Notes

Notes
1
L[uther]. M. Schaeffer, Sketches of Travels in South America, Mexico and California (New York, 1860), 118.
James H. Carson, Recollections of the California Mines, An Account of the Early Discoveries of Gold..., Foreword by Joseph A. Sullivan (Oakland, 1950), 59-60 (originally published in Stockton, 1852).
Robert F. Heizer, Languages, Territories and Names of California Indian Tribes (Berkeley, 1966), map 4.
James J. Rawls, Images of the California Indians: American Attitudes toward the Indians of California (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1975), 60-76, 145-147
Robert F. Heizer, ed., They Were Only Diggers: A Collection of Articles from California Newspapers, 1851-1866, on Indian and White Relations, Ballena Press Publications in Archaeology, Ethnology and History No. 1 (Ramona, CA, 1974), xiv.
2
R. B. Mason to R. Jones, August 17, 1848, H. R. Ex. Docs., 30 Cong., 2 Sess., Doc. 1, p. 60.
3
E. Gould Buffum, The Gold Rush, An Account of Six Months in the California Diggings, Preface by Oscar Lewis (London?, 1959), 80.
Six Months in the Gold Mines . . . 1847-8-g (Philadelphia, 1850).
Erwin G. Gudde, California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (Berkeley, 1969), 71.
Alfred Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 79 (Washington, D.C., 1925), 394.
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California (San Francisco, 1886- 1890), VI, 29-30.
Bancroft added: "A mission Indian, the alcalde of the Cosumnes, is said to have been sent to solve some doubts concerning the site."
4
George Frederic Parsons, The Life and Adventures of James W. Marshall, the Discoverer of Gold in California (Sacramento, 1870), 81.
5
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 31.
6
James S. Brown, Life of a Pioneer, Being the Autobiography of James S. Brown (Salt Lake City, 1900), 96-97.
7
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 33-35.
Rodman W. Paul, The California Gold Discovery: Sources, Documents, Accounts and Memoirs Relating to the Discovery of Gold at Sutter's Mill (Georgetown, CA, 1966).
8
Edward E. Dunbar, The Romance of the Age; or, The Discovery of Gold in California (New York, 1867), 81.
9
New York Journal of Commerce, August 29, 1848, cited in G. G. Foster, ed., The Gold Regions of California: Being a Succinct Description of the ... Gold Regions... (New York, 1848), 30-31.
William H. Johnston, Experiences of a Forty-Niner (Pittsburgh, 1892), 240.
B. Schmolder, The Emigrant's Guide to California ... (London, 1849?), 51-53 (originally published in German in Mainz, 1849).
Peter Decker, The Diaries of Peter Decker, Over- land to California in 1849 and Life in the Mines, 1850-51, ed. Helen S. Giffen (Georgetown, CA, 1966), 19, 190.
Carson, Recollec- tions of the California Mines, 59.
James J. Rawls, "American Images of the California Indian in the Early Nineteenth Century," paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association (Seattle, 1974).
10
Henry I. Simpson, Three Weeks in the Gold Mines, or Adventures with the Gold Diggers of California in August, 1848 . . . (New York, 1848), 6.
Dale Morgan's comments in his intro- duction to William M'Cullom, California as I Saw It, Pencillings by the Way of its Gold and Gold Diggers ..., ed. Morgan (Los Gatos, CA, 1960), 11.
Carl Wheat, Books of the California Gold Rush (San Francisco, 1949), 189.
Douglas S. Watson, "Spurious Californiana," California Historical Society Quarterly, XI (March 1932), 65-68.
11
Bayard Taylor, Eldorado, or, Adventures in the Path of Empire ... (New York, 1850), I, 85.
12
San Francisco Aha California, May 31, 1850.
13
Johnston, Experiences of a Forty-Niner, 240.
14
James Clyman, "Diaries and Reminiscences," ed., Charles L. Camp, California Historical Society Quarterly, VI (March 1927), 62.
S. F. Cook, The Conflict between the California Indians and White Civilization: The American Invasion, 1848-1870, Ibero-Americana, No. 23 (Berkeley, 1943), 65.
15
Albert Lyman, Journal of a Voyage to California, and Life in the Gold Diggings . . . (Hartford, Conn., 1852), 142.
16
R. B. Mason to R. Jones, H. R. Ex. Docs., 30 Cong., 2 Sess., Doc. 1, p. 60.
17
James Wyld, A Guide to the Gold Country of California . . . (London, 1849).
Joseph Warren Revere, A Tour of Duty in California... (Boston and New York, 1849).
J. E. Sher- wood, The Pocket Guide to California; a Sea and Land Route Book . . . (New York, 1849).
J. E. Sherwood, California: and the Way to get There ... (New York, 1848).
John T. Hughes, California: its History, Population, Climate, Soil.. . (Cincinnati, 1850).
Foster, The Gold Regions of California.
Schmölder, Emigrant's Guide to California.
