Notes

Notes
1
Congressional Globe, 38th Cong., 1st sess., May 17, 1864, 2301.
2
U.S., Statutes at Large, 13 (1864): 325.
3
Ibid.
Alfred Runte, Yosemite: The Embattled Wilderness (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), chap- ter 2.
4
State of California, Geological Survey, J.D. Whitney, State Geologist, The Yosemite Book: A Description of the Yosemite Valley and the Adjacent Region of the Sierra Nevada, and of the Big Trees of California (New York: Julius Bien, 1868), 22.
5
Hutchings v. Lew, 82 U.S. (1872), 94.
6
Congressional Globe, 42d Cong., 2d sess., January 30, 1872, 697
ibid., Febru- ary 27, 1872, 1243.
7
U.S., Statutes at Large, 26 (1890): 478, 650- 52.
U.S., Department of the Interior, Report of the Secretary for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1891 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1891), 123-26.
8
U.S., Department of the Interior, National Park Service, The National Parks: Index 1985 (Washington, D.C.: Government Print- ing Office, 1985).
1
Douglas H. Strong's unpublished dissertation, "A History of Sequoia National Park" (Syr- acuse University, 1964)
Strong, Trees—or Timber? The Story of Sequoia and Kings Can- yon National Parks, rev. ed. (Three Riv- ers, California: Sequoia Natural History Association, 1986)
Lary M. Dilsaver and William C. Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees: A Resource History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (Three Riv- ers, California: Sequoia Natural History Association, 1990).
2
Douglas H. Strong, "Sequoia National Park: Discovery and Exploration," The Western Explorer 4 (September 1966): 1-27.
3
A.B. Elsasser, Indians of the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, rev. ed. (Three Rivers, California: Sequoia Natu- ral History Association, 1988).
4
Strong, "Discovery and Exploration," 22-27.
5
Clarence King, Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (New York: W. W. Norton, 1935), 295.
6
John Muir, "God's First Temples," Sacra- mento Daily-Record Union, February 5, 1876.
William Tweed, "John Muir in the Southern Sierra," Valley Trails (Stockton: Stockton Corral of Western- ers, 1976), 7-12.
7
Samuel T. Porter, "The Silver Rush at Mineral King, California, 1873-1882" (M.A. thesis, Fresno State College, 1961).
8
Strong, "A History of Sequoia National Park," 61, 65.
9
U.S., Senate, Congressional Record, 47th Cong., 1st sess., 1881, 13, pt. 1:78.
10
William Tweed, Kaweah Remembered (Three Rivers, Cali- fornia: Sequoia Natural History Associa- tion, 1986).
11
Douglas H. Strong, "The History of Sequoia National Park, 1876-1926, Part I: The Movement to Establish a Park," South- ern California Quarterly 48 (June 1966): 137-167.
"The History of the Sierra Forest Reserve," June 13, 1902
"The Sequoia National Park," Bakers- field Morning Echo, June 18, 1902.
12
U.S., Congress, House, Congressional Record, 51st Cong., 1st sess., 1890, 21, pt. 8:7834.
13
U.S., Statutes at Large, 26:478.
14
Ibid., 26:651.
15
Richard J. Orsi, "'Wilderness Saint' and 'Robber Baron': The Anomalous Partner- ship of John Muir and the Southern Pacific Company for the Preservation of Yosem- ite National Park," Pacific Historian 29 (Summer/Fall 1985): 148.
George Stewart to Colonel White, June 8, 1929, Sequoia National Park Archives (cited hereafter as SNPA)
"General Grant National Park," Bakersfield Morning Echo, June 21, 1902.
16
Tweed, Kaweah Remembered.
Strong, "The History of Sequoia National Park," Part I, 161.
17
U.S., Statutes at Large, 26: 1095.
Douglas H. Strong, "The Sierra Forest Reserve: The Movement to Preserve the San Joaquin Valley Watershed," California His- torical Society Quarterly 46 (March 1967): 3-17.
18
National Archives, General Land Office Records, Record Group 49, Sierra National Forest File, Box 143, Part 7.
19
U.S., Statutes at Large, 27:1059.
20
Strong, "A History of Sequoia National Park," 193-292.
Strong. "The History of Sequoia National Park, 1876-1926, Part III: The Struggle to Enlarge the Park," Southern California Quarterly 48 (December1966): 369-399.
21
U.S., Statutes at Large, 44:818.
22
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapter 7
Lary Dilsaver, "Conservation Conflict and the Founding of Kings Canyon National Park," also in this issue of California His- tory.
Francis P. Farquhar, "Legis lative History of Sequoia and Kings Can- yon National Parks," Sierra Club Bulletin 26 (February 1941): 42-58.
23
U.S., Statutes at Large, 54:41.
24
Strong, Trees—or Timber, 48-49.
25
U.S., Statutes at Large, 79:446.
26
John L. Harper, Mineral King: Public Concern with Govern- ment Policy (Arcata, Ca: Pacifica Publish- ing Co., 1982).
27
Susan R. Schrepfer, "Perspectives on Con- servation: Sierra Club Strategies in Min- eral King," Journal of Forest History 20 (October 1976): 176-190.
28
U.S., Statutes at Large, 92:3479.
29
Douglas H. Strong, "The History of Sequoia National Park, 1876-1926, Part II: The Problems of the Early Years," South- ern California Quarterly 48 (September 1966): 265-288.
30
Report of the Acting Superintendent of the Sequoia and General Grant National Parks (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899), 10. Cited hereinafter as Superin- tendent Report.
31
Ibid., 1910, 13.
32
U.S., Statutes at Large, 39:535.
Horace M. Albright, The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-1933 (Salt Lake City: Howe Brothers, 1985).
33
Superintendent Report, 1890-1914, partic- ularly 1903.
34
Strong, "A History of Sequoia National Park," 178-192.
35
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, especially chapter 5.
Rick Hydrick, "The Genesis of National Park Management: John Roberts White and Sequoia National Park, 1920-1947," Journal of Forest History 28 (April 1984): 68-81.
36
Jim Corson, "A Brief History of the Gen- erals Highway," June 4,1963, an unpub- lished chronology
John White to H.E. Patterson, July 16, 1921
Arno Cammerer to W.B. Greeley, July 20, 1922
SNP, "Press Bulletin on Completion of Gener- als Highway," June 19, 1935; all in "Roads and Trails" in SNPA.
Superin- tendent Report, 1920-1926.
37
William Tweed, "Sequoia National Park Concessions, 1898-1926," Pacific Historian 16 (1972): 36-60.
Superintendent Report, 1926-1930.
38
correspondence between White and William Colby and Francis Farquhar in "Sierra Club," SNPA.
39
U.S. Forest Service, "John Muir Trail: A History," 1933, SNPA
William Tweed, The High Sierra Trail (Three Rivers, Cali- fornia: Sequoia Natural History Associa- tion, 1982).
