Notes

Notes
1
Maynard Geiger, Palóu's Life of Fray Junípero Serra (Washington, D.C: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1955), p. 252.
The Life and Times of Fray Junipero Serra, O.F.M. by Maynard Geiger (2 vols.; Washing- ton, D.C: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1959), 2:375-391.
2
Antonine Tibe- sar, ed., Writings of Junipero Serra (4 vols.; Washington, D.C: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1955-1966):4:259; and 1:171
Maynard Geiger and Harry Downie, entitled The History of the Development of the Buildings of Mission San Carlos, Carmel, California: 1771-1797, Mission Carmel Archives, Carmel.
3
Marie Pagliarulo, "The Restoration of Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Carmel, California: 1931-1967" (Mas- ter's Thesis, University of San Fran- cisco, 1968), p. 12.
4
Maynard Geiger, "Where is Serra Buried?" Provincial Annals, 24 (April 1962):124.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
7
Francis Farquhar, ed., Up and Down California in 1860-1864: The Journal of William H. Brewer (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930), pp. 106-107.
8
"Father Serra's Grave," Academy Scrapbook, 1 (October 1950): 102-103.
9
R. E. White, Padre Junípero Serra and the Mission Church of San Carlos del Carmelo (San Francisco: R. E. White, 1884), p. 22.
10
Geiger, "Where is Serra Buried?" Provincial Annals, 24 (October 1962):231-232.
12
Eric O'Brien, Padre Junípero Serra: Apostle, Legislator, Builder (Santa Bar- bara: The Serra Shop, 1949), p. 25
Eric O'Brien to Harry Downie, letter, 19 March 1945, Mission Car- mel Archives.
13
Serra's 1943 exhumation is from "The Act of the 1943 Exhumation of the Servant of God Fray lunípero Serra," compiled by Eric O'Brien, Mission Carmel Ar- chives, Carmel
"Where is Serra Buried?" a twelve-part article by Maynard Geiger in Provincial An- nals (October 1960-April 1964), espe- cially the following issues: 25 (April 1963): 120-123
25 (July 1963): 186-191
25 (October 1963): 250-255
26 (January 1964):76-80
26 (April 1964):142-146.
14
Geiger, "Where is Serra Buried?" 25 (April 1963):122.
15
Ibid., 25 (October 1963):253-254.
16
Geiger, Palóu's Life of Fray Junipero Serra, p. 235.
17
Ibid., p. 244.
18
Geiger, "Where is Serra Buried?" 26 (January 1964):77.
19
Ibid., 26 (April 1964):143.
20
Ibid., 26 (January 1964):77.
21
Ibid., 25 (July 1963):189, 191.
22
Ibid., 26 (January 1964):77.
23
Tomás Alvarez and Fernando Do- mingo, Saint Teresa of Avila (Burgos, Spain: Editorial Monte Carmelo, 1982), p. 122.
25
Maynard Geiger, "Beatification of Fray Junípero Serra," in Francis Weber, ed., Some Catholic Reminis- cences for the United States Bicentennial (Los Angeles: California Catholic Conference, 1976), p. 133.
26
"President Visits Carmel Mission," Monterey Peninsula Herald, 27 August 1956, p. 1
"Kennedy Denies Charges by Morse," ibid., 30 May 1960, p. 1
"Visit From the First Lady," Cen- tral California Register, 29 September 1966, p. 12.
27
Montereyen. seu Fres- nen. Beatificationis et Canonizationis Servi Dei luniperi Serra, sacerdotis pro- fessi O.F.M. (1784). Positio super vita et virtutibus ex officio concinnata, com- piled by Jacinto Fernández, O.F.M., Ph.D. (Vatican City: Vatican Polyglot Press, 1981).
28
Montereyen. seu Fresnen. Beatificationis et Canonizationis Servi Dei luniperi Serra, sacerdotis professi O.F.M. (1784). Relatio et vota sulla seduta dei Consultori dell' Uffico Storico (Vatican City: Vatican Polyglot Press, 1983), p. 9.
30
President Ronald Reagan to Most Rev. Thaddeus Shubsda, telegram, 19 August 1985, Mission Carmel Archives.
31
"Decretum. Montereyen. in California. Canonizationis Servi Dei luniperi Serra, sacerdotis professi, Ordinis Fratrum Mi- norum, 9 May 1985," Mission Carmel Archives.
32
Sr. Mary Boniface Dyrda to Martin Morgado, letters, 28 September 1987 and 25 February 1988, Mission Car- mel Archives
33
"Decretum. Montereyen. in California. Canonizationis Ven. Servi Dei luniperi Serra, sacerdotis professi, Ordinis Frat- rum Minorum, 11 December 1987," Mission Carmel Archives.
