Notes

Notes
1
John Humphrey Noyes, History of American Socialisms (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1870)
William A. Hinds, American Communities (Oneida, N.Y.: Office of the American Socialist, 1878)
Robert Allerton Parker, A Yankee Saint: John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Community (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1935)
Maren Lockwood Carden, Oneida: Utopian Community to Modern Corporation (New York: Harper and Row, 1969)
Constance Noyes Robertson, Oneida Community: The Breakup, 1876-1881 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1972)
Robert David Thomas, The Man Who Would Be Perfect: John Humphrey Noyes and the Utopian Impulse (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977).
Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Commitment and Com- munity: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972)
Laurence Veysey, The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Counter-Cultures in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1973)
Michael Fellman, The Unbounded Frame: Freedom and Community in Nineteenth Century American Utopianism (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973).
2
"Perfectionism, the Antecedent of Communism," in the Oneida Circular, 5 (June-September, 1868)
Bible Communism (Brooklyn: Office of the Circular, 1853)
John Humphrey Noyes, Salvation From Sin: The End of Christian Faith (Oneida, N.Y., 1876)
George Wallingford Noyes, ed., Religious Experiences of John Humphrey Noyes (New York: Mac- millan Co., 1923)
Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1950)
Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid-Nineteenth Century America (New York: Harper and Row, 1957)
Norman Walter Haight, "Faith and Freedom in Christian Utopia: An Analysis of the Thought of John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Community" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse University, 1972)
Laurence Veysey, ed., The Perfectionists; Radical Social Thought in the North, 1815-1860 (New York: Wiley, 1973)
Robert S. Fogarty, "Oneida: A Utopian Search for Religious Security," Labor History, 14 (1973).
3
Murray Levine and Barbara Benedict Bunker to the reissue of Mutual Criticism (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1975), especially pp. vii-ix.
4
Parker, A Yankee Saint, p. 44.
5
Oneida Circular and the American Socialist (successor to the Oneida Circular in March, 1876): December 21, 1868
July 12, July 26, October 4, 1869
February 8, May 10, November 15, 1877.
Bible Communism, p. 84
Yehosua Arieli, Individualism and Nationalism in American Ideology (Baltimore; Penguin Books, 1964), pp. 285-292
Hal D. Sears, The Sex Radicals: Free Love in High Victorian America (Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 1977), pp. 5, 156, 157.
Kenneth William McKinley, "A Guide to the Communistic com- munities of Ohio," The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 46 (1937): pp. 1-15
William F. Vartorella, "Free Love War Waged in Ohio," Ohio Historical Society Echoes, June, 1974
Vartorella, "The Other 'Peculiar Institution': The Free Thought and Free Love Reform Press in Ohio During Rebellion and Reconstruction, 1861- 1877' (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio University, 1977).
note 14
6
Oneida Circular, April 27, 1874.
Bible Communism, pp. 26-38, 82-113.
7
John Humphrey Noyes, Male Continence (Oneida: Office of the Oneida Circular, 1872).
8
E. Van de Warker, "A Gynecological Study of the Oneida Community," American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women, 17 (1884): pp. 790-795
Anita Newcomb McGee, "An Experiment in Human Stirpiculture," The American Anthropologist, 4 (October, 1891): pp. 320-324
Hilda Herrick Noyes and George Wallingford Noyes, "The Oneida Com- munity Experiment in Stirpiculture," Eugenics, Genetics, and the Family, I (1923): pp. 374-386
Mary Bishop Ross, "The Kingdom of God Has Come," Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, October, 1974, pp. 31-32
Philip R. Wyatt, "John Humphrey Noyes and the Stirpiculture Ex- periment," Journal of the History of Medicine, 31 (January, 1976): pp. 55-56.
9
Albert T. Mollegen, "The Religious Basis of Western Socialism," in Donald Drew Egbert and Stow Persons, eds., Socialism and American Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952), p. 115.
10
V. F. Calverton, Where Angels Dared to Tread: Socialist and Communist Utopian Colonies in the United States (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1942), p. 283.
11
Parker, A Yankee Saint, p. 267.
12
Robertson, Oneida Community: The Breakup, 1876-1881, pp. 14-21
Carden, Oneida: Utopian Community to Modern Corporation, p. III.
13
Noyes kept a "Niagara Journal,"
14
Towner and members of his group, including his wife, Cinderella, his sister, Martha S. Reeve, and her husband, Gaylord W. Reeve, and the "Oneida family" in the period April, 1866, to December, 1867 (and published in the Daily Journal of the Oneida Community and the O. C. Daily).
