Notes

Notes
1
Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1939), p. 11
B. M. Ziegler, ed., Immigration: An American Dilemma (1953), p. 82.
2
Mary Roberts Coolidge, Chinese Immigration (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1909), pp. 425, 503
John T. C. Fang, Yee Tow: The Chinese Community in Sacramento (Chinese Pub- lishing House, 1961), p. 28.
3
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Movement, 30
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 83.
4
Edward C. Kemble, A History of California Newspapers, 1846- 1858 (Sacramento: Daily Union, 1858), pp. 90, 94, 114-16, 122, 126.
5
Sacramento County Historical Society, Golden Notes, October 1964, p. 11, 16-23.
6
Thor Severson, Sacramento; An Illustrated History, 1839 t0 1874 (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1973), pp. 125-26
Kemble, California Newspapers, 148-150
Ella Sterling Cum- mins, The Story of the Files; A Review of California Writers and Literature (San Francisco: World's Fair Commission of Cali- fornia, 1893), pp. 77-93
Sacramento Union, March 11, 1859, p. 1.
7
Sacramento Bee, Sacramento County and Its Resources: A Souvenir of the Bee (Sacramento: 1894), p. 153.
8
Cummins, Story of the Files, 77.
9
Kemble, California Newspapers, 147-49
Union, March 19, 1851.
10
Union, May 30, 1851, p. 2
June 7, 1852, p. 2
Winfield J. Davis, History of Political Conventions in California, 1849-1892 (Sacra- mento: California State Library, 1893), passim.
11
Union, March 27, 1854, p. 2
June 9, 1856, p. 2
April 24, 1854, p. 2.
12
Union, August 8, 1854, p. 2
June 24, 1854, p. 2
August 9, 1854, p. 2.
13
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 38.
14
Union, April 15, 1859, p. 1
March 3, 1859, p. 2
Feb. 26, 1859, p. 2
April 25, 1855, p. 2
Jan. 5, 1858, p. 2
April 7, 1858, p. 1
March 3, 1858, p. 2.
15
"A Gold Rush Letter from A. C. Edwards," California His- torical Society Quarterly, 43 (Sept., 1964): 248.
16
Union, Feb. 5, 1859, p. 2
Feb. 10, 1859, p. 4.
17
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 29-54.
18
Ibid., 36.
19
Union, March 6, 1858, p. 2
Jan. 26, 1859, p. 2.
20
Stephen Williams, The Chinese in the California Mines, 1848- 1860 (San Francisco: R&E Research Associates, 1971, originally published 1930), p. 69
Union, August 2, 1860, p. 2
March 10, 1856, p. 2
May 30, 1856, p. 2.
21
Union, April 9, 1858, p. 2
June 15, 1858, p. 2.
22
Union, May 30, 1856, p. 2.
23
Union, April 7, 1858, p. 2.
24
Union, March 6, 1858, p. 2
March 8, 1858, p. 2
March 10, 1858, p. 3.
25
Union, Jan. 1, 1862, p. 4
George Chu, "Chinatowns in the Delta: The Chinese in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 1870- 1960," California Historical Society Quarterly, 49 (March 1970): 21-37
Union, Jan. 17, 1862, p. 2
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 33-34
Union, Feb. 19, 1862, p. 3.
26
Ira Cross, A History of the Labor Movement in California (Ber- keley: University of California Press, 1935), pp. 28-31.
27
Edwin L. Sabin, Building the Pacific Railway (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 30., 1919), passim.
28
Ibid., 228
Union, June 28, 1869, p. 2
March 5, 1868, p. 2.
29
Union, March 26, 1857, p. 2
March 9, 1867, p. 2.
30
Union, March 5, 1868, p. 2
March 5, 1868, p. 2
June 2, 1869, p. 4.
31
Union, March 5, 1868, p. 2.
32
Union, Jan. 11, 1869, p. 2.
33
Union, May 1, 1868, p. 2.
34
Davis, Political Conventions, 293
Union, Jan 3, 1867, p. 4.
35
Union, Dec. 13, 1869, p. 2.
36
Union, March 5, 1868, p. 2
Nov. 27, 1869, p. 8
Feb. 26, 1867, p. 2
Feb. 28, 1879, p. 2.
37
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Movement, 40.
38
Union, May 3, 1867, p. 2
April 20, 1876, p. 2
August 2, 1877, p. 2.
39
Union, Feb. 2, 1878, p. 2
July 25, 1877, p. 2.
40
Union, Feb. 26, 1867, p. 2.
41
Cross, History of Labor Movement, 21, 23, 28, 43, 53, 56, 85, and passim.
42
Cross, History of Labor Movement, 105-6.
43
Lucille Eaves, A History of California Labor Legislation (Berkeley: U. C. Press, 1910), p. 34.
44
Union, March 14, 1867, p. 2
April 12, 1876, p. 3
April 24, 1876, p. 3
Cross, History of Labor Movement, 138.
