford, 1948), 3-5.
31
Ibid.
32
Helen Bauer, California Mission Days (Sacra- mento, 1951, rev. 1957), 17, 28, 124.
33
Davis Dutton, ed., Missions of California (New York, 1972), 149-50.
John Ogden Pohlmann, "California's Mission Myth" (Ph.D. dissertation, Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles, 1974).
34
"Saving the Missions," The Grizzly Bear (April 1925), 2.
35
Glenn S. Dumke, The Boom of the Eight- ies in Southern California (San Marino, 1944).
36
Bean and Rawls, California, 191.
37
Starr, Inventing the Dream, 58.
38
Ibid., 88-89.
39
Roland Marchand, Advertising the Ameri- can Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920- 1940 (Berkeley, 1985).
40
The Mission Play Program (San Gabriel, n.d.)
41
Bean and Rawls, California, 259-62, 266-72
Henry Pelling, American Labor (Chicago, 1960), 48-127
Maldwyn Allen Jones, Amer- ican Immigration (Chicago, 1960), 177-246.
42
Starr, Inventing the Dream, 89.
43
Dutton, ed., Missions of Cali- fornia, 96.
44
John Francis Bannon, "The Mission as a Frontier Institution: Sixty Years of Inter- est and Research," Western Historical Quar- terly 10 (July 1979): 302-322.
Zephyrin Engelhardt, The Missions and Missionaries of California (four volumes, 1908-1915)
Herbert Eugene Bolton, ed., The Spanish Borderlands (New Haven, 1921)
Fray Juan Crespi (Berkeley, 1927)
"The Mission as a Frontier Institution in the Spanish American Colonies," in his Wider Horizons in American History (New York, 1939)
Maynard Geiger, The Life and Times of Fray Junipero Serra (two volumes, Wash- ington, D.C, 1959)
Franciscan Mis- sionaries in Hispanic California, 1769-1848: A Biographical Dictionary (San Marino, 1969)
Francis F. Guest, Fermin Francisco de Lasuen: A Biography (Washington, D.C, 1973)
"An Examination of the Thesis of S. F. Cook on the Forced Conversion of Indians in the California Missions," Southern California Quarterly 61 (Spring 1979): 1-78
"Cultural Perspectives on California Mission Life," ibid., 65 (Spring 1983): 1-65
"Junipero Serra and His Approach to the Indians," ibid., 67 (Fall 1985): 223-261
"New Look at Cali- fornia's Missions," in Francis J. Weber, ed., Some Reminiscences about Fray Junipero Serra (Santa Barbara, 1985)
"An Inquiry Into the Role of the Discipline in California Mission Life,"Southern California Quarterly 71 (Spring 1989): 1-68.
45
James A. Sandos, "Junipero Serra's Canonization and the Historical Record," The American Historical Review 93 (December 1988): 1260.
46
Marion A. Habig, Junipero Serra (Chicago, 1964, rev. 1987), 30.
Habig and Francis B. Steck, Man of Greatness: Father Junipero Serra (Chicago, 1964).
47
Mabel Young Williams, California: A History (Sacramento, 1965), 123.
48
Sherburne Friend Cook, The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization (Berkeley, 1943), 47-48.
James J. Rawls, New Directions in California History: A Book of Readings (New York, 1988), 24-25.
49
Carey McWilliams, Southern California Country: An Island on the Land (New York, 1946), 29.
50
Jack D. Forbes, Native Americans of Cal- ifornia and Nevada (Healdsburg, Calif., 1969)
Robert F. Heizer and Alan J. Alm- quist, The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination Under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (Berkeley, 1971)
Edward D. Castillo, "Euro-American Explo- ration and Settlement," in Heizer, Califor- nia
George H. Phillips, The Enduring Struggle: Indians in California History (San Francisco, 1981).
51
Beverly J. Armento, Gary B. Nash, Christopher L. Salter, Karen K. Wixson, Oh, California (Boston, 1991), 79.
52
Carrie McClish, "Serra's Beatification Cul- minates 30 years of a Friar's Work," The Catholic Voice (September 12, 1988)
Nor- man Boucher, "The Politics of Sainthood," The Boston Globe Magazine (September 13, 1987), 16-17, 67-78
Greg Crister, "The Mil- lion Dollar Canonization," California Maga- zine 10 (August 1985): 86-89,115-19
Robert Palm, "From Here to Eternity: On the Road with Father Serra, California's Best Shot at Sainthood," California Magazine 14 (Janu- ary 1989): 62-66, 101-102.
53
Jose Antonio Burciaga, "Why the Pope Shouldn't Make Father Serra a Saint," Oakland Tribune, April 23, 1986.