34
"A Visit to Carmel Mission," Origins: National Catholic Documentary Service, 17 (15 October 1987):311.
35
"Instruction of the Sacred Congrega- tion for the Causes of Saints, dated 20 July 1987," p. 1, Mission Carmel Archives.
36
Ibid., p. 4.
37
Ibid., p. 2.
38
"13 October 1987 Serra Exhuma- tion," Transcript, Mission Carmel Ar- chives.
39
"Decretum. Monterey en. in California. Canonizationis Ven. Servi Dei luniperi Serra, sacerdotis professi, Ordinis Frat- rum Minorum, 11 December 1987," Mission Carmel Archives.
40
Ibid.
41
"Unfading will be his memory" (Sirach 39:9), a Biblical quote used by Palóu to predict Serra's fame. Geiger, Palou's Life of Fray Junipero Serra, p. 257.
1
Patrick Tinloy, "Nevada Coun- ty's Chinese, Part 1," Nevada County Historical Society Bulletin, 25 (January 1971): 5
Robert and Grace Slyter, "Historical Notes of the Early Wash- ington, Nevada County, California Mining District," unpublished type- script, no date, photographs be- tween pp. 6-7.
2
Gunter Barth, Bitter Strength (Cambridge, Mass.: Har- vard University Press), p. 1ll
David R. Chan, "The Tragedy and Trauma of the Chinese Exclusion Laws,: The Life, Influence and the Role of the Chi- nese in the United States, 1850-1870 (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society, 1976), pp. 193-306
Jack Chen, The Chinese of America (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980), pp. 29, 59-64, 146-153, 176-184
Rose Hum Lee, The Chinese in the United States of America (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960), pp. 63-64, 77, 162
Victor and Brett de Bary Nee, Long Time Californ' (Bos- ton: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974), pp. 52-55, 69.
3
Marion Goldman, Gold Diggers and Silver Miners (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981), p. 69
Lucie Cheng Hirata, "Free, Indentured, Enslaved: Chi- nese Prostitutes in Nineteenth Cen- tury America," Signs, 5 (Autumn 1979): 3-29
Ruth Ann Lum McCunn, Thousand Pieces of Gold (San Fran- cisco: Design Enterprises, 1981), pp. 26-208
Judy Young, Chinese Women of America, (Seattle: Univer- sity of Washington Press, 1986), pp. 18-23.
5
Stanford M. Lyman, "The Structure of Chinese Society in Nineteenth Century America" (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1961), pp. 329- 333
Stanford Lyman, "Marriage and Family Among Chinese Immigrants to America, 1850-1860," Phylon, n.v. (Winter 1968): 322-324
Thomas Dee- ble, "A History of Two Chinatowns in Grass Valley and Nevada City" (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, San Francisco State College, 1972), pp. 103-124
Bulletin of the Chinese Histor- ical Society of America, XXII (November 1987)
S.W. Kung in his Chinese in American Life (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962), p. 33
6
Ralph Mann, After The Gold Rush: So- ciety in Grass Valley and Nevada City, California, 1849-1870 (Stanford: Stan- ford University Press, 1982), pp. 9- 34, 71-85, 195-218
Joanne Meschery, Truckee (Truckee: Rocking Stone Press, 1978), pp. 43-50, 69-75
Thomas W. Chinn, ed., A History of the Chinese In California (San Fran- cisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1975), pp. 1-81.
7
David Beesley, "Our Chinese Leg- acy: The Chinese In the Sierra Nevada," Sierra Heritage, 7 (June 1987): 32-33
Deeble, "A History of Two Chinatowns . . . ," pp. 103-124.
10
Population Schedules of the 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, and 13th Census of the United States, Nevada County, Califor- nia; Goldman, Gold Diggers, p. 69
Hirata, "Free, Indentured, Enslaved," pp. 3-29
McCunn, Thousand Pieces of Gold, pp. 26-208
Young, Chi- nese Women, pp. 18-23.
11
Nevada (City) Journal, September 7, I860, October 4, 1861
People vs. Henry Searls, 1862, Searls Historical Library, Nevada City, Cab. 6-138
Nevada (City) Daily Gazette, De- cember 24, 25, 1867
Nevada County Coroner's Inquest, December 24, 1867, Searls Historical Library, Cab. 6-430
Nevada County Coroner's In- quest, February 17, 1871, Searls His- torical Library, Cab. 6-603
Nevada (City) Daily Transcript, Au- gust 6, 1873.
12
Nevada (City) Journal, January 18, 1861.
13
Ibid.