40
William Tweed, "The Early Natural His- tory Association" (1978), SNP library.
41
Marcella M. Sherfly, "The National Park Service and the First World War," Journal of Forest History, 22 (October 1978): 203-5.
White to Horace Albright, August 2 and 6, 1931
Albright to John White, November 10, 1931
SNP, Wildlife Man- agement Plan (March 1987), 11-15
Walter Fry, "A Twenty-Five Year Survey of the Animals of Sequoia National Park" (1928); all in "Wildlife" and "Resource Management," SNPA.
42
Superintendent Report, 1931.
43
John White, "Atmosphere in the National Parks," an address at the Special Super- intendent's Meeting, Washington, D.C., February 10, 1936, transcript in SNPA.
Superintendent Report, 1920-1934.
44
John C. Paige, The Civilian Conserva- tion Corps and the National Park Service, 1933-1942: An Administrative History (Wash- ington, D.C: National Park Service, 1985), 51-65, 183
SNP, "Statement of Con- ditions in Sequoia National Park Before CCC (1933) and Now (1941)," a report to the superintendent filed under "Civilian Conservation Corps," SNPA.
45
Paige, The Civilian Conservation Corps, 51-65.
46
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapters 5-9.
"Giant Forest Plan- ning," especially White to Newton Drury, September 16, 1944, SNPA.
Superintend- ent Report, 1930-1947, also contains a part of the story.
47
White to Newton Drury, November 23, 1944, summarizes the history of the re- moval question, in "Giant Forest Plan- ning," SNPA.
48
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapter 6.
49
White to Drury, November 23, 1944, SNPA.
50
Newton Drury, "The National Parks in Wartime," American Forests 49 (August 1943): 375-78.
Superintendent Report, 1942-1946.
51
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapters 6 and 8.
White to Drury, November 23, 1944 and Septem- ber 16, 1944, SNPA.
52
Conrad Wirth, Parks, Politics and the People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980), especially 59-62 and 237-263
Superintendent Report, 1947, 1953
SNP, "Mission 66 Accomplishments, July 1, 1956-June 30, 1966)," in "Developments," SNPA.
53
Charles C. Adams, An Ecological Survey in Northern Michigan: A Report from the Universi- ty Museum, University of Michigan (Michigan Board of Geological Survey Report, 1905).
54
Lowell Sumner, "Biological Research and Management in the National Park Service: A History," The George Wright Forum 3 (August 1983): 3-27.
55
Emilio Meinecke, "Memorandum on the Effects of Tourist Traffic on Plant Life, Particularly Big Trees, Sequoia National Park, California," May 1926, unpublished report, in "Vegetation," SNPA.
56
Sumner, "Biological Research and Man- agement," 5-16.
57
sections on wildlife and vegetation management in Superintendent Report, 1930-1941.
58
Emilio Meinecke, "Relocation of Public and Operator Developments in Sequoia National Park," a confidential report to the National Park Service, November 1944, in "Giant Forest," SNPA.
59
Yosemite National Park, Report on the Effects of Human Impact Upon the Giant Sequoias of the Mariposa and Tuolumne Groves—Yosemite National Park, report to Superintendent Preston, 1954, SNPA.
60
Carl W. Sharsmith, A Report on the Status, Changes and Ecology of Backcountry Mead- ows in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (1959), copy in SNP Library.
61
Richard Hartesveldt, "The Effects of Human Impact Upon Sequoia Gigantea and Its Environment in the Mariposa Grove" (1959), a preliminary report to the National Park Service, copy in Resources Management Office, SNP.
62
Stanley Cain and others, "A Vignette of Primitive America," Sierra Club Bulletin 48 (March 1963): 2-11.
63
U.S., Statutes at Large, 88:577.
64
David J. Simon and Joseph L. Sax, Our Common Lands (Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Asso- ciation, 1988), especially chapter 4.
65
SNP, Sierra District Backcountry Report, 1962-1972, in Sierra District Ranger's Office, Ash Mountain Headquarters, SNP.
66
SNP and U.S. Forest Service, A Use Limit Plan for Portions of the John Muir Wilder- ness and Kings Canyon National Park (March 16, 1973).
67
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapters 7 and 8.
68
John L. Harper, Mineral King.
69
SNP, Mineral King Comprehensive Man- agement Plan (November 1980).
70
SNP, Wildlife Management Plan (March 1987), 11-15.
71
SNP, Fire Management Plan (April 1984 revision), 21-31.
72
SNP, "Recommendations of the Giant Forest Development Meeting," (June 1960), in "Giant Forest Development," SNPA.
73
SNP, Giant Forest Development Concept Plan (April 1980).
Sasaki, Walker and Associates, Development Con- cept Plan, Giant Forest and Lodgepole, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California (1974).
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, chapter 9.
74
Interview of Harold Werner, SNP fisheries biologist, by Lary Dilsaver, October 16, 1985.
75
Interview of Tom Nichols, SNP fire man- agement specialist, by Lary Dilsaver, June 23, 1989.
1
Francis P. Farquhar, "A Scene of Wonder and Curiosity," in Yosemite: Saga of a Cen- tury 1864-1964 (Oakhurst, CA: Sierra Star Press, 1964), 11-12
Linda Wedel Greene, Yosemite: The Park and Its Resources: His- toric Resource Study; A History of the Dis- covery, Management and Physical Development of Yosemite National Park, California. (Wash- ington, D.C.: United States Department of Interior, National Park Service, 1987), I,32-34
David Robertson, West of Eden: A History of the Art and Literature of Yosemite (Yosemite National Park: Yosemite Natu- ral History Association and Wilderness Press, 1984), 4-5
Carl P. Russell, One Hundred Years in Yosemite: The Story of A Great National Park and Its Friends (Yosemite National Park: Yosemite Natural History Association, 1959), 48-50
Margaret Sanborn, Yosemite: Its Discovery, Its Won- ders and Its People (New York: Random House, 1981), 79-81.
2
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 34-35
Bill and Mary Hood, "Yosemite's First Photographers," in Yosemite Saga, 49-52
Hans Huth, Nature and the American: Three Centuries of Changing Attitudes (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Califor- nia Press, 1957), 144-146
Huth, "Yosemite: The History of an Idea," Sierra Club Bulletin 33 (March 1948): 64-65.
3
The Mariposa Democrat, August 5, 1856
Ansel F. Hall and reprinted under the title, "The Early Days in Yosemite," in The California Historical Society Quarterly I (Jan- uary 1923): 274.
letter from Raymond to Conness is quoted in Huth, "Yosemite," 67.
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream 1850-1915 (Santa Barbara and Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1981, paperback reprint), 173.
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 51- 53
Huth, "Yosemite," 68
Sanborn, Yosem- ite, 99
Starr, California Dream, 175-82.