18
R. B. Mason to R.Jones, H. R. Ex. Docs., 30 Cong., 2 Sess., Doc. 1, p. 57.
A. Irving Hallowell, "The Impact of the Indian on American Culture," American Anthropologist, LIX (April 1957).
19
R. B. Mason to R. Jones, H. R. Ex. Docs., 30 Cong., 2 Sess., Doc. 1, pp. 58-62.
20
[J. M. Letts], California Illustrated: Including a Description of the Panama and Nicaragua Routes (New York, 1852), 63.
21
Bancroft, History of California, V, 738.
22
Simpson, Three Weeks in the Gold Mines, 8.
23
Antonio Franco Coronel, "Cosas de California," MS, The Bancroft Library.
William Perkins, Three Years in California: William Perkins' Journal of Life at Sonora, 1849-1852, eds. Dale L. Morgan and James R. Scobie (Berkeley, 1964), 22-23.
24
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (Berkeley, 1970), 50.
25
Buffum, The Gold Rush, 109.
Bancroft, History of California, V, 770.
26
San Andreas Independent, reprinted in Sacramento Union, January 31, 1857.
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 75-76.
Lewis Publishing Co., An Illustrated History of San Joaquin County, California ... (Chicago, 1890), 61.
Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California, 486, fig. 43-
27
Carson, Recollections of the California Mines, 5.
28
San Andreas Independent
Sacramento Union, January 31, 1857.
Perkins, Three Years in California, 14.
Owen C. Coy, In the Diggings in 'Forty-Nine (Los Angeles, 1918), 15.
29
Bancroft, History of California, IV, 749.
Gudde, California Place Names, 215.
J. Heckendort, Miners and Business Mens Directory... (Columbia, CA, 1856). 96.
Cook, Conflict between the California Indians and White Civilization, 66.
30
Walter Colton, Three Years in California (New York and Cin- cinnati, 1850?), 277.
31
William Redmond Ryan, Personal Adventures in Upper and Lower California, in 1848-49 ... (London, 1850), II, 40.
32
Wyld, A Guide to the Gold Country, 43.
Sherwood, Pocket Guide to California, 36.
Theodore T.Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, and Scenes by the Way (New York, 1849), 209, 218.
Bancroft, History of California, V, 721.
33
Henry Vizetelly [pseud. J. Tyrwhitt Brooks, M.D.], California, Four Months among the Gold Finders... (London, 1849), 22.
Simpson's Three Weeks, Vizetelly's Four Months
Dale Morgan's comments in M'Collum, California as I Saw It, 11-12.
34
George D. Lyman, John Marsh, Pioneer: The Life Story of a Trail- blazer on Six Frontiers (New York, 1931), 277.
35
Henry P. DeGroot, Recollections of California Mining Life (San Francisco, 1884), 8.
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 69.
36
John E. Ross, "Narrative of an Indian Fighter," MS, The Bancroft Library, 11.
37
DeGroot, Recollections, 8.
38
Isaac Cox, The Annals of Trinity County, Introduction by Owen C. Coy (Eugene, Ore., 1940), 2 (orig- inally published in San Francisco, 1852).
Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California, 351-390.
A. Hersey Dexter, Early Days in California (Denver, 1886)
H. S. G. Dixon to Hubert Howe Bancroft, May 1, 1875, MS, The Bancroft Library, for references to Choctaw and Cherokee miners in California.
39
William T. Hagan, American Indians (Chicago, 1961), 85.
40
Johnston, Experiences of a Forty-Niner, 240.
41
James Delavan, Notes on California and the Placers, How to Get There, and What to do Afterwards, Foreword by Joseph A. Sullivan (Oakland, 1956), 55. Originally published in New York, 1850.
42
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 72.
43
John A. Swan, A Trip to the Gold Mines of California in 1848, ed. John A. Hussey (San Francisco, 1960), 7.
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 91-92, note 13.
Rodman W. Paul, California Gold: The Beginning of Mining in the Far West (Lincoln, Neb., 1947)
44
Perkins, Three Years in California, 22.
45
Ibid., 186.
46
M'Collum, California as I Saw it, 156.
Ryan, Personal Adventures, II, 41-42.
Simpson, Three Weeks in the Gold Mines, 7.
47
Decker, Diaries, 174.
48
Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, 206.
49
Sacramento. Union,] June 24, 1851.
Cook, Conflict between the California Indians and White Civilization, 66.
50
Schaeffer, Sketches of Travels, 170.
51
Carson, Recollections, 59-60.
Sam Ward, Sam Ward in the Gold Rush, ed. Carvel Collins (Stanford, 1949), 22, 53.
New York weekly, Porter's Spirit of the Times, in 1861 under the pseudonym "Midas, Jr."
52
Buffum, The Gold Rush, 110.
53
Ibid., 110-11.
Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California, plate 78.
54
Carson, Recollections, 60.
55
Ibid., 61.
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 92.
56
Carson, Recollections, 8.
57
Perkins, Three Years in California, 18.
Delavan, Notes on California, 55.
Charles Peters, The Autobiog- raphy of Charles Peters ... (Sacramento, n.d.), 19.