Edward D. Castillo, "Mission Studies and the Columbian Quincentennial," News From Native California (May-July 1991), 12-13.
54
Sandos, "Junipero Serra's Canonization and the Historical Record," 1265.
55
Thaddeus Shubsda, "The Serra Report: Executive Summary," The Serra Report (Mon- terey, Calif., 1986)
ibid., 1264.
56
Rupert Costo and Jeannette Henry Costo, eds., The Missions of California: A Legacy of Genocide (San Francisco, 1987).
57
San Francisco Chronicle, June 17, 1987, September 9, 1987, August 27, 1988, September 5, 1988
San Francisco Examiner, November 25, 1986, September 15, 1987
San Jose Mercury News, February 4, 1989
Oakland Tribune, September 30, 1987
Contra Costa Times, September 25, 1988.
58
Sacramento Bee, February 4, 1987.
59
San Jose Mercury News, July 5, 1987.
60
Contra Costa Times, December 31, 1988.
61
The Seattle Times, September 14, 1987.
62
William McNeill, "Mythistory, or Truth, Myth, History, and Historians,"The Amer- ican Historical Review 91 (Fall 1986): 1-10.
1
The Conflict Between the Cali- fornia Indians and White Civilization (Berke- ley and Los Angeles, 1976).
2
Sherburne F. Cook and Woodrow Borah, Essays In Population History, 3 vol- umes (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971- 1979), 3:177-311
John Johnson, "The Chumash and the Missions," in David H. Thomas (ed.), Columbian Consequences: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West (Washington, D.C, 1989), 365-75.
3
Robert H. Jackson, "Gentile Recruitment and Pop- ulation Movements in the San Francisco Bay Area Missions," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 6 (1984): 225- 39
Robert H. Jackson, "Patterns of Demo- graphic Change in the Missions of Central Alta California," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 9 (1987): 251-72
Robert H. Jackson, "La dinamica del desas- tre demografico de la poblacion india en las misiones de la Bahia de San Francisco, Alta California, 1776-1840," Historia Mexi- cana 40 (1991): 187-215.
4
Johnson, "The Chumash"
Robert H.Jack- son, "The Economy and Demography of San Gabriel Mission, 1771-1834: A Struc- tural Analysis," paper presented at the symposium "Spanish Beginnings in Cali- fornia, 1542-1822," University of Califor- nia, Santa Barbara, July 15-19,1991
Robert H. Jackson, "La colonization de la Alta California: Un analisis del desarrollo de dos comunidades misionales," Historia Mexicana 41 (1991): 83-110.
5
Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M., Mission Santa Ines Virgen YMartir And Its Ecclesias- tical Seminary, reprint edition (Santa Bar- bara, 1986), 100.
6
Michael Flinn, The European Demographic System 1520-1820 (Baltimore, 1981).
7
Jackson, "La dinamica del desastre, " 187-215.
Johnson, "The Chumash," 372.
8
Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Bio- logical and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, 1972), chapter 2.
9
Daniel Reff, Disease, Depopulation, and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764 (Salt Lake City, 1991), especially chapter 3.
10
Robert H. Jackson, "Causes of Indian Population Decline in the Pimeria Alta Missions of Northern Sonora," Jour- nal of Arizona History 24 (1983): 405-29.
Robert H. Jackson, "Epidemic Disease and Population Decline in the Baja California Missions, 1697-1834," Southern California Quarterly 63 (1981): 308-46.
11
Jackson, "La colonizacion de la Alta Cali- fornia," 95-98.
12
Ibid, 106-07.
13
Jackson, "Dinamica del desastre," 203-205.
1
Sherburne F. Cook laid the foundation for modern understanding of Indian demog- raphy in "Population Trends among the California Mission Indians," Ibero-Ameri- cana 17 (1940):l-48
"The Indian versus the Spanish Mission," Ibero-Americana 21 (1943):1-194.
Cook are reprinted in The Conflict between the California Indians and White Civilization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976).
Sherburne F. Cook and Woodrow Borah, Essays in Population His- tory 3 vols. (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1971-1979), 3:177-324.
"Impact of Colonization on the Native California Societies," Journal of San Diego History 24 (Winter 1978):135, 136.
Edith Buckland Webb, Indian Life at the Old Missions (1952; reprint ed., Lincoln: University of Nebras- ka Press, 1983).
Francis J. Weber, O.F.M., The California Missions: As Others Saw Them (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1972), 7.