4
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, III, Appendix D.
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 61.
Huth, "Yosemite," 68
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The Ameri- can Experience (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), 28-30.
5
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 40-45
Russell, One Hundred Years, 92-94
Sanborn, Yosem- ite, 81-87
Shirley Sargent, Yosemite and Its Innkeepers: The Story of a Great Park and Its Chief Concessionaires (Yosemite: Flying Spur Press, 1975), 11-12.
6
letter written by William E. Boardman to Benjamin Davis Wilson, July 21, 1861 (WN1186), located in the B. D. Wilson Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Califor- nia.
Francis P. Farquhar, edi- tor, The Ralston-Fry Wedding and The Wed- ding Journey to Yosemite, May 20, 1858 (Ber- keley: The Friends of the Bancroft Library, 1961)
Olive Logan entitled "Does It Pay to Visit Yo Semite?" reprinted in Yosemite Saga, 13-15.
7
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 78, 89-91
Russell, One Hundred Years, 61-63
Sanborn, Yosemite, 198-199.
8
Bancroft's Tour- ist Guide: Yosemite, San Francisco and Around the Bay (South) (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft and Co., 1871), 9-10.
Charles Nord- hoff, California, For Health, Pleasure, and Residence: A Book for Travelers and Settlers (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1872).
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study I, 80-97
Russell, One Hundred Years, 93-97
Margaret Schlichtmann, "Mem- ories of the Big Oak Flat Road," in Yosem- ite Saga, 29-31.
9
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study I, 115- 117
Russell, One Hundred Years, 93-94
Sanborn, Yosemite, 94-98
Sargent, Innkeepers, 12-13.
10
"Yosem- ite National Park" file, Ephemera Collec- tion, Rare Books Department, Huntington Library.
Greene, Yosemite Re- source Study, I, 122-132, 126-127, 133, 135-138
Russell, One Hundred Years, 101- 106
Sanborn, Yosemite, 83-91.
11
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 69-77 and 89-98
Russell, One Hundred Years, 150-151
Sanborn, Yosemite, 99-100.
12
Walter E. Dennison, compiler, Information for the Use of Yosemite Visitors (Sacramento: James J. Ayres, Supt. State Printing, 1886), 9-13.
H. M. Barton, A Trip to the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees, California (Dublin: Ponsonby and Weldrick, 1885), 7.
W. F. Butler, Far Out; Rovings Retold (London: Wm. Isbister, Ltd., 1880)
Constance F. Gordon Cumming, Granite Crags (London and Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1884)
13
Greene,Yosemite Resource StudyI, 126-132 & 156-157
Russell, One Hundred Years, 101- 103 & 111
Sargent, Innkeepers, 14.
14
J. K. Barnard's man- agement, consult Barnard's Hotel and Cot- tages, Yosemite Valley, California (n.p., 189?).
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 126-133
Russell, One Hundred Years, 99-101.
15
Charles Nordhoff, California (n.p.: Ten Speed Press, 1973, paperback reprint), 71.
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 145-146
Russell, One Hundred Years, 106-07.
16
C. F. G. Cumming, Granite Crags, 127.
C. F. G. Cumming, 68-69
Barton, Trip to the Yosemite, 8-9.
Janet Jacks, May 1885, in Family Papers, Box 1, David Jacks Collection, Huntington Library
Brantz Meyer to Cornelia (Poor) Meyer, June 28, 1872 (HM 21313), Hun- tington Library
Lilias Napier Rose Robinson, Our Trip to the Yosemite Valley and Sierra Nevada Range (London: J. Mar- tine and Sons, 1883).
17
Barton, Trip to the Yosemite, 25, the Jacks diary (Jacks Collec- tion), 17
Butler, Far Out; Ravings Retold, 137.
"On the Fourth Raymond Excursion to Colorado, New Mexico and California," a manuscript diary kept by Amy T. Bridges in 1882 (HM 48977), Huntington Library
Reverend J. M. Buckley, Two Weeks in the Yosemite and Vicinity (New York: Nelson and Phillips, 1873)
C. F. G. Cumming, Granite Crags; and Brantz Meyer to Cornelia (Poor) Meyer, June 28, 1872 (HM 21313), Huntington Library.
18
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 69-77, 100-102, 258-259, and 289-96
Holway Jones, John Muir and the Sierra Club: The Battle for Yosemite (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1965), 33-36
Russell, One Hundred Years, 150-152
Shirley Sargent, Galen Clark, Yosemite Guardian (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1964), 73-75 and 129-131.
19
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 289-296
Jones, Muir and Sierra Club, 36-43
Sargent, Clark, 136-137.
20
"Amateur Management of the Yosemite Scenery," in The Century Magazine 40 (September 1890): 797-798.
"The Case of the Yosemite Valley," The Century Magazine 39 (January 1890): 494-495
Stephen Fox, John Muir and His Legacy: The American Conservation Move- ment (Boston: Little, Brown, 1981), 86-88 and 97-99
Jones, Muir and Sierra Club, 43-44
Sanborn, Yosemite, 227-228.
21
Muir are "The Treas- ures of the Yosemite" and "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park" which appeared in The Century Magazine 40 (August 1890): 483-500
40 (Sep- tember 1890): 656-667
Fox, Muir and His Legacy, 104-107
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 304-309
Jones, Muir and Sierra Club, 44-47
Richard J. Orsi, '"Wilderness Saint' and 'Robber Baron': The Anomalous Partnership of John Muir and the Southern Pacific Company for the Preservation of Yosemite National Park," The Pacific Historian 29 (Summer/ Fall 1985): 136-156.
22
Michael P. Cohen, The History of the Sierra Club, 1892-1970. (San Francisco: Sierra dub, 1988), 8-22
Greene, Yosemite Resource StudyI, 402-412
Jones, Muir and Sierra Club, 55-80
Sanborn, Yosemite, 229-36
Orsi, "The Anomalous Partnernship."
23
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 318-341 and 370-374
H. Duane Hampton, How the U.S. Cavalry Saved Our National Parks (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1971), 130-63.
24
Earl Pomeroy, In Search of the Golden West: The Tourist in Western America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957), 112-13.
Pomeroy, 112-124.
25
Alfred Runte entitled "Yosemite Valley Rail- road: Highway of History, Pathway of Promise," printed in Runte's informative study, Trains of Discovery: Western Railroads and the National Parks (Flagstaff, AZ: North- land Press, 1984), 60-75.
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 388-390 and 513-516.
Sierra Railway Com- pany and Hetch Hetchy and Yosemite Val- ley Railway, In Old Tuolumne (n.p., n.d.)
Yosemite Valley Railroad, Yosemite The New Way Open All Year (San Francisco: Bolte & Braden Co., c. 1907)
Oliver W. Leh- mer, Yosemite National Park (Chicago: Poole Bros., 1912).
