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poor-middle-class

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Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2020; 1313–22 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2020.13.1.3
Published: 01 March 2020
... transformed real estate into high-end luxury apartment blocks and brand-name shops, and kept the poor and the middle class out. Shopping areas on high-end Beirut’s Verdun Street were financed by the Shia diaspora and facilitated by Berri, and upmarket tower blocks proliferated across Beirut as mini-Solidéres...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 124104–120 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.12.4.104
Published: 01 December 2019
... corruption on the social, political, and economic levels. “The Egyptian character” was analysed in four dimensions: religiosity, patience, indifference/passivity, and sense of humor. Ibrahim argued that religiosity provided the Egyptian poor classes with protection from collapse and alienation, a...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 124121–140 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.12.4.121
Published: 01 December 2019
... calling for equality. It revolted against the French white aristocracy and the mulattos (the mixed race) that composed the middle class. Independence was declared and the white as well as the mulatto races were eradicated—a development that led to the establishment of the state of black Haiti where...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12483–103 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.12.4.83
Published: 01 December 2019
... appear to constitute a direct threat to the regime’s existence, its status gave it the push to act both as a main opposition group and also to develop grassroots ties with the population. By providing charitable services to the poor and middle classes, the organizations ran or funded by the MB succeeded...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12341–64 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.123003
Published: 03 September 2019
...—rising inflation, corruption, injustice, withered freedom of speech, human rights violations, and economic disparity between the poor and the politically patronized class. Moreover, Bin Ali’s populist move to introduce compulsory education up to the age of sixteen and to make higher education easily...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 1223–24 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.122001
Published: 02 June 2019
... identity accelerated and the political collapse of the working class accelerated, and the share of capital of social output accelerated at the expense of the people and the poor. The absence of a counter-awareness in this case will lead to the sustainability of the decline, and a decline that increases...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 12155–74 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.121004
Published: 01 March 2019
... politicization of Egyptian lower and medium-class conscripts, mostly stemming from the country’s poor workforce ( Mounir 2017 ) and a huge informal sector as simply not conducive to a large-scale, class-based mobilization ( Masoud 2014 , 6). In other words, the great majority of Egyptian youth enrolled in the...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2019; 1213–18 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2019.121001
Published: 01 March 2019
... homogeneity (or heterogeneity) of the elites, closely related to their (geographic, ethnic, class) origin, is also an aspect that can facilitate alliances and the exclusion of the rest of the actors who are not part of the distinguished group. In contrast, the population component that can be found inside...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 11463–82 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.114004
Published: 04 December 2018
... neoliberalism. Efforts should continue to strengthen the private sector and increase its competitiveness, innovative powers, and sustainability with due attention paid to rational and balanced privatization which is positively biased in favor of the middle-class strata and the young generation. The foundations...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 114135–158 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.114007
Published: 04 December 2018
... Terror,” especially in the greater Middle East, and against poor and weak countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, and Yemen. Nevertheless, the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington had, and will continue to have, a huge impact on global security conditions in the coming years. Third, while the...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 11419–40 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.114002
Published: 04 December 2018
..., mobilization is “elite-driven.” These elites can be categorized into two main types: middle-class adherents of mostly defunct leftist organizations; and foreign-educated policy experts who function through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Overall, these groups are tied to particular personalities that...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 111-2189–216 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.000012
Published: 01 March 2018
...-class citizens because of their Palestinian origin. 29 • The fragmentation of the political national field was accompanied by changes in the class structure, especially in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip where the Palestinian Authority was erected. A large middle class (those who possess...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2018; 111-2307–318 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2018.000019
Published: 01 March 2018
... “transition” to liberal democratic models in several