Wilbur R. Jacobs, "Sherburne Friend Cook: Rebel-Revisionist (1896-1974)," Pa- cific Historical Review 54 (May 1985):191-99
Albert L. Hurtado, "California Indian Demography, Sherburne F. Cook, and the Revision of American History," Pacific Historical Review 58 (August 1989):323-43.
Francis F. Guest, O.F.M., "An Examination of the Thesis of S. F. Cook on the Forced Conversion of Indians in the California Missions," Southern Cali- fornia Quarterly 61 (Spring 1979):l-77
Francis F. Guest, O.F.M., "Cultural Per- spectives on California Mission Life," Southern California Quarterly 65 (Spring 1983):l-65.
2
Pierre Bourdieu, "Marriage Strategies as Strategies of Social Reproduction," in Rob- ert Forster and Orest Ranum, eds., Elborg Forster and Patricia M. Ranum, trans. Fam- ily and Society: Selections from the Annales: Economies, Societies, Civilisations (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 117-44.
3
Francisco Palou, Life of Fray Junipero Serra, Maynard J. Geiger, trans, and ed. (Wash- ington, D.C.: Academy of American Fran- ciscan History, 1955), 49.
4
Alfred L. Kroeber, Handbook of Indians of California (1925; reprinted., Berkeley: Cali- fornia Book Co., 1953), 647,748,803
Lowell John Bean, "Social Organization in Native California," Lowell John Bean and Thomas C. Blackburn, eds., Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective (Socorro, N.M., 1976), 105-12
Robert F. Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser, The Natural World of the Califor- nia Indians (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1980), 28-56.
5
Bean, "Social Organization," 106-10
John Bushnell and Donna Bushnell, "Wealth, Work and World View in Native North- west California: Sacred Significance and Psychoanalytic Symbolism," in Thomas C. Blackburn, ed., Flowers of the Wind: Papers on Ritual, Myth and Symbolism in California and the Southwest (Socorro, N.M., 1977), 133.
6
Heizer, "The California Indians: Archae- ology, Varieties of Culture, Arts of Life," California Historical Society Quarterly 41 (March 1962): 5-6,10-12
Nona C Willough- by, "Division of Labor Among the Indians of California," in California Indians, Gar- land American Indian Ethnohistory Series, 6 vols., (New York, 1974), 2:60-68.
7
Robert F. Heizer, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8, California (Wash- ington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1978), 498, 502, 511, 523, 544-45, 556, 566, 602,684-85
Thomas Blackburn, ed., Decem- ber's Child: A Book of Chumash Oral Narratives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 56-58, 137-38, 154-55.
8
Walter L. Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986), 17- 127
Will Roscoe, The Zuni Man Woman (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 123-46 and passim
Ram6n A. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away-.Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991), 33-35.
Heizer, ed., Handbook, California, 131,134,159, 466, 502, 512, 689
Kroeber, Handbook, 46, 180, 497, 500, 647, 748, 803.
9
Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, 176-240
Ramon A. Gutierrez, "Honor Ideology, Marriage Negotiation, and Class-Gender Domina- tion in New Mexico, 1690-1846," Latin American Perspectives 12 (Winter 1985):81- 104
Ramon A. Gutierrez, "From Honor to Love: Transformations of the Meaning of Sexuality in Colonial New Mexico," in Raymond T. Smith, ed., Kinship Ideology and Practice in Latin America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 237-63.
10
Vern L. Bullough, Sexual Variance in Society and History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 347-457
Jean-Louis Flandrin, "Sex in Married Life in the Early Middle Ages: the Church's Teaching and Behavioural Real- ity," in Philippe Aries and Andre Bejin, eds., Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept in Past and Present Times, trans. Anthony Forster (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985), 114-29.
11
Ramon A. Gutierrez, "Honor- Ideology and Sexual Inversion in Colonial New Mexico," paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western History Association, St. Paul, Minnesota, Oct., 1983.
Janet Lecompte, "The Independent Women of Hispanic New Mexico," Western Historical Quarterly 12 0anuary 1981):17-36.
Verena Martinez-Alier, Marriage, Class and Colour in Nineteenth- Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society (London: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 109-12.
Octavio Paz, The Labyrinth of Solitude, trans. Lysander Kemp, Yara Milos, and Rachel Phillips Belash (New York: Grove Press, 1985), 73-88.
Guillermo C£spedes, Latin America in the Early Years (New York, 1974), 56-62
James Lockhart, Spanish Colonial Peru, 1532-1560: A Colonial Society (Madi- son: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968), 150-62.
12
Guillermo C£spedes, Latin America in the Early Years (New York, 1974), 56-62.