26
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 433-439.
Pomeroy, Golden West, 125-131 and 146-151.
27
Pomeroy, Golden West, 13-16
Stephen Merrit, "From Ocean to Ocean! Or Across and Around the Country: Being an Account of the Raymond and Whit- comb Pacific, Northwest and Alaska Ex- cursion of 1892," II, 2 (HM 53278), respe- ctively, both in the Huntington Library.
28
Lehmer, Yosemite National Park
Yosemite Valley Rail- road Company, Yosemite The New Way, respectively.
Miami Lodge on the Road to Yosemite (San Francisco: J. C. Mar- shall, 1915)
Andrew Jackson Wells, The Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees of California (San Francisco: Southern Pacific Railroad Passenger De- partment, 1907).
29
Sargent, Inn- keepers, 19 and 22.
Sargent, 17-24
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study I, 351-352
30
Sargent, Innkeepers, 27,38, and 53.
Sargent, 35-62
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study, I, 470-472.
31
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study I, 446-449 and 516-517
Sargent, Innkeepers, 26-28.
D. J. Foley, editor of The Yosemite Tourist, provides a contemporary descrip- tion of the valley's tourist industry in Foley's Yosemite Souvenir and Guide (Yosem- ite, CA: D. J. Foley, 1908, eighth edi- tion), 66-71.
32
William Lee Pop- ham, Yosemite Valley Romance (Louisville, Kentucky: The World Supply Co., 1911), 3.
Greene, Yosemite Resource Study I, 349-354, 462-466, and 472-480.
1
Novak, Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825-1875 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).
Herbert Hovencamp, Science and Religion in Ame- rica, 1800-1860 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978).
2
Kevin Starr, Americans and the Califor- nia Dream, 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), 183.
3
William H. Goetzmann, Explora- tion & Empire: The Explorer and the Scien- tist in the Winning of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1978; originally 1966), 355-89
Michael L. Smith, Pacific Visions: California Scientists and the Environment, 1850-1915 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
4
John F. Sears, "Doing Niagara Falls in the Nine- teenth Century," Niagara: Two Centuries of Changing Attitudes (Washington, D.C.: The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1985), 103-115
Kenneth Myers, The Cats- kills: Painters, Writers, and Tourists in the Mountains, 1820-1895 (Yonkers, NY: The Hudson River Museum of Westchester, 1987).
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979).
5
James Mason Hutchings, "The Yo-Ham- i-te Valley," Hutchings' California Magazine 1 (July 1856): 1-8.
6
Joseph Hutchinson to his father, June 7, 1859, typescript, No. 979.447 Y-1-28, Yosemite Research Library: 14.
7
Franz Stenzel, James Madison Alden, Yan- kee Artist of the Pacific Coast, 1854-1860(Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum, 1975), 110-14.
8
David Robertson, West of Eden: A His- tory of the Art and Literature of Yosemite (Yosemite: Yosemite Natural History Association and the Wilderness Press, 1984), 9-11
Marjorie Dakin Arkelian, "Artists in Yosemite," The Ameri- can West: The Magazine of Western History 15 (July/August 1978): 39.
9
Jeanne Van Nostrand, The First Hundred Years of Painting in California, 1775-1875 (San Francisco: John Howell Books, 1980)
Edan Milton Hughes, Artists in Cali- fornia, 1786-1940 (San Francisco: Hughes Publishing Company, 1986).
10
George Tirrell's Vernal Falls, September 3, 1858
Cap of Liberty and Nevada Falls, September 1858, are now owned by the Yosemite Museum (Nos. 1945, 1946).
James Mason Hutchings, "The Great Yo-Semite Valley, "Hutchings' California Magazine 4 (March 1860): 386.
11
James (Joseph) Lamson, "Nine Years' Adventures in California, From Septem- ber 1852 to September 1861, with Excur- sions into Oregon, Washington, and Nevada," entries for June 29 and 30, 1859, California Historical Society.
Hutchings, "The Great Yo-Semite Val- ley," 394.
Lamson's watercolor Mount Broderick and the Nevada Fall, 1859, is in the California Historical Society Collection.
12
James H. Lawrence, "Discovery of the Nevada Fall," Overland Monthly 4 (October 1884): 370.
13
Carl P. Russell, One Hundred Years in Yosemite: The Story of a Great Park and Its Friends (Yosemite Natural History Association, 1968; originally 1931).
14
Jeanne Van Nostrand, "Thomas A. Ayres: Artist-Argonaut of California," Califor- nia Historical Society Quarterly 20 (Sep- tember 1941): 277.
15
Peter E. Palmquist, "Yosemite's First Ste- reo Photographer, Charles Leander Weed (1824-1903)," Stereo World 6 (September- October 1979): 8, 10-11.
16
"Art Items," New York Evening Post (December 11, 1862), 2.
17
Benjamin P. Avery, "Art Beginnings on the Pacific, Part I," Overland Monthly 1 (July 1868): 34.
18
Benjamin P. Avery, "Art Beginnings on the Pacific, Part II," Overland Monthly 1 (August 1868): 114.
19
Gordon Hendricks, Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West (New York: Harry N. Abrams, in association with the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, 1974), 154-5
Nancy Anderson, Albert Bierstadt: Cho-looke, The Yosemite Fall (San Diego: Timken Art Gallery, exhibition catalogue, May 3-June 15, 1986), n.p.
20
Hans Huth, "Yosemite: The Story of an Idea," Sierra Club Bulletin 33 (March 1948): 66-7.
21
"Local Art Items," San Francisco Bullein (May 25, 1869), 3.
22
Kennedy Quarterly 5 (New York: Kennedy Galleries, May 1965): 162.
Thomas Hill's Yosemite Valley, 1864, was carried by North Point Gallery, San Francisco, in 1989.
23
Alfred C. Harrison, Jr., William Keith: The Saint Mary's College Collection (Moraga, Cal- ifornia: Hearst Art Gallery, Saint Mary's College, 1988), 5, 48
notes 55
56
24
Weston Naef, Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the Ameri- can West, 1860-1885 (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975), 34-41.
25
Harriet Errington to Lot- tie, August 10, 1865, in "Letters and Jour- nal from California, 1864-65," typescript, Yosemite Research Library, 60
Josiah D. Whitney, The Yosemite Book (New York: Julius Bien, 1868), 12.
26
Whitney, The Yosemite Book, 12-13 and plates 25-28.
27
Laura Wood Roper, "The Yosemite Val- ley and the Mariposa Big Trees: A Prelim- inary Report (1865) by Frederick Law Olmsted," Landscape Architecture 43 (Octo- ber 1952): 12.
Laura Wood Roper, FLO: A Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 1973), 287.
28
Olmsted's letter of August 9, 1865, is reprinted in Huth, "Yosemite," 70.