45
Alexander P. Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy: A Study of the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: U.C. Press, 1967), pp. 187, 194-95, passim
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 116
Union, Jan. 1, 1878, p. 4
June 18, 1878, p. 2
Feb. 2, 1878, p. 2
Jan. 21, 1878, p. 2
July 25, 1877, p. 2.
46
Union, July 25, 1877, p. 2
July 25, 1877, p. 2.
47
Union, July 26, 1877, p. 2.
48
Union, August 2, 1877, p. 2
Feb. 17, 1880, p. 2
May 27, 1881, p. 2.
49
Union, June 2, 1869, p. 4.
50
Union, Oct. 24, 1854, p. 2
April 18, 1855, p. 2
May 25, 1855, p. 2
May 10, 1856, p. 2
March 4, 1857, p. 2
Nov. 23, 1858, p. 3
March 8, 1862, p. 2
March 13, 1862, p. 2
Nov. 11, 1869, p. 3
Dec. 10, 1869, p. 2.
51
Union, Oct. 1, 1858, p. 1
May 4, 1860, p. 2
Aug. 18, 1856, p. 2.
52
Severson, Sacramento, 148.
53
Union, Jan. 24, 1857, p. 2.
54
Union, Aug. 9, 1854, p. 2
Feb. 25, 1858, p. 4
Feb. 5, 1859, p. 2.
55
Union, Nov. 27, 1869, p. 8.
56
Union, Jan. 11, 1873.
57
Ibid.
58
Union, Feb. 23, 1876, p. 1.
59
Union, April 19, 1876, p. 2
April 18, 1876, p. 2
May 2, 1876, p. 2
May 13, 1876, p. 8.
Union, May 13, 1876.
60
Union, Sept. 20, 1881, p. 2
April 8, 1876, p. 4
Feb. 27, 1878, p. 2
May 2, 1878, p. 2
Jan. 20, 1881, p. 2.
61
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 110-23.
62
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, 14:365.
John W. Caughey, California; A Remarkable State's Life History (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970), pp. 320-26
Union, Sept. 9, 1873, p. 2
June 12, 1873, p. 2
June 23, 1873, p. 2
June 26, 1873, p. 2, 3.
63
Cummins, Story of the Files, 77-94
Norman E. Tutorow, Leland Stanford: Man of Many Careers (Menlo Park, California: Pacific Coast Publishers, 1971), p. 132
Collis P. Huntington and Mark Hopkins Correspondence, Microfilm Collection, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library, Volume 4, Feb. 20, 1873, and August 11, 1873.
64
Union, May 10, 1876, p. 2
Jan. 31, 1876, p. 2.
65
Caughey, California, 320-26.
66
Union, May 5, 1876, p. 2
June 26, 1873, p. 2
Aug. 14, 1871, p. 1.
67
Union, Jan. 20, 1881, p. 2
Dec. 22, 1877, p. 4
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 123.
California Senate Documents on exclusion, speeches before California Senate Investigating Committee, 1876 and 1877
Speeches before U.S. Senate and House of Representatives Investigating Committee, 1878, Chinese Pamphlets, Vols. I and II, California State Library, California Collection, Sacramento.
Coolidge, Chinese Immigration, 96-108.
68
Union, Oct. 28, 1871, p. 5
May 12, 1876, p. 2
Oct. 17, 1877, p. 2
Oct. 21, 1877, p. 2
Oct. 19, 1877, p. 1
July 9, 1879, p. 2
July 12, 1879, p. 4
April 27, 1882, p. 1
July 13, 1882, p. 2
Dec. 7, 1882, p. 1
Oct. 4, 1882, p. 1
Oct. 5, 1882, p. 3.
69
Union, April 3, 1876, p. 2
April 4, 1876, p. 2
Feb. 28, 1879, p. 2
March 18, 1879, p. 4
July 27, 1877, p. 2
Mar. 22, 1880, p. 2
Mar. 4, 1879, p. 2
Aug. 14, 1871, p. 1.
70
William M. Armstrong, "Godkin and Chinese Labor: A Paradox in Nineteenth Century Liberalism," The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 1 (January, 1962): 97
Union, May 27, 1878, p. 2
March 8, 1879, p. 5
Dec. 6, 1881, p. 2
March 3, 1879, p. 2.
71
Union, Feb. 2, 1880, p. 2
Feb. 14, 1880, p. 1
Feb. 12, 1880, p. 4
April 2, 1880, p. 2
April 9, 1880, p. 1
Jan. 10, 1881, p. 1
Jan. 18, 1881, p. 2
Jan. 21, 1881, p. 2
March 23, 1880, p. 2.
72
Union, March 3, 1882, p. 2.
73
Union, April 7, 1882, p. 2.
74
Union, April 10, 1882, p. 2.
75
Union, May 9, 1882, p. 2.
76
Cummins, Story of the Files, 77-94.
77
Sacramento Bee, Sacramento County and Its Resources, 153.
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