Henry F. Dobyns, Spanish Colonial Tucson: A Demographic History (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976), 133-80
Alicia V. Tjarks, "Comparative Demographic Analysis of Texas, 1777- 1793," in David J. Weber, ed., New Spain's Far Northern Frontier, (Albuquerque, 1979), 135-69.
13
Serra to Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua, Aug. 24,1775, in Writings of Junipero Serra, 4 vols., ed. Antonine Tibesar (Washington, D.C: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1955-66), 2:149.
14
Serra to Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua, March 13, 1773, in Serra, Writings, 1:325.
15
Serra to Bucareli, Aug. 24,1775, in Serra, Writings, 2:149.
Gloria E. Miranda, "Gente de Razdn Marriage Pat- terns in Spanish and Mexican California: A Case Study of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles," Southern California Quarterly 63 (Spring 1981):1-21
Jack D. Forbes, "His- pano-Mexican Pioneers of the San Francisco Bay Region: An Analysis of Racial Ori- gins," Aztlan 14 (Spring 1983):175-89
Gu- tierrez, "Honor Ideology, Marriage Nego- tiation, and Class-Gender Domination in New Mexico, 1690-1846," 81-104
Oakah L. Jones, Los Paisanos (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979), 246.
16
Jones, Los Paisanos, 12-13, 252-53.
17
Pedro Fages, A Historical, Political, and Natural Description of California by Pedro Fages, trans. Herbert Ingram Priestly (1937; reprint ed. Ramona, Calif.: Ballena Press, 1972), 48.
18
Ibid., 33.
19
Herbert E. Bolton, trans, and ed., Font's Complete Diary: A Chronicle of the Founding of San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1931), 105.
20
Francisco Pal6u, Paldu's Life of Fray Junipero Serra, trans, and ed. Maynard J. Geiger, O.F.M. (Washington, D.C: American Acad- emy of Franciscan History, 1945), 198.
21
Ibid., 199.
22
Ibid.
23
Ibid.
24
Boscana, quoted in Alfred Robinson, Life in California During a Residence of Several Years in that Territory, (1846; New York: Da Capo Press, 1969), 334-35.
Boscana also noted transvestism and homosexual mar- riage, which he regarded as a "horrible custom," 283-84.
25
Ibid., 282.
26
Sherburne F. Cook and Woodrow Borah produced a remarkable range of demo- graphic data and analysis for eight northern California missions in Essays in Population History, vol. 3 Mexico and California (Berke- ley: University of California Press, 1979), 177-311.
27
Cook and Borah, "Table 3.9: Marriages of Converts Who Had Previously Been Mar- ried by Indian Custom," in Essays in Popu- lation History, 3:282.
28
Palou, Life of Serra, 194.
29
Cook and Borah, "Table 3.9," 282.
30
Serra to Felipe de Neve, Jan. 7, 1780, in Serra, Writings, 3:409-13
Indians Leopoldo, Senen, and Fernando Huililiaset to interogatorio, June 1,1824, in S. F. Cook, ed., "Expeditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1820-1840," University of California Anthropological Re- cords 20, no. 5 (1962):153-54.
31
Senan to Jos, de la Guerra, June 19,1816, in Jose Senan, The Letters of Jose Sendn, O.F.M.: Mission San Buenaventura, 1796- 1823, ed. Leslie Byrd Simpson, trans. Paul D . Nathan ( San Francisco: John Howell- Books, 1962), 87.
32
Lasuen to Antonio Nogueyra, Nov. 28, 1795, in Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, Writ- ings of Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, trans, and ed. Finbar Kenneally, 2 vols. (Wash- ington, D.C.: Academy of American Fran- ciscan History, 1965), 1:363.
33
Lasuen to Tomas Pangua, Feb. 3,1794, in Lasuen, Writings, 1:363.
34
Francis F. Guest, O. F .M., Fermin Francisco de Lasuen (1736-1803): A Biography (Wash- ington, D.C: American Academy of Fran- ciscan History, 1973), 207.
35
Lasuen, "Refutation of Charges," June 19, 1801, in Lasuen, Writings, 2:220.
36
Palou, Life of Serra, 66.
37
Lasuen, Writings, 2:206-207.
38
Guest, Lasuen, 201.
39
Ibid
Guest, "Cultural Perspectives on California Mission Life," 6-22.
40
Heizer, California, 511, 544-45.
41
Daniel J. Garr, "Rare and Desolate Land: Population and Race in Hispanic Califor- nia," Western Historical Quarterly 6 (April 1975):135-37.
42
Jayme, in Maynard J. Geiger, O.F.M., Letter of Luis Jayme, O.F.M., San Diego, October 17, 1772 (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1970), 38, 39.