30
Constance F. Gordon-Cumming, Granite Crags (Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1884), 282-3.
31
Peter Palmquist, "California in Stereo 1850-1950," Return to El Dorado: A Cen- tury of California Stereographs (Riverside: California Museum of Photography, Bulletin 5, 1986), 6.
32
Fritiof M. Fryxell, "The Thomas Moran Art Collection of the National Parks," Yosemite Nature Notes 15 (August 1936): 60.
33
James D. Smillie, "Diaries," entry for June 30, 1870, Roll 2849, Frame 1003, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Smillie saw Samuel Colman's California sketches on June 30.
34
"Art Notes," Overland Monthly 15 (August 1875): 201
Gordon-Cum- ming, Granite Crags, 282.
35
Memoir, Gilbert Munger, Landscape Artist, 1836-1903 (New York: DeVinne Press, 1904), 11
Hildegard Cummings, "Gil- bert Munger on the Trail," The William Ben- ton Museum of Art Bulletin no. 10 (Storrs: University of Connecticut, 1982), 7-11.
36
Smillie, "Diaries," entries for July 1-Aug- ust21, 1870, Roll 2849, Frames 1215-1240.
37
"Art Notes," Overland Monthly 12 0une 1874): 575.
38
Marjorie Dakin Arkelian, Thomas Hill: The Grand View (Oakland: The Oakland Museum Art Department, 1980), 23-26.
39
C.D. Robinson, "Painting a Yosemite Pano- rama," Overland Monthly 22, second series (September 1893): 243-256.
40
Dwight Miller, California Landscape Paint- ing, 1860-1885: Artists Around Keith and Hill (Exhibition Catalogue, Stanford Uni- versity Art Gallery, December 9, 1975- February 29, 1976), 12.
41
Brother Cornelius, Keith, Old Master of Cal- ifornia (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1942), 217.
42
Robert Cahn and Robert Glenn Ketch- urn, American Photographers and The National Parks (New York: Viking Press, 1981), 37 and catalog.
44
"Art in California," Alta California (Octo- ber 30, 1859), 1.
45
Ted Orland, Man & Yosemite: A Photo- grapher's View of the Early Years (Santa Cruz, California: The Image Continuum Press, 1985).
46
Jewett's Yosemite Falls is at the Newark Art Museum, New Jersey
47
Marjorie Dakin Arkelian, William Hahn, Genre Painter, 1829-1887 (Oakland: The Oakland Museum, 1976), 27.
48
Charles Nordhoff, Cali- fornia: For Health, Pleasure, and Residence. A Book for Travellers and Settlers (New York: Harper & Bros., 1872), 69.
49
Paul Hickman and Peter Palmquist, "J.J. Reilly, Photographer and Manufac- turer of All Kinds of Stereoscopic Views, Part II," Stereo World 11 (January/February 1985): 10,12.
50
Benjamin F. Taylor, Between the Gates (Chi- cago: S.C Griggs & Co., 1878), 216.
51
Palmquist, "California in Stereo," 6.
52
Peter B. Hales, William Henry Jackson and the Transformation of the American Landscape (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), xii, 268-9.
53
Photographs RG57-PS(28-43), RG200-S-JH (10-38), and RG273-JH(78-82), National Archives, Washington, D.C. Hillers's Yose- mite photographs are mentioned in the 1893 Annual Report of the U.S. Geologi- cal Survey.
54
Peter E. Palmquist, Lawrence & House- worth/Thomas Houseworth & Co., A Unique View of the West, 1860-1886 (Columbus, Ohio: National Stereoscopic Association, 1980), 36-7.
55
Peter E. Palmquist, Carleton E. Watkins, Photographer of the American West (Albu- querque: University of New Mexico Press and the Amon Carter Museum, 1983), 51-2.
56
Sarah A.J. Locke, "Diary of Events for a Trip to Yo Semite, June 5-21, 1879," type- script, 9, Yosemite Research Library.
57
James Mason Hutchings, In the Heart of the Sierras (Oakland: Pacific Press Publishing Co., 1886), 351.
58
Adam Clark Vroman, "Southern Califor- nia and Yosemite Valley, 1900-1901," al- bum of original prints, Center for Crea- tive Photography, Tucson.
59
Carleton Watkins, 1864 Notebook, Miscel- laneous Watkins Papers, Bancroft Library.
Whitney, The Yosemite Book
Whitney, et al., Geology of California. I. Report of Progress and Synopsis of the Field- Work, from 1860 to 1864 (Philadelphia: Cax- ton Press of Sherman & Co., 1865).
60
Gordon Hendricks, Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1975), 17-18
Mary V. Jessup Hood and Robert Bartlett Haas, "Eadweard Muybridge's Yosemite Valley Photographs, 1867-1872," Califor- nia Historical Society Quarterly 42 (March 1963): 17.
61
Smillie, "Diaries," August 26, 1871, Roll 2849, Frames 1228, 1243-47.
62
Hickman and Palmquist, "J.J. Reilly," 10.
63
Arkelian, Thomas Hill, 37.
64
Hutchings, In the Heart of the Sierras, 350.
65
Thomas Hill, "Notebook with Entries Dated 1884-1887," Hill Memorabilia Col- lection, the Crocker Art Museum, Sacra- mento.
66
Charles D. Robinson, "The Artists of Cali- fornia," list enclosed in a letter to Mr. Newbegin, San Rafael, August 8, 1927, n.p., Bancroft Library (copy at Oakland Museum Library).
67
J. Gray Sweeney, American Painting at The Tweed Museum of Art and Glensheen (Duluth: The University of Minnesota, 1982), 52.
68
"Art Notes," San Francisco Morning Call (January 18, 1880).
69
Clark's Yosemite Valley was copyrighted by Charles H. Crosby in Massachusetts in 1872 and 1873, and by D.S. Norris in 1873 (copyright no. 4425, Library of Congress).
70
Paul Hickman and Terence Pitts, George Fiske, Yosemite Photographer (Flagstaff, Arizona: Northland Press in cooperation with the Center for Creative Photogra- phy, 1980), 15.
71
Katherine Mather Littell, Chris Jorgen- sen, California Pioneer Artist (Sonora, Cali- fornia: Fine Arts Research Publishing Co., 1988).
72
Virginia Best Adams, "Best's Studio," in Jack Gyer, ed., Yosemite: Saga of a Cen- tury, 1864-1964 (Oakhurst, California: The Sierra Star Press, 1964), 46-7.
73
Robertson, West of Eden, 94-5, 134-6.
1
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln, Nebr., 1979).
2
Anne F. Hyde, "An American Vision: Far Western Landscape and the Formation of National Culture, 1820-1920" (Ph.D dis- sertation, University of California, Berke- ley, 1988), 401-77.
3
Stephen Fox, John Muir and His Legacy: The American Conservation Movement (Boston, 1981), 14.