14
Ibid., September 13, 1861.
15
Thomas H. Thompson and Albert A. West, History of Nevada County California (Oakland: Thompson and West, 1880: reprinted 1970 by How- ell-North Books), p. 76.
Deeble, "A History of Two Chinatowns . . . ," pp. 107-108.
16
Nevada County Grand Jury Hear- ing, August 9,1876. Searls Historical Library, Cab. 6-471.
17
Hirata, "Free, Indentured, En- slaved," pp. 3-29.
18
Ibid.
19
Albert Dressier, California Chinese Chatter (Sacramento: News Publish- ing Co., 1927), pp.21-23.
20
Ibid.
21
Deeble, "A History of Two Chinatowns . . . ," pp. 109-112.
22
David Comstock, Nevada County Vital Statistics, June 1850 to June 1859 (Grass Valley: Comstock Bonanza Press, 1986), pp. 1-20.
Ah Sam and Ah How is referred to in Searls His- torical Library, LWN 2, p. 282.
23
Deeble, "A History of Two China- towns . . . ," pp. 103-124.
28
Ibid.
29
Ibid.
31
Ibid.
Howard Ah-Tye, "The Saga of an Early Pioneer," Bulletin of the Chinese Historical Society of America, (October 1985): 2-5.
32
Interview with Bob Paine, Nevada City, April 17, 1986.
33
Grass Valley Daily Union, September 29, 1883.
34
Theresa Sparks, China Gold (Fresno: Academy Library Guild, 1954), pp. 14-30, 64, 97-119.
35
Patrick Tinloy, "Nevada County's Chinese, In Two Parts," Nevada County Historical Society Bulletin, 25 (January 1971): 1-8
25 (April 1971): 1-10.
36
Ibid., 25 (April 1971): 9.
37
Petition for recognition of citizen- ship for Lee Gum Sing, Searls His- torical Library, Dr. 7 S10, November 2, 1907.
38
Nevada City Daily Gazette, August 2, 1865
Deeble, "A History of Two Chinatowns . . .," pp. 115-116
Inter- view with Harold McCullough, May 17,1987
Sparks, China Gold, pp. 14-120.
39
Interview with Ida Mock, March 24, 1988.
40
Interview with Bob Paine, March 23, 1988.
41
Sparks, China Gold, pp. 14-120
Victor G. and Brett de Bary Nee, Longtime Californ' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974), pp. 110-111
Interview with Ida Mock, March 24, 1988.
1
Letter to Ed Heim, October 5, 1948, in collection of Frances Noel materi- als held privately by historian Knox Mellon (hereinafter Mellon Collec- tion, MC).
2
Nancy Schrom Dye, As Equals and As Sisters: Feminism, the Labor Movement, and the Women's Trade Union League of New York (Co- lumbia: University of Missouri Press, 1980)
"Creating a Feminist Alliance: Sisterhood and Class Con- flict in the New York Women's Trade Union League, 1903-1914," in Milton Cantor and Bruce Laurie, eds., Class, Sex and the Woman Worker (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977)
"Feminism or Unionism? The New York Women's Trade Union League and the Labor Movement," Feminist Studies, 3 (Fall 1975)
James J. Ken- neally, Women in American Trade Un- ions (St. Albans, VT: Eden Women's Press Publications, Inc., 1978)
Robin Miller Jacoby, "The Women's Trade Union League and American Fem- inism," Feminist Studies, 3 (Fall 1975)
Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1982)
Meredith Tax, The Rising of the Women: Feminist Sol- idarity and Class Conflict, 1880-1917 (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980).
3
Noel's own papers, including letters, newspaper articles and speeches, located in two collections, one deposited in the Special Collec- tions Department, University Re- search Library, University of Califor- nia, Los Angeles (hereinafter FNP)
4
Noel's early life is drawn from a taped interview with her conducted by Irving Bernstein in 1952 and lo- cated in the University Research Library, UCLA (FNT)
Mellon Collection (MC): letter to Mrs. Hauser, December 18, 1912
"Ger- man Home Life," by Noel's son Fran- cis, 1911
inter- views with Francis and Jean Noel conducted by Knox Mellon on Au- gust 28, 1967 and January 22, 1977.
5
Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism, 1870- 1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), pp. 26-29, 183-184.
6
letter to Mrs. Hauser, December 12, 1912, MC.
7
Undated leaflet for the Women's Conference of Los Angeles County, Box 4, Folder 12, FNP.
8
Citizen, January 10, 1911 and Feb- ruary 3,1911
"The Women's Confer- ence of Los Angeles County: Its Aim and Object," Box 4, Folder 12, FNP.
