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smuggling

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Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2009; 2167–72 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550910802597631
Published: 01 January 2009
... lucrative trans-national smuggling routes at a time when services have deteriorated and material components of infrastructure have been sold off to Iran. The picture of a region run by the Peshmerga militias of the ruling parties and plagued by corruption and influence peddling in a world of shifting...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2020; 13123–45 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2020.13.1.23
Published: 01 March 2020
... state via illegal migration, the smuggling of weapons, security threats, and human trafficking. Europe, France, and Italy have been leading in efforts to guide Libya towards a more stable path to establish a one true legitimate government. They hosted meditation meetings that included the UN and The...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2020; 131105–122 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2020.13.1.105
Published: 01 March 2020
... sovereignty.” The political–security factor of the EU policy was therefore based on the discussion of security threats, whether these threats are due to the environmental impacts of nuclear proliferation, illegal immigration, smuggling, or organized crime and terrorism. There was also a significant...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12437–60 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.12.4.37
Published: 01 December 2019
... difficulties obtaining one. Males are excluded from conscription, which affects their chances of getting jobs, and thus their levels of unemployment and poverty are higher ( Swale 2015 ). Consequently, some fall into smuggling drugs, weapons, people, and commodities ( Gold 2014 ). These elements of social...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12399–118 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.123006
Published: 03 September 2019
...-Emirati threat perceptions of Iran and forced them to strengthen their military presence in the HoA. First, Iran exploited the HoA to smuggle weapons to the Houthis in Yemen ( Conflict Armament Research 2016 ). Second, Iran pursued aggressive policies to extend its regional influence in Syria, Iraq...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 1223–24 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.122001
Published: 02 June 2019
... Yawm Sabea magazine published a long interview over four consecutive days (September 30, 2010–October 3, 2010) with Patrice Lumumba Jr. in which he narrated his family’s experience with Nasser’s family. It all began with a very daring Egyptian intelligence operation to smuggle Lumumba’s family to...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12139–54 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.121003
Published: 01 March 2019
... supporting the Syrian rebels: “Al-Hassan played a critical role channelling support from the Gulf states and the West to the Syrian rebels through Lebanon. This involved smuggling arms from Lebanon to Syria destined for opposition forces, providing a haven for Syrian defectors in Lebanon and allowing Syrian...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12155–74 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.121004
Published: 01 March 2019
... collaboration with the Israeli administration up to 1982, but it is also fuelled by Bedouin inclinations to carry out informal economic activities, illegally smuggling products over the borders with Gaza and Israel ( IRIN 2011 ; Lavie 1990 ). Mistrust between continental Egyptians and Bedouins still prevails...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 113155–160 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.113008
Published: 03 September 2018
... measure the effectiveness of border control policies to prevent, or at least reduce, transnational security threats, especially irregular migration, weapons smuggling, drug trafficking, and other illegal cross-border activities. Security concerns remain a major determinant of such border walls policies...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 111-243–62 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.000004
Published: 01 March 2018
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 102256–285 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1302059
Published: 01 April 2017
... than this, oil exports were effectively shut down, with the exception of some illicit cross-border smuggling activities of limited scope with neighbouring countries (Rowat 2007; Bozcali 2008). According to OPEC (2008), after the beginning of the UN Oil for Food programme in 1996, production began to...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 102187–206 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1311601
Published: 01 April 2017
... smuggling than on assisting the Syrians in their uprising. Jihadism in Lebanon: causes, rationale and links to Syria The rise of Salafism in Lebanon occurred concurrently with the depreciation of insti- tutional politics, and the rise of corruption, after the end of the civil war. The decline of political...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 93347–350 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1201962
Published: 01 July 2016
... Libya namely: the militia economy and the terrorism economy. The government extortion by militias turned afterwards into a way of living where criminal networks and terrorism developed and throve through controlling smuggling routes of drugs and illegal immigrants, and kidnapping for ransom activities...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 93445–460 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1189108
Published: 01 July 2016
... were rooted in Wahhabi ideology, the source of Saudi legitimacy.7 Thorough videos smuggled into the kingdom, Bin-Laden vowed to destroy al-Saud rule, pledged unflinching allegiance to Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab and promised to restore true Wahhabi Islam in the country (Hegghammer 2010). The...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 92212–236 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1150569
Published: 01 April 2016
... imported food and medicine in 1989.31 These reduced revenues represent the very small amounts of oil exported to Jordan and smuggled via Turkey, which was tolerated by the international powers. The fall in revenues and economic sanctions denied access to international loans, which made significant...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 9127–48 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2015.1121621
Published: 01 January 2016
... and smuggled him out of jail in broad daylight through Baghdad s international airport. Although Bremer was directly responsible for what happened in Iraq after 2003, this does not exonerate the Iraqis who took over from the responsibility after him for main- taining the sectarian, ethnic policies and...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2015; 84523–534 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2015.1077611
Published: 01 October 2015
... Collins 2003). The smuggling of arms to Egyptian Islamists, who attempted to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa, through Sudanese airlines by the regime s intelligence agency exhibited similar facets of revolutionary diplomacy (Sunday Times, 14 April 1996). This was a similar measure to...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2015; 82275–285 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2015.1024487
Published: 01 April 2015
... smuggling tunnels controlled by Hamas in the Strip (Al-Ahram, Cairo, 30 November 2014). 3. Arab Israeli conflict . The Israeli military said it shot down a drone that entered Israeli-controlled air- space from Syria near Qunaitra, the main crossing point between Syrian and the occupied Golan Heights (Al...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2015; 82212–225 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2015.1017958
Published: 01 April 2015
... which stated that one-quarter of the domestic production of petroleum products is smuggled across borders. . On the other hand, the report explains that the tax burden is 10% of gross dom- estic product (GDP) whereas government spending is 40% of GDP, and the hydrocarbons sector is still bolstering...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2015; 8181–95 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2014.976405
Published: 01 January 2015
...). In 1995, the government began issuing bread coupons because certain citizens had used subsidized bread for animal feed and smuggled subsidized wheat out of Jordan to earn money. Therefore, the government restricted subsidized bread consumption by issuing coupons, with the price of subsi- dized bread...