4
Olive Logan, "Does It Pay to Visit Yose- mite?" Galaxy 10 (October 1870): 498
Mir- iam Leslie, California: A Pleasure Trip From Gotham to the Golden Gate (New York, 1877), 213.
5
George A. Crofutt, Crofutt's Transcontinen- tal Tourist's Guide (New York, 1871), 192
N.C Carnall, California Guide for Tourists and Settlers (San Francisco, 1889), 27
Leslie, California, 234.
6
Carl R. Russell, One Hundred Years in Yose- mite: The Story of A Great National Park (Yosemite Natural History Association, 1957), 61.
7
Susan Coolidge, "A Few Hints on the Cal- ifornia Journey," Scribners 6 (May 1873): 26
Caroline M. Churchill, Over the Purple Hills, Or, Sketches of Travel in California (Denver, 1884), 117.
8
Churchill, Purple Hills, 118-19
Rose Pen- der, A Lady's Experiences in the Wild West in 1883 (Lincoln, Nebr., 1978), 101.
9
Russell, One Hundred Years, 93-109
Robert Shankland, Steve Mather of the National Parks (New York, 1951), 131.
10
To San Francisco and Back (n.p., 1868), 94
Churchill, Purple Hills, 144.
11
Russell, One Hundred Years, 111
John Ise, Our National Park Policy (Baltimore, 1961), 72.
12
Hyde, "An American Vision, 418-470.
13
Muir, quoted in Fox, John Muir, 84
Charles Nordhoff, California for Health, Pleasure, and Residence (New York, 1872), 69
Logan, "Does It Pay," 505.
14
Coolidge, "A Few Hints," 30
Susie C. Clark, The Round Trip From the Hub to the Golden Gate (Boston, 1890), 125
Logan, "Does It Pay," 501.
15
John H. Beadle, The Undeveloped West: or, Five Years in the Territories (Philadelphia, 1873), 251
Pender, A Lady's Experiences, 32
Clark, The Round Trip, 143.
16
Ise, Park Policy, 73-74.
17
Russell, One Hundred Years, 61
Ise, Park Policy, 208-11
Churchill, Purple Hills, 120.
18
John B. Rae, The Road and Car in Amer- ican Life (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 48-50
John A. Jakle, The Tourist: Travel in Twentieth Century North America (Omaha, 1985), 101-2.
19
Richard A. Bartlett, Yellowstone: A Wilder- ness Besieged (Tucson, 1985), 82-86
Tom Dillon, Over the Trails of Glacier National Park (St. Paul, 1912), 6
Shankland, Steve Mather, 63-66.
20
Rae, Road and Car, 50
James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), 129-131.
21
Warren James Belasco, Americans on the Road: From Autocamp to Motel, 1910-1945 (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 18-22
James Montgomery Hagg, Boulevards All the Way —Maybe! (New York, 1925), 138.
22
Vernon McGill, Diary of a Motor Journey from Chicago to Los Angeles (Los Angeles, 1922), xvi.
23
Herbert A. Jump, The Yosemite: A Spiritual Interpretation (Boston, 1916), 1.
24
Frank E. Brumner, Outlook 137 (July 16, 1924): 437.
25
Muir, Our National Parks, 1
J. Horace McFarland, "Are National Parks Worth- while?" Sierra Club Bulletin 8 (January 1912): 236.
26
Mary Roberts Rinehart, Through Glacier Park: Seeing America First with Howard Eaton (Boston, 1916), 24-25
Grace Galla- tin Seton-Thompson, A Woman Tenderfoot (London, 1901), 4.
27
Belasco, Americans on the Road, 106-113
Earl Pomeroy, In Search of the Golden West: The Tourist in Western America (New York, 1957), 198-205
Emerson Hough, Yellow- stone National Park (n.p., 1922), 5
R.L. Duff us, "America Works Hard at Play," New York Times Magazine, September 1, 1929, 21.
28
Shankland, Steve Mather, 6-7.
29
Flink, Automobile Age, 178-180
Shankland, Steve Mather, 65.
30
Runte, National Parks, 90-95
Jenks Cameron, The National Park Service: Its History, Activities, and Organization (New York, 1922), 12.
31
Shankland, Steve Mather, 16-23.
32
Shankland, Steve Mather, 56-57
Ise, Park Policy, 194-195.
33
Ronald A. Foresta, America's National Parks and Their Keepers (Washington, D.C., 1984), 25
William C. Everhart, The National Park Service (Boulder, Col., 1983), 16
Stephen Mather, "Progress in the National Parks," Sierra Club Bulletin 11 (January 1920): 5.
34
Peter J. Schmitt, Back To Nature: The Arcadian Myth in Urban America (New York, 1969), 161.
35
Flink, Automobile Age, 171-173
Shankland, Steve Mather, 146.
36
Flink, Automobile Age, 173
Shankland, Steve Mather, U7.
37
Shankland, Steve Mather, 145.
38
Ise, Park Policy, 196.
39
Hyde, "An American Vision," 498-504.
40
Flink, Automobile Age, 174
Russell, One Hundred Years, 69.
41
Ise, Park Policy, 203
Ansel F. Hall, Hand- book of Yosemite National Park (New York, 1921), 45.
42
Foresta, National Parks, 27
Shankland, Steve Mather, 131-32
Hall, Handbook, 45.
43
James E. Rother, "Three Weeks in the San Joaquin—Kings," typescript in the Ban- croft Library, 1919,27
Hall, Handbook, 45.
44
James Bryce, "National Parks—The Need of the Future," Sierra Club Bulletin 9 (Janu- ary 1913): 29
Charles A. Noble, "The Sierra Club Outing of 1919," Sierra Club Bulletin 11 (September 1920): 15.
45
R. B. Mitchell in Proceedings of the National Park Conference (Washington, D.C., 1912), 109.
46
Ise, Park Policy, 182
Shirley Sargent, Yose- mite and its Innkeepers: The Story of A Great Park and Its Chief Concessionaires (Yosemite, 1975), 70-71.
47
Shankland, Steve Mather, 133-135
Sar- gent, Yosemite, 84-85.
48
Hall, Handbook, 307.
49
Stephen Mather, "Sieur De Monts and Yosemite: The Problem of Our National Parks," Outlook 15 (April 5, 1917): 750.
50
Jeffrey Limerick, Nancy Ferguson, and Richard Oliver, America's Grand Resort Hotels (New York, 1979), 221-223.
51
Limerick, Ferguson, and Oliver, Resort Ho- tels, 221-223
Hyde, "An American Vi- sion," 478-481
Curry Company, The Ah- wahnee, Situated in Yosemite National Park (n.p., 1928).
52
Lewis Gannett, Sweet Land (Garden City, N.Y., 1934), 161.