43
Ibid., 40, 41.
44
Ibid., 44-46.
45
Serra to Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua, April 22, 1773, in Serra, Writings, 1:341.
46
Ibid.
47
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Califor- nia, 7 vols. (San Francisco: 1886-1890), 1:249-54.
Maynard J. Geiger attributes rape as a principal cause of the San Diego revolt in Geiger, ed., Letter of Luis Jayme, xxx.
48
Serra to Rafael Verger, Aug. 8, 1779, in Serra, Writings, 3:349-51.
49
Gutierrez, "Sexual Inversion."
50
A.N. Groth, Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender (New York: Plenum Press, 1979), 60-61
Julia R. Schwendinger and Herman Schwendinger, Rape and Inequality (Beverly Hills: Sage Press, 1983), 202-04
P. Robert, et al., quoted in E. A. Fatah, "The Use of the Victim as an Agent of Self-Legitimization: Toward a Dynamic Explanation of Criminal Behavior," in Victims and Society, ed., E. C. Viano, (Wash- ington, D.C: Visage Press, 1976), 108
Suzanne Ageton, Sexual Assault Among Adolescents (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1983), 111-12.
51
Bancroft, History of California, 1:362-64.
52
Jose Senan to the Commissioner, Nov. 9, 1822, in Senan, Letters, 165.
53
Ann Wolbert Burgess and Lynda Lytle Holstrom, "Rape Trauma Syndrome," American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (Sept. 1974):981-86.
54
Lasuen, Writings, 2:212
Cook and Borah, PopulationHistory3:267-78,304-10.
Garr, "Rare and Desolate Land," 134-37.
55
Serra to Felipe de Neve, Jan. 7, 1780, in Serra, Writings, 3:409-13.
56
Jose Longinos, Journal of Jose Longinos Martinez: Notes and Observations of the Nat- uralist of the Botanical Expedition in Old and New California and the South Coast, 1791-1792 (San Francisco, 1961), 55.
57
Cook, "Population Trends among the Cal- ifornia Mission Indians," 29-34.
58
Longinos, Journal, 44.
Phillip L. Walker, Patricia Lambert, and Michael J. DeNiro, "The Effects of European Contact on the Health of Alta California Indians," in Columbian Conse- quences. Volume 1: Archaeological and Histor- ical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West, David Hurst Thomas, ed. (Washing- ton, D.C, and London: Smithsonian Insti- tution Press, 1989), 349-64.
Brenda J. Baker and George J. Armelagos, "The Origin and Antiquity of Syphilis: Paleo- pathological Diagnosis and Interpreta- tion," Current Anthropology 29 (December 1988):703-37.
59
Maynard J. Geiger, O.F.M., trans, anded., and Clement Meighan, ed., As the Padres Saw Them: California Mission Life and Customs as Reported by the Franciscan Missionaries, 1813-1815 (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Mission Archives, 1976), 71-80.
60
Cook, "The Indian versus the Spanish Mission," 22-30.
61
Geiger and Meighan, As the Padres Saw Them, 105-106.
62
Madison S. Beeler, ed., The Ventureno Confesionario of Jose Sendn, O.F.M., Uni- versity of California Publications in Lin- guistics, Vol. 47 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), 37-63
Harry Kelsey, ed., The Doctrina and Confesionario of Juan Cortes (Altadena, Calif.: Howling Coyote Press, 1979), 113-16, 120-23.
63
Cook, "The Indian Versus the Spanish Mission," 101-13.
64
Cook, "The Physical and Demographic Reaction of the Nonmission Indians in Colonial and Provincial California," Ibero- Americana 22 (1943):l-55.
65
Longinos, Journal, 56
Lasuen, "Refutation of Charges," May 28, 1801, in Lasuen, Writings, 210.
2
Juliette Lombard, "The Migration of Women from the Ukiah Valley in California to the San Francisco Bay Region" (M.A. thesis, Columbia University, 1942), 17.
5
Lombard, "The Migration of Women from the Ukiah Valley in California to the San Francisco Bay Region," 28.
6
Columbia University/New York Uni- versity Social Science Field Laboratory unpublished notes, 1938-1940.
7
Oakland Public Library, Oakland History Room, Newspaper Clipping Files, "YWCA."
8
Oakland YWCA Annual Report, 1937, News- paper Clipping File, "YWCA," Oakland Public Library, Oakland History Room.
9
Oakland YWCA Annual Report, 1886, News- paper Clipping File, "YWCA," Oakland Public Library, Oakland History Room.
10
Oakland Public Library, History Room, Newspaper Clipping Files, "Chabot."