9
Letter to Leona Banta, President of the California branch of the Women's International Union Label League, 1910, Box 11, Folder 5, FNP
Agnes Downing, "Women Suffrage in Cal- ifornia," Progressive Woman, (5 Sep- tember 1911): 1
Buhle, Women and Socialism, p. 230
Bruce Dancis, "So- cialism and Women in the United States, 1900-1917," Socialist Revolution, 6 (January-March 1976): 120-121.
10
Letter to E. (Ethyl Duppy Turner), October 19, 1911, MC
Downing, "Suffrage in California," p. 1
Citizen, June 2 and June 30, 1911, FNT.
11
Letter to Leona Banta, undated, Box 11, Folder 6, FNP
Jacoby, "American Feminism," pp. 133-134
Tax, Rising, p. 171.
12
Noel, "A Word to Socialist Voters," Citizen, September 1, 1911.
Downing, "Suffrage in California," p. 1.
Buhle, Women and Socialism, p. 230
Dancis, "Socialism and Women," pp. 120- 121.
Anna Howard Shaw, president of NAWSA, undated, Box 10, Folders 8-9 and Box 11, Folder 8, FNP.
Tax, Rising, pp. 171, 188-194.
13
WESL leaflets, undated, Box 1, Fol- der 7, FNP
Noel, "Wage Earning Women and Equal Suffrage," Citizen, September 12, 1911
Noel, Box 1, Folder 7, FNP.
14
WESL leaflet, undated, Box 1, Folder 7, FNP.
15
Noel, "A Word to Socialist Voters," Citizen, September 1, 1911.
16
Noel, "Wage Earning Women and Equal Suffrage," Citizen, September 12, 1911.
Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman's Suffrage Movement, 1890- 1920 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1971), pp. 31, 43-44, and 58
Nancy E, "Femin- ist Theory and Feminist Movements: The Past Before Us," in Juliet Mitch- ell and Ann Oakley, eds., What Is Feminism (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986), pp. 49-55.
Ronald Schaffer, "The Problem of Consciousness in the Woman Suf- frage Movement: A California Per- spective," Pacific Historical Review, 45 (November 1976): 487.
17
Flexnor, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univer- sity Press, 1959), pp. 263-265
Buhle, Women and Socialism, p. 230.
Dancis, "Socialism and Women," p. 122
Citizen, August 4, 1911 and Sep- tember 29, 1911.
Los Angeles Tribune, October 29,1911
Los Angeles Times, October 16, 1966
Stephanie Landblom, "Woman on Horseback: Francis Nacke Noel," unpublished senior research paper, December 11, 1966, MC
"Suffrage Battle Hymn Swells in City Park," Los Angeles Herald, July 14, 1911.
Ellen Carol DuBois, "Working Women, Class Relations, and Suffrage Militance: Harriot Stanton Blatch and the New York Woman Suffrage Movement, 1894-1909," Journal of American His- tory, 74 (June 1987): 47-58.
18
Letter to E. (Ethyl Duppy Turner), October 19, 1911, MC
19
Letters from Alice Henry, December 13,1912 and January 16, 1913; Box 10, Folders 5-6
letters to Henry, Box 11, Folder 7, FNP
Box 3, Folders 3-4, FNP.
Alice Henry, The Trade Union Woman (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1915)
Women and the Labor Move- ment (New York: George H. Doran Company, 1923).
20
Citizen, April 17,1914
letter to WTUL chapters, May 15, 1914
"A Word to Men and Wo- men," May 15,1914, Box 3, Folder 10, FNP.
Citizen, January 22 and March 15, 1915
21
Letter to officers and delegates to the National WTUL Convention, June 5, 1915, Box 11, Folder 8.
22
Camp Aliso brochure, Box 3, Folder, 13
cover letter for brochure, November 28, 1916, Box 3, Folder 13, FNP.
23
Local WTUL minutes, June 1916, Box 3, Folder 10
letter to the national office from Gloria W. Carr, Box 3, Folder 11
Petition to the Los Angeles Playground Commission, May 3, 1917, Box 3, Folder 10, FNP.
24
Noel, "Why Women Workers Should Organize," Citizen, Septem- ber 3, 1915.
letter to officers and delegates of the National WTUL Convention, June 5,1915, Box 11, Fol- der 8, FNP
Kessler-Harris, Out to Work, p. 206.
25
n. 20
letter from Noel to Minnie E. Warren, March 23, 1915, Box 11, Folder 8.
Citizen, undated, Box 3, Folder 10, FNP.
26
"Organized Labor in Los Angeles Will Assist Club in Important Probe," Citizen, May 12, 1913.