1
E. Raymond Hall, "Joseph Grinnell (1877 to 1939)," Journal of Mammalogy 20 (No- vember 14, 1939): 409, 411.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Grinnell to Lane, October 7, 1914, and attached Prospectus, "Natural History Sur- vey of Yosemite National Park," File 12-13, pt. 1, Yosemite National Park, Privileges, Joseph Grinnell, Central Files, 1907-39, Records of the National Park Service, Record Group 79, National Archives, Washington, D.C (hereinafter cited as R.G. 79).
5
Holway R. Jones, John Muir and the Sierra Club: The Battle for Yosemite (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1965).
6
Grinnell to Lane, October 7, 1914, and attached Prospectus, File 12-13, pt. 1, R.G. 79.
7
Bryant to Grinnell, June 18, 1917, and Grinnell to Bryant, June 19,1917, both in the Bryant File, Records of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of Califor- nia, Berkeley (hereinafter cited as MVZ).
8
Joseph Grinnell and Tracy I. Storer, "Ani- mal Life as an Asset of National Parks," Science 44 (September 15, 1916): 375-380.
9
Ibid., 379.
10
Hall, "Joseph Grinnell," 413.
11
Mather to Grinnell, October 3, 1916, Mather File, MVZ.
12
Grinnell to W.B. Lewis, July 8, 1920, Lewis File, MVZ.
13
Grinnell and Storer, "Animal Life as an Asset of National Parks," 377-78.
14
Thomas R. Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 79-80
Horace M. Albright, "The National Park Service's Policy on Preda- tory Mammals," Journal of Mammalogy 12 (May 1931): 185-86.
John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Bal- timore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961), 592-97.
15
Grinnell and Storer, "Animal Life as an Asset of National Parks," 377.
16
Grinnell to Lewis, November 25, 1925, Lewis File, MVZ.
17
Joseph Grinnell and Tracy I. Storer, Ani- mal Life in the Yosemite: An Account of the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in a Cross Section of the Sierra Nevada (Berke- ley: University of California Press, 1924).
18
Grinnell to E.P. Leavitt, October 4, 1927, File 710, pt. 1, Yosemite Fauna, General, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, R.G. 79.
Grinnell further published his "Open Let- ter" as "Recommendations Concerning the Treatment of Large Mammals in Yo- semite National Park," Journal of Mammal- ogy 9 (February 1928): 76.
19
Grinnell to Lewis, September 14, 1920, Lewis File, MVZ.
20
Hall, "Joseph Grinnell," 417.
21
Horace M. Albright as told to Robert Cahn, The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-33 (Salt Lake City and Chicago: Howe Broth- ers, 1985), 121-22.
22
Grinnell to Mather, June 6, 1919, Mather File, MVZ.
23
Bryant to Grinnell, July 19, 1919, and Grinnell to Bryant, July 29, 1919, both Bryant File, MVZ.
24
Carl P. Russell, One Hundred Years in Yosemite: The Story of a Great Park and Its Friends (Yosemite: Yosemite Natural His- tory Association, 1968), 189.
25
Bryant to Grinnell, June 9, 1920, Bryant File, MVZ.
26
Hall, "Joseph Grinnell," 416.
27
Grinnell to Bryant, June 9, 1922, Bryant File, MVZ.
28
A.E. Borell, "Yosemite Elk Herd Moved to Owens Val- ley," Yosemite Nature Notes 12 (December 1933): 107-109.
29
U.S., Depart- ment of the Interior, National Park Ser- vice, Research and Education in the National Parks, by Harold C Bryant and Wallace W. Atwood, Jr. (Washington, D.C.: Gov- ernment Printing Office, 1932).
30
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (2d ed., rev.; Lin- coln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), 28-32
Hans Huth, "Yosemite: The Story of an Idea," Sierra Club Bulletin 33 (March 1948): 47-78.
31
Hall, "Joseph Grinnell," 411.
32
Ann and Myron Sutton, "The Man from Yosemite," National Parks Magazine 28 (July-September 1954): 102-105, 131-32.
33
U.S., Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fauna of the National Parks of the United States: A Preliminary Survey, by George M. Wright, Joseph S. Dixon, and Ben H. Thompson (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933)
U.S., Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fauna of the National Parks of the United States: Wildlife Management, by George M. Wright and Ben H. Thompson (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1935).
34
U.S., Department of the Interior, Advi- sory Board on Wildlife Management, Wild- life Management in the National Parks, by A.S. Leopold, et al., Report to the Secre- tary, March 4, 1963, 4.
35
Grinnell and Storer, "Animal Life as an Asset of National Parks," 377
Wright, et al., Fauna of the National Parks (1933), 1
Leopold Committee, Report, 5.
37
Grinnell to Robert Sterling Yard, July 17, 1915, Yard File, MVZ.
38
Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife
Alfred Runte, Yosemite: The Embattled Wilderness (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990).
Grinnell's essays is Joseph Grinnell's Phi- losophy of Nature: Selected Writings of a Western Naturalist (Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 1943).
1
Layfayette H. Bunnell, Discovery of the Yosemite in 1851 (Golden, Colorado: Outbooks, 1980)
Fran- cis P. Farquhar, History of the Sierra Nevada (Berkeley: University of California, 1965)
Bil Gilbert, Westering Man: The Life of Joseph Walker, Master of the Frontier (New York: Atheneum, 1983)
Carl Parcher Russell, 100 Years in Yosemite (Yosemite: Yosemite Natural History Association, 1968).
William C. Everhart, The National Park Service (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983)
John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Bal- timore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961)
Holway R. Jones, John Muir and the Sierra Club: The Battle for Yosemite (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1965)
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lin- coln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1979).
2
William C. Tweed, Park- itecture: A History of Rustic Building Design in the National Park System: 1916-1942 (Typewritten MS, 1978), 26, on file, Yosemite National Park Research Library.
3
Stephen T. Mather, Annual Report of the Superintendent of National Parks to the Secre- tary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year ended June 30,1917 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917), 60
Mather, Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1918, 45
James Delgado, "National Register of Historic Places Inventory- Nomination Form: Yosemite Hydroelec- tric Power Plant," typewritten MS, Sep- tember 1981, on file, Yosemite National Park Research Library.
4
Mather, Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service ...for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1918, 45
Annual Report of the Superintendent of National Parks ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1916, 14-15.
5
James Delgado, "National Register ... Nomination Form: Yosemite Hydroelec- tric Power Plant"
Mather, Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1918, 45.
6
Mather, Report of the Director of the National Park Service ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30,1917, Gabriel Sovulewski, "Monthly Supervisor's Reports," November 1916, December 1916, and various reports, 1917, on file, Yosemite National Park Research Library.
7
Tweed, Parkitecture, 30-31
Mather, Report of the Director of the National Park Serv- ice ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1920, 113.