11
unpublished notes of the Columbia/N.Y. University Social Sciences Field Labora- tory, 1939-40, housed at Sonoma State University.
12
United States Government Printing Office, Women's Bureau Bulletin #148 (Washington; D.C, 1936)
Susan Ware, Holding Their Own: American Women in the 1930s (Boston: Twayne Publications, 1982).
13
Ibid., 27.
1
Alfred L. Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California (Washington, D.C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78, 1925), 464.
T. Jackson, J. Hall, and M. Hylkema (eds.), Archaeological Investigations at Ca-SCl-690, Tamien Station (San Francisco, 1992).
2
Alfred L. Kroeber and Robert F. Heizer, "Continuity of Indian Population in Cali- fornia from 1770/1848 to 1955," in Papers on California Ethnography (Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Archaeological Research Facility, Contribution 9, 1970), 1-22.
3
Omer Stewart's analysis of the hearings, "Litigation and its Effects," in Robert F. Heizer (ed.), Handbook of the North Ameri- can Indians, Vol. 8 (Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1978)
4
Ibid.
5
Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California
Robert F. Heizer, The Costanoan Indians (Cupertino: California History Cen- ter, Local History Series, Vol. 18, 1974)
Richard Levy, "Costanoan," in Heizer, Handbook of the North American Indians, Vol. 8, 485-95.
6
Michael J. Moratto, California Archaeology (Orlando, San Francisco, New York, and London: Academic Press, 1984).
7
Richard Levy, "Costanoan."
8
A. P. Cummings, "Washington Township" (Unpublished manuscript report for WPA Project 65-3-646, copy on file in Bancroft Library, University of California, Berke- ley, 1937).
9
Randall Milliken, "People of the Santa Clara Valley in the 1770s," in T. Jackson, J. Hall and M. Hylkema (eds.), Archaeologi- cal Investigations at Ca-SCl-690, Tamien Sta- tion (San Francisco: California Department of Transportation, 1992).
10
Omer Stewart, "Litigation and its Effects."
11
Ibid.
Edward D.Castillo, 'Twentieth- Century Secular Movements," in Heizer, Handbook of the North American Indians, Vol. 8,713-17
Robert F. Heizer, "Treaties" in Heizer, Handbook of the North American Indians, Vol. 8, 701-704.
12
"The Roseburg Files" (Wash- ington, D.C: Bureau of Indian Affairs Classified Files, National Archives Records Administration, 1907-1939).
13
Julia Lopez, interview with Les Field, July 17, 1991 (notes in possession of senior author).
14
Rosemary Cambra, interview with Les Field, June 24, 1991 (notes in possession of senior author).
15
Edward D. Castillo, "Twentieth-Century Secular Movements," 716.
16
Michael Galvan, "People of the West: The Ohlone Story," The Indian Historian 1 (1968): 9-13.
17
"Resolution of the Board of Directors on the Ohlone Indian Cemetery," The Indian Historian 4 (1971): 42.
18
Alan Leventhal, "A Reinterpretation of Some Bay Area Shell Mounds: A View From the Mortuary Com- plex From Ca-Scl-329, The Ryan Mound" (M.A. thesis, San Jose State University, 1992).
20
Sherburne Cook, The Population of the California Indians, 1776-1970 (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1976,)
Michael J. Moratto, California Archaeology.
21
Joseph C. Winter (ed.), "Archaeological Investigations at Ca-SCl-128, Holiday Inn Site" (San Jose: unpublished report to the city of San Jose Redevelopment Agency, 1978).
22
Joseph C. Winter, Tamien: 6000 Years in an American City (San Jose: Report to the City of San Jose Redevelopment Agency, 1978).
23
Ken Colson, Julie Edwards, Rob Edwards, Tom King, and Shirley Lee, "A Proposed Mas- ter Plan for the Ohlone Archaeological Area" (unpublished manuscript, 1971, on file at Muwekma Tribal Office).
25
Ibid.
26
James C. Bard and Colin Busby, Cultural Resources Report on the Wade Ranch Orchard Properties, Inc., Parcels 611 and 612, San Jose, California (Hayward: Basin Research Associates, 1985)
A. G. Pastron and M. R. Walsh, Archaeological Excavations at Ca-SFr-112, The Stevenson Street Shellmound, San Francisco, California (Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory 21, 1988)
Robert R. Carrier, Archaeological Excavations at Ca-SCl-6W, the Lick Mill Boulevard Site (San Jose: Archaeological Resource Man- agement, 1990).
