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Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2014) 7 (2): 246–262.
Published: 01 April 2014
... Unity Studies 2014 Arab world class structure influential middle class stable middle class poor middle class civilizational transformations class formations class consciousness class relations Middle class transformations in the Arab World Ahmad Mousa Badawi* Freelance Social Science...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (2): 8–26.
Published: 16 June 2020
... of the social contract forged in the post-independence period, which was marked by state-led development and high social mobility and a prominent role for the middle class. Neoliberal ‘reforms’ dictated by economic crisis and pressures from transnational capital as well international financial institutions led...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2016) 9 (3): 351–364.
Published: 01 July 2016
..., it is found that most of the spiritual forefathers among the symbols of traditional Salafism came from the official religious institution. They ranged from the stable middle class who were influential due to their various relationships with the central ruling class. They were closer to being...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2013) 6 (2): 198–210.
Published: 01 April 2013
... transition in the economic infrastructure, an increase in per capita income and the expansion of the middle class. Several studies reinforce this assumption, including those by Martin Lipset and David E. Apter regarding the difficulties involved in attempting to stabilize new democratic institutions without...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2021) 14 (3): 125–145.
Published: 01 September 2021
... of which was the current economic crisis, whose repercussions were the devaluation of the national currency, the seizure of depositors’ money in Lebanese banks, and the decline of the middle class. Therefore, Lebanon is no longer an attractive country for foreign investment. The Taif Agreement ended...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2015) 8 (1): 81–95.
Published: 01 January 2015
..., ranging from ration systems to self-targeted systems. First, they impose a heavy burden on the budget because their resources are also distributed to the non-poor and the middle class. In many MENA countries, food subsidies constitute one of the largest social protection programmes, with food subsidy...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (3): 41–64.
Published: 03 September 2019
... of the Arab Uprising, Hinnebusch ( 2015a , 210) put it as follows: “The challenge authoritarian regimes face is that once societies reach a certain level of social mobilization (education, literacy, urbanization, size of the middle class) regimes that do not accommodate demands for political participation...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (2): 81–99.
Published: 16 June 2020
... that the perception of national security depends on the extent of the hegemony of the ruling elite or class on the state and society. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev (r. 1985–91) became leader of the Soviet Union. His ascent to power would generate a sequence of events that, by 1989, led to the collapse...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2011) 4 (2): 208–224.
Published: 01 April 2011
.... This dimension received average scores of 4.78 (Figure 4), which was the fourth- highest score compared with other dimensions. It also received above-average rank- ings across different age groups, education classes and occupational sectors. This would seem to verify the hypothesis that R&D in new technologies...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (1): 107–124.
Published: 01 March 2019
..., the basis of the military was “arabized” in order to counter the traditionally Amazig composite ( Zartman 1987 ). The promotion of Islamism within its ranks was also meant to counter secularist, and class consciousness, partly responsible for the involvement of some officials in the coups ( Saaf 2012...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (1): 55–74.
Published: 01 March 2019
..., military officers, and middle-class women alike ( Korshid 2014 ). Sisi moved to securing the army`s complete independence; hundreds of decree laws were issued promoting the economic activities of the military, 3 shielding its autonomy from virtually any regime ( Abul-Magd 2014 ). The aim...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2021) 14 (1): 51–90.
Published: 01 March 2021
... equipment and technical expertise ( Challand 2009 ; Hamdan 2011 ; Hilal 2003 ). Aid has also created a situation in which a few urban-based mega-organizations have become the greatest beneficiaries of donor funds being run by a newly emerged middle class of Palestinian elites ( Hanafi and Tabar 2003...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2011) 4 (1): 1–18.
Published: 01 January 2011
... was characterized by struggles that cannot be explained by ethno-sectarian differences (Al-Badr[amacr ] n[imacr ] 2005). Iraq s experience of modernization and urbanization generated a vast expansion of the education system, which in turn enabled the growth of a large urban middle class (Eppel 1998, p. 229...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2010) 3 (4): 551–562.
Published: 01 October 2010
... and multicultural groups of both Arab and black African origin. Marginalization and ethnicization The dynamics of the crisis This paper maintains that one of the main root causes of mutiny, instability and civil war in the Sudan is marginalization and ethnicization practised by the Northern ruling class for more...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2013) 6 (1): 74–81.
Published: 01 January 2013
..., research- ers began to reverse this trend and three main approaches emerged. One is a class analy- sis that represents veiling as a tool that a poor or working-class woman uses to work outside the home without incurring the wrath of her husband, or to neutralize rumour-mongering in her community. Another...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2008) 1 (3): 483–498.
Published: 01 July 2008
... Bibliography Carter, Jimmy. Palestine: peace not apartheid (2006). Reviewed in Race and Class, 49 (3), January 2008. pp. 97 101. (Nancy Murray) Cordesman, Anthony H. and Obaid, Nawaf. National security in Saudi Arabia: threats, responses, and challenges (2005). Reviewed in International Journal of Middle East...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (4): 24–44.
Published: 10 December 2020
... (as in an Althusserian concept) explains the war’s continuity. Force is a class, a social relationship of being to consciousness, in the process of reproduction, defended by an instrumentalization of state or states. As per the hypothesis, it is imperative for the US–Saudi–Israeli triad to curtail Houthi...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2021) 14 (4): 67–84.
Published: 01 December 2021
... on India, including how it works in favor of the dominant or ruling classes in the country, and to the detriment of the labor force such as agricultural workers ( Tomlinson 2013 ). And the former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has spoken publicly about the endemic reach that Britain has had on every area...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2009) 2 (1): 90–105.
Published: 01 January 2009
... rising middle classes who would otherwise be their most likely challengers; as can be seen, for example in the Moroccan, Jordanian and (more recently) the Bahraini monarchies. America: the destabilizing patron The Saudi regime is divided, its legitimacy questioned, its sectarian tensions heightened...