8
Hans Huth, Nature and the American (Berkeley: University of California, 1957)
Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 3rd ed. 1982)
Runte, National Parks: The Amer- ican Experience
Harold Kirker, California's Architectural Frontier (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1960).
9
Mather, Report of the Direc- tor of the National Park Service ... for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1919, 197.
10
W.B. Lewis, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, March, 1925," 13.
11
Lewis, "Superintendent's Annual Report, 1924," 14.
12
Lewis, "Superintendent's Annual Report, 1923," 7 and 28.
13
Lewis, "Superintendent's Annual Report, 1925," 3.
14
Lewis, "Superintendent's Monthly Re- port, October, 1925," 8.
15
Gabriel Sovulewski, "The Story of Camp- grounds in Yosemite Valley," Yosemite Nature Notes 16 (November 1937): 81-4.
16
Ibid.
Donald Bertram Tresidder, "The National Parks: A Public Health Problem" (Ph.D. dissertation, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 1927), 119.
17
"Descriptions of Sewer Systems in Yosem- ite National Park," November 1931, type- written MS, box 11, Yosemite National Park Research Library-Records Center (hereinafter referred to as "YNPRL-RC").
18
George V. Bell, Report of the Acting Super- intendent of the Yosemite National Park to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year ended June 30,1915 (Washington: Govern- ment Printing Office, 1915), 6.
19
Tresidder, "The National Parks," 71.
21
Ibid.
22
Tresidder, "The National Parks," 131.
23
E.M. Hilton, "Yosemite Valley Sewage Treatment Plant," n.d., typewritten MS, Box 11, YNPRL-RC
24
Ibid.
25
Ibid.
CG. Thomson, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 1930," 2.
26
H.B. Hommon, 'Treatment and Disposal of Sewage in the National Parks," Ameri- can Journal of Public Health 25 (February 1935): 128-46.
27
Thomson, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, May 1934," 5.
28
Gabriel Sovulewski, "Monthly Supervi- sor's Report, May 1930," 2
Thomson, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, Aug- ust, 1932," 5.
29
Thomson, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, April 1934," 6-7
"Glacier Point Comfort Station" file, box 59, YNPRL-RC.
30
Lewis, "Superintendent's Annual Report, 1923," 6.
32
"Minutes of the Meeting at Indian Vil- lage, 1929," typewritten MS, YNPRL-RC, Box 8.
33
"Memorandum of Tentative Condusions in Regard to Certain Problems presented at Meetings of July 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, August 1 and 2," in Minutes of Yosemite National Park Committee of Expert Advi- sors, August2,1929,3, box 10, YNPRL-RC
34
Thomas C Vint to Superintendent, March 9,1928, "Landscaping" box, YNPRL-RC.
35
Ibid.
36
Thomson, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, April, 1931," n.p.
"Completion Report: Six Cabins, Indian Village," March 1932, Maintenance Office, Yosemite NP.
37
Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region 4, from Frank A. Kit- tredge, Superintendent, October 6, 1947, box 8, YNPRL-RC.
38
John C Paige, The Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Park Service 1933-1942: An Administrative History (Washington, D.C: National Park Service, 1985), 7-10.
39
Ibid.
40
"The Crisis in Civil Works," The Literary Digest 117 (February 3, 1934): 10
Florence Peterson, "CWA: A Candid Appraisal," Atlantic Monthly 153 (May 1934): 587-90.
41
Wayne W. Parrish, "CWA Ends After Brightening Up Nation," The Literary Digest 117 (April 21, 1934): 9, 50.
42
Justus S. Wardell, "The Federal Public Works Program," California Arts and Archi- tecture, October 1933.
43
Ibid.
44
J. A. Killalee, "Final Construction Report: Grading of the Tuolumne Meadows-Tioga Pass Section of the Tioga Road," January 22, 1936, box 51, YNPRL-RC.
45
Ibid.
46
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Exper- ience (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1979), 173
Michael P. Cohen, The History of the Sierra Club 1892-1970 (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988), 134-142
Ansel Adams, Ansel Adams: An Autobiography (Boston: Little, Brown and Company/New York Graphic Society, 1985), 154-156.
47
Lawrence C. Merriam, "Superintendent's Monthly Report, June, 1940."
48
Ibid.
1
John Muir, "A Rival of the Yosemite—The Canyon of the South Fork of the Kings River," Century 21 (April 1991): 77-82.
2
Lary Dilsaver and William Tweed, Chal- lenge of the Big Trees (Three Rivers, CA: Sequoia Natural History Association, 1990), ch. 7
Douglas Strong, "A History of Sequoia National Park" (Ph.D. disser- tation, Syracuse University, 1964), 63-292.
3
George Gibbs, Preliminary Plan for Devel- opment of Kings River Canyon for Recreation (San Francisco: United States Forest Serv- ice, California Region, November, 1933), found in Sequoia National Park (SNP) at the Ash Mountain Headquarters library.
4
Barry Mackintosh, "Harold Ickes and the National Park Service," Journal of Forest History 29 (April 1985): 78-84
William Colby, transcript of an interview by Cor- rinne Gibb, 51-56, Bancroft Library, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley.
5
Max Hayden, "Kings Canyon Becomes a National Park," an address to the Fresno Academy delivered during November 1968.
6
Mackintosh, "Harold Ickes and the National Park Service," 82.
7
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, ch. 7.
8
Frank Kittredge, "Kings Canyon National Park," (Unpublished memoir, Sequoia National Park archives, Box 39691, filed in chronological order, April 26, 1950).
9
Dyan Zaslowsky and the Wilderness Society, These Ameri- can Lands (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1986), especially 9-112
Irving Brant, Adventures in Conservation with Franklin D. Roosevelt (Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Publishing Company, 1988), 147-218.
10
B. F. Manbey to Frank Kittredge, Sequoia National Park archives, Box 425629, File 602-02 in chronological order: February 11, 28, March 8, 21, April 4,13, 26, May 4, 7,25, June 3,13, July 5,25, August 20, 30, 1938.
11
Brant, Adventures in Conservation, 165-168.
12
Brant, Adventures in Conservation, 162-172, 185-199.
13
Ibid.
14
Stuart B. Show, transcript of an inter- view by Amelia Fry, 176-211, Bancroft Library.
15
Brant, Adventures in Conservation, 198.
16
Brant, Adventures in Conservation, 203-205
Hay- den, "Kings Canyon Becomes a National Park"
Congressional Record, House, Vol. 84, Part 5, 76th Congress 1st Session (May 2, 1939), 5033-5045.
17
Hayden, "Kings Canyon Becomes a National Park," 8.
18
Ibid., 8-15.
19
Congressional Record, House, 5040.
20
Congressional Record, House, 5044.
21
Brant, Adventures in Conservation, 205-213.
22
Dilsaver and Tweed, Challenge of the Big Trees, ch. 8.
23
Show, interview by Amelia Fry, 207-208.
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