Samuel P. Hays, The Response to Industrialism, 1885-1915 (Chicago, 1957)
John Higham, "The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890s," in John Weiss, ed., The Origins of Modern Consciousness (Detroit, 1965)
Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, 1982), esp. ch. 9
Lee Clark Mitchell, Witness to a Vanishing America: The Nineteenth Century Response (Princeton, 1981).
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