27
Alan Leventhal, Rosemary Cambra, and Norma Sanchez, Final Report on the Archaeological Data Recovery Program of a Portion of Prehis- toric Site Ca-Ala-479, Union City, California (San Jose: Ohlone Families Consulting Services, 1987)
Alan Leventhal, Rosemary Cambra, and Norma Sanchez, Final Report on the Human Skeletal Remains Recovered from Prehistoric Site Ca-SMa-273, Coyote Point Marina, San Mateo, California (San Jose: Ohlone Families Consulting Services 1987)
Alan Leventhal, Rosemary Cambra, Norma Sanchez, and Beverly Domenech, Final Report on the Archaeological Data Recov- ery Program on a Portion of Prehistoric Site Ca-SCl-581, The Lands ofOki, San Jose, Cali- fornia (San Jose: Ohlone Families Consult- ing Services, 1988)
Alan Leventhal, Ben Ananian, Rosemary Cambra, and Norma Sanchez, Final Report on the Archae- ological Data Recovery Program Within a Por- tion of Prehistoric Site Ca-Ala-428H, Sunol Regional Wilderness, Alameda County, Cali- fornia (Oakland: East Bay Regional Park District, 1989).
28
San Jose Mercury News, 5/1/90, "Stan- ford Gives Relics to Ohlones;"
The Chronicle of Higher Education, 5/5/89, "Some Scholars Upset by Stanford's Decision to Return American Indian Remains for Reburial by Tribe."
29
Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Status of Federal Acknowledgment Petitioners: Ohlone/Costanoan Muwekma Tribe, CA" (Washington, D.C:BIA Branch of Ack- nowledgement and Research, Document #111, 5/9/89, September 24, 1990).
30
Sherburne F. Cook, "The Aboriginal Population of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California," University of Califor- nia Berkeley Anthropological Records 16(4): 131-56
Sherburne F. Cook, "Colonial Expeditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1800-1820," University of Cal- ifornia Berkeley Anthropological Records 16(6): 239-92
F. F. McCarthy The History of Mis- sion San Jose, California, 1797-1835 (Fresno: Academy Library Guild, 1958)
Randall Milliken, "An Ethnographic Study of the Clayton Area, Contra Costa County, Cali- fornia," in Miley Holman (principal), The Cultural Resource Evaluation of Keller Ranch, Clayton, California, Part Two (San Francisco: Holman and Associates, 1982)
Randall Milliken, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra, "Interpretive Recom- mendation and Background Report for the Coyote Hills Museum" (Oakland: unpub- lished manuscript for the East Bay Regional Park District, 1987)
J. A. Bennyhoff, Ethnogeography of the Plains Miwok (Davis: Center for Archaeological Research at Davis, Publication no. 8, 1977).
31
CA. Hutchinson "The Mexican Govern- ment and the Mission Indians of Upper California, 1821-1835," The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History 21(4):335-62, 1965
G.H. Phillips, The Enduring Struggle—Indians in Califor- nia History (San Francisco: Boyd and Fraser, 1981)
RandaU Milliken, Alan Leven- thal, and Rosemary Cambra, "Interpretive Recommendation."
32
Women's Research Committee on Washington Town- ship, History of Washington Township (Wash- ington Township: The Country Club of Washington Township Research Commit- tee, 1904, Second Edition 1950).
33
Randall Milliken, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra, "Interpretive Recom- mendations."
34
George R. Miller (ed.), Draft Report of Archaeological Test Excavations of Ca-Ala- 60 Located on Route 580, Castro Valley, Ala- meda County, CA (Hayward: unpublished manuscript by the Institute of Cultural Resources, California State University, Hayward, 1980).
35
M.W. Wood, History of Alameda County, California (Oakland: M.W. Wood, 1883).
36
Randall Milliken, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra "Interpretive Recom- mendation."
37
Edward W. Gifford, "California Shell Arti- facts," University of California Berkeley Anthropological Records 9(1):1-114, 1947.
38
Alfred L. Kroeber, "The Lan- guages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco," University of California, Berkeley, Publications in American Archaeol- ogy and Ethnology 2(1904):29-80
Edward W. Gifford, "Miwok Cults," University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 18(1926):391-408
Edward W Gifford, "Southern Maidu Reli- gious Ceremonies," American Anthropolo- gist 29 (1927):214-57
Isabel T. Kelly, "Ethnographic Field Notes on the Coast Miwok Indians" (Berkeley: unpublished manuscript on file at the Bancroft Library, University of California, 1932).
39
Anthony F. Wallace, "Revitalization Move- ments," American Anthropologist 58 (2): 264-81.