Citi- zen, June 25, 1915 and July 2, 1915.
27
Citizen, June 20, 1913 and September 18,1914.
Los Angeles Record, undated, Box 5, Folder 10, FNP.
28
"Organized Labor in Los Angeles Will Assist Club in Important Probe," Citizen, May 12, 1913.
Citizen, June 20, 1913.
Citizen, September 17, 1915
Municipal Employment Bureau, Box 3, Folder 11, FNP
report in Public Employment Bureau folder, 1918, Los Angeles City Archives.
29
Letter from Edson to Governor Hiram Johnson, August 8, 1913, Katherine Philips Edson Papers, Box 1, Folder 1, Special Collections De- partment, University Research Li- brary, UCLA.
Noel's activities on the Commission, see miscellaneous correspondence, position papers, etc., on social insurance issues lo- cated in Box 5, Folders 1-2 and Box 10, Folders 9-14, FNP
Citizen, Oc- tober 1, 1915.
30
Ralph E. Shaffer, Radicalism in Cali- fornia, 1869-1929 (Ann Arbor: Uni- versity Microfilms, 1962), pp. 15,169.
Citizen, April 4 and July 25, 1913.
Citizen, August 8, 1913.
Citizen, April 4,1913.
Estelle Lawton Lindsey, "City Council in Mrs. Frances Noel," Rec- ord, June 2, 1913.
Citizen, April 16, 1915.
31
Noel, untitled WESL leaflet or speech, Box 1, Folder 7, FNP
Noel, "A Word to Socialist Voters," Citizen, September 1, 1911
Noel, "Twin Sis- ter Movement of Union Labor," Offi- cial Yearbook of Organized Labor, 1928, p. 81.
32
Noel, "A Word to Socialist Voters," Citizen, September 1, 1911.
33
Noel, "Twin Sister Movement of Union Labor," Official Yearbook of Or- ganized Labor, 1928, p. 81.
34
Daniel Rodgers, "In Search of Pro- gressivism," Reviews in American His- tory, 10 (December 1982): 113-132.
Mary Ann Mason Burki, "The California Pro- gressives: Labor's Point of View," Labor History, 7 (Spring 1976): 25
Michael Rogin and John L. Shover, Political Change in California: Critical Elections and Social Movements, 1890- 1966 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970), pp. 54-55.
Jacoby, "American Feminism," p. 128
Dye, "Feminist Alliance," pp. 227-228
Kessler-Harris, Out to Work, p. 202.
Estelle Freedman, "Separatism as Strategy: Female Institution Build- ing and American Feminism, 1870- 1930," Feminist Studies, 5 (Fall 1979): 514-526
Rosalind Rosenberg, Beyond Separate Spheres: Intellectual Roots of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), pp. xiii-xxii.
Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Mod- ern Feminism (New Haven: Yale Uni- versity Press, 1987), pp. 3-10.
36
letters from J. W. Kelly and Consuelo Gonzalez, September 15 and 21,1921, MC and miscellaneous documents in Box 3, Folder 10 and Box 6, Folder 9, FNP.
37
Grace Heil- man Stimson, Rise of the Labor Move- ment in Los Angeles (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1955), pp. 333-335, 360, 423, 426.
Job Harriman, "Never So Strong As We Are Now," Citizen, May 9, 1913.
Jane E. Collier, "Early Club Life in Los Angeles," no date, Friday Morning Club Papers, Collection 100, Box 45, Special Col- lections Department, University Re- search Library, UCLA
Buhle, Women and Socialism, pp. 77-78.
38
Tax, Rising, pp. 20-21, 108.
Mary J. Bularzik, "The Bonds of Belonging: Leonora O'Reilly and So- cial Reform," Labor History, 24 (Winter 1983): 66-69
Jacoby, "American Feminism," p. 229.
39
Buhle, Women and Socialism, pp. 204, 318
Kessler-Harris, Out To Work, pp. 206-212.
California So- cial-Democrat, November 7, 1914.
40
Noel's labor activities, see miscel- laneous documents, Box 4, Folders 10-11,13-16,18-19 and Box 11, Folders 12-16, FNP.
Alma Whitaker, "Birth Curb Facts Told at Meeting," Los Angeles Times, April 25, 1927
Box 2, Folders 10, 11, 14, FNP.
Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Wo- man's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America (New York: Pen- guin Books, 1977), pp. 297-300.
Frances P. Noel, "One Viewpoint of Birth Control Movement," The New Ameri- can Woman (n.p., n.d.), p. 8, Box 2, Folder 13 and miscellaneous docu- ments, Box 2, Folder 10, FNP.
41
Noel, "Twin Sister Movement," p. 81.
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