Madeleine B. Stern, The Pantarch: A Biography of Stephen Pearl Andrews (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968)
Hal D. Sears, The Sex Radicals.
Oneida Circular: October 3, 1870
16
Spencer C. Olin, Jr., "The Anti-Noyes Faction: The Townerites and the 'Breakup' of the Oneida Community," a paper presented at a conference on Utopias and communes held at the University of Nebraska at Omaha in October, 1978.
Mr. Hamilton reported in the September 10, 1866 issue: "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. Moses governed by law, precept, and rule. But Jesus Christ introduced a system of governing by grace and truth. . . . Law and fault-finding go together...."
March 15, 1879: "The great mistake of the past, under the Fourier and Owen dispensation, was the attempt to manufacture Communities by the ma chinery of conventions, constitutions and By-Laws."
17
James W. Towner, A Genealogy of the Towner Family (Los Angeles: Times-Mirror Printing and Binding House, 1910),pp. 150-151.
18
Robertson, Oneida Community: The Breakup, 1876-1881, pp. 153-159.
19
David J. Pivar, Purity Crusade: Sexual Morality and Social Control, 1868- 1900 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973), p. 43.
Charles A. Cannon, "The Awesome Power of Sex: The Polemical Campaign Against Mormon Polygamy," Pacific Historical Review, 43 (February, 1974): pp. 61-82
James L. Clayton, "The Supreme Court, Polyg- amy, and the Enforcement of Morals in 19th Century America," a paper delivered at the Pacific Coast Branch Meeting of the American Historical Association in August, 1978.
20
Santa Ana Weekly Standard, June 9, 1882.
21
Leon O. Whitsell, One Hundred Years of Freemasonry in California, vol. 4 (Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of California, 1950).
Charles Nordoff s description of the region in California, For Health, Pleasure, and Residence (1872).
Anaheim Gazette, May 10, 1879
Charles Herbert Rinehart, "A Study of the Anaheim Com- munity" (unpublished Master s thesis, University of Southern Calfornia, 1933), p. 56.
23
Allen to Hinds, November 12, 1886, William A. Hinds Papers, Oneida Commu- nity Historical Collection, Kenwood, New York.
24
J. M. Guinn, "History of the Movements for the Division of Los Angeles County," Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California (1888-89), pp. 25-29
Samuel Armor, History of Orange County, California (Los Angeles: Historic Record Co., 1921), pp. 1-2, 34-35
Owen C. Coy, California County Boundaries (Berkeley: California Historical Survey Commission, 1923), pp. 33, 39, 41
James Sleeper, Turn the Rascals Out: The Life and Times of Orange County's Fighting Editor, Dan M. Baker (Trabuco Canyon, Calif.: California Classics, 1973), pp. 97-110.
26
Alfred E. Hawley to Hinds, November 6, 1906, William A. Hinds Papers.
Evan Rupert Nash Papers, The Division of Special Collections, Stanford University.
27
Oral history interview with Ms. Pauline (Reid) Reuter, daughter of Ransom Reid, Jr., December 17, 1976.
28
Alfred E. Hawley to William A. Hinds and friends, April 13, 1887, Hinds Papers.
The Kenwood Kronikle, March 31, 1894, and September, 1898
The Quadrangle, April, 1908.
The Quadrangle, May, June, July, August, and September, 1911.
29
Robert V. Hine, California's Utopian Colonies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1953).
30
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 200-209.
31
Stuart Blumin, The Urban Threshold: Growth and Change in a Nineteenth-Century American Community (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976)
Stephanie Grauman Wolf, Urban Village: Popu- lation, Community, and Family Structure in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1683-1800 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976)
Oliver Knight, "Toward an Understanding of the Western Town," Western Historical Quarterly, 4 (January, 1973): 27-42
Gilbert Stelter, "The City and Westward Expansion: A Western Case Study," ibid., 4 (April, 1973): 187-202
Don Harrison Doyle, "Social Theory and New Com- munities in Nineteenth-Century America," ibid., 8 (April, 1977): 151-165
David Hornbeck and Mary Tucey, "The Submergence of a People: Migration and Occupational Structure in California, 1850," Pacific Historical Review, 46 (August, 1977): 471-484
David C. Hammack, "Problems in the Historical Study of Power in the Cities and Towns of the United States, 1800-1960," American Historical Review, 83 (April, 1978): 323-349.
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