58
William Kelly, An Excursion to California over the Prarie, Rocky Mountains, and Great Sierra Nevada ... (London, 1851), II, 45.
59
Carson, Recollections, 60-61.
60
Ryan, Personal Adventures, II, 41.
61
Schaeffer, Sketches of Travels, 170.
62
Annie R. Mitchell, "Major James D. Savage and the Tularenos," California Historical Society Quarterly, XXVIII (December, 1949), 323-341.
Benjamin Butler Harris, The Gila Trail, The Texas Argonauts and the California Gold Rush, ed., Richard H. Dillon (Norman, Okla., 1960), 20-21, 146-147.
Robert Eccleston, The Mariposa Indian War, 1850-1851, Diaries of Robert Eccleston: The California Gold Rush, Yosemite, and the High Sierra, ed. C. Gregory Crampton (Salt Lake City, 1957), hi, iv, 110, 111.
Paul E. Vandor, History of Fresno County, California ... (Los Angeles, 1919), 77.
63
Harris, The Gila Trail, 147.
Perkins, Three Years in California, 118.
64
Harris, The Gila Trail, 146.
65
Oliver M. Wozencraft, "Indian Affairs, 1849-1850," MS, The Bancroft Library, 2.
66
Cook, Conflict between the California Indians and White Civilization, 67.
J. D. Borthwick, Three Years in California (Edinburgh and London, 1857), 288-289
John Doble, John Doble's Journal and Letters from the Mines. Mokelumne Hill, Volcano and San Francisco, 1851-1865, ed. Charles L. Camp (Denver, 1962), 45-46.
67
Rodman Paul discusses this change in the nature of California mining in his chapter "From an Adventure to a Business: Mining, 1848-1851," California Gold, 50-66.
68
David Rohrer Leeper, The Argonauts of Forty-nine, Some Recollections of the Plains and the Diggings (South Bend, Ind., 1894), 107-108.
69
Austin S. Clark, 1852-1865, Reminiscences of Travel (Middle- town, Conn., n.d.), 34.
70
Borthwick, Three Years in California, 128-129.
71
Clyde A. Duniway, "Slavery in California after 1848," Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1905 (Washington, D.C. 1906), II, 243.
Rudolph M. Lapp, "Negro Rights Activities in Gold Rush California," California Historical Society Quarterly, XLV (March 1966), 3-20.
72
Ralph P. Bieber, "California Gold Mania," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXXV (June 1948), 3-28.
73
Cox, Annals of Trinity County, 2.
74
Ross, "Narrative of an Indian Fighter," 11.
75
his History of California, VI, 100-101, note 24.
76
Parsons, Life and Adventures of James W. Marshall, 112-113.
77
Dunbar, Romance of the Age, 117-118.
Bancroft, History of California, VI, 102, note 27.
78
San Francisco Placer Times and Transcript, May 5, 1849.
San Francisco Alta California, May 17, 1849.
79
Ross, "Narrative of an Indian Fighter," 15.
Dunbar, Romance of the Age, 118.
80
Ross, "Narrative of an Indian Fighter," 16.
81
Ibid., 17.
William Daylor to San Francisco Placer Times and Transcript, May 12, 1849.
San Francisco Alta California, May 31, 1849.
82
Frances Auretta (Fuller) Barrett Victor, The Early Indian Wars of Oregon Compiled from the Oregon Archives and Other Original Sources ... (Salem, Ore., 1894)
Ray Howard Glassley, Indian Wars of the Pacific Northwest (Portland, Ore., 1972), 13-38.
83
Ross, "Narrative of an Indian Fighter," 11.
Glassley, Indian Wars of the Pacific Northwest, 82-86.
James L. Tyson, Diary of a Physician in California ..., Foreword by Joseph A. Sullivan (Oakland, 1955), 78, 83. Originally published in New York, 1850.
Victor, Early Indian Wars of Oregon, 238
Theodore H. Hittel, History of California (San Francisco, 1897), IV, 58.
M'Collum, California as I Saw It
Hittel's remarks in his History of California, III, 888.
84
M'Collum, California as I Saw It, 147-148, 153, 156.
Delavan, Notes on California, 54.
Ryan, Personal Adventures, II, 299-301.
Letts, California Illustrated, 112.
85
Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, 201.
86
Ibid., 197-198, 173.
Johnson, California and Oregon; or, Sights in the Gold Region, and Scenes by the Way (4th ed., Philadelphia, 1857), 181.
87
Buffum, The Gold Rush, 19, 57, 66, 80, 119.
Daniel B. Woods, Sixteen Months at the Gold Diggings (New York, 1851), 84.
Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, 206-208.
Jill L. Cossley- Batt, The Last of the California Rangers (New York, 1928), 73-74, 118.
88
Delavan, Notes on California, 55.
89
Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, 206-208, 218.
Johnson, California and Oregon, 132, 140, 142-143.
90
Johnson, California and Oregon, 140.
Johnson, Sights in the Gold Region, 152-153.
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