40
John P. Harrington, The Papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Insti- tute, 1907-1957 (White Plains, NY: Krause International Publications, microfilm edi- tion, 1985).
Thomas Black- burn, December's Child (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975)
D.T. Hudson, J. Timbrook, and M. Rempe (eds.), Tomol: Chumash Watercraft (Socorro, NM: Ballena Press Anthropological Papers, no. 8, 1978)
41
Edward W. Gifford, "Miwok Cults;"
Edwin M. Loeb, "The Western Kuksu Cult," University of Califor- nia, Berkeley, Publications in American Archae- ology and Ethnology 33(1932): 1-137
Edwin M. Loeb, "The Eastern Kuksu Cult," Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 33 (1933):139-232
Cora DuBois, "The 1870 Ghost Dance," University of Califor- nia, Berkeley, Anthropological Records 3 (1939):1-151.
42
Edward W. Gifford, "Miwok Cults."
43
Ibid.
44
Alfred L. Kroeber, "A Mission Record of the Calif or- nia Indians," University of California, Berke- ley, Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 8(1908):l-27
C. HartMerriam, Stud- ies Of California Indians (Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Press, 1955).
45
Randall Milliken, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra, "Interpretive Recom- mendations."
46
Merilyn Calhoun, Early Days in the Livermore-Amador Valley (Alameda County School Department, 1973) Randall Milliken, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra, "Interpretive Recommendations"
Women's Research Committee on Washington Township, History of Wash- ington Township.
47
Nancy H. Olsen, Alan Leventhal, and Rosemary Cambra "A Brief Ethnohistory and Geneology of the Muwekma: Mission San Jose and Pleasanton Rancheria Ohlone Families," in Jeffrey Hall (principal), Results of an Archaeological Testing Program at Ca- Ala-343 (unpublished manuscript for Baker Sinclair, Inc., 1985, on file at the Depart- ment of Anthropology, San Jose State University).
48
Women's Research Committee on Washington Township, History of Washing- ton Township.
Michael Galvan, in "People of the West: The Ohlone Story,"
49
John P. Harrington, The Papers of John Peabody Harrington (Reel 37, frame 0012)
50
Michael Galvan, "People of the West: The Ohlone Story."
51
Robert F. Heizer, Federal Concern About Con- ditions of California Indians 1853 to 1913: Eight Documents (Socorro, NM: Ballena Press Publications in Archaeology, Ethnol- ogy and History No. 13, 1979).
52
Alfred L. Kroeber, "The Chumash and Costanoan Languages," University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 9(1910):237-71, 1910
Alfred L. Kroeber, "Northern Yokut," Anthropological Linguistics 1(1959): 1-19.
53
C. Hart Merriam, "Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes," in Robert F. Heizer (ed.), University of California Archae- ological Survey Reports (Berkeley: University of California, 1967).
54
CE. Kelsey, Census of Non-reservation Cali- fornia Indian, 1905-1906 (Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Archaeological Facility Contributions no.10, 1971).
55
Edward W. Gifford, "Linguistic notes col- lected from Pleasanton" (unpublished manuscript no. 114, 1914, on file at the Bancroft Library)
Dale Valory (comp.), "Guide to Ethnolog- ical Documents (1-203) of the Department and Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, now in the Univer- sity Archives" (Berkeley: Archaeological Research Facility, Department of Anthro- pology, University of California, 1971).
56
"The Roseburg Files" for the dates: 7/12/15, 1/25/16, 4/15/16, 10/3/16, and 9/9/17.
57
"The Roseburg Files" for the date 6/23/27.
58
Omer Stewart, "Litigation and its Effects."
59
Ibid.
61
John P. Harrington, The Papers of John Peabody Harrington.
62
Alfred L. Kroeber, "The Chumash and Costanoan Languages;"
J. Alden Ma- son, "The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary of de la Cuesta," University of California, Berkeley, Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 11 (1916):399-472.
63
Joseph E. Baker (ed.), Past and Present of Alameda County, 1847-1914 (Chicago: The J.S. Clarke Publishing Co, 1914)
64
Nancy Olsen, Alan Leventhal, and Rose- mary Cambra, "A Brief Ethnohistory,"
65
John P. Harrington, in The Papers of John Peabody Harrington
J. Alden Mason, "The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan."
66
Julia Lopez, interview with Les Field, July 17, 1991.
67
Rosemary Cambra, interview with Les Field, June 24, 1991.
68
Hank Alvarez, taped interview with Alan Leventhal, September 12, 1991.
69
Julia Lopez, interview with Les Field, July 17, 1991.
70
Hank Alvarez, taped interview with Alan Leventhal, September 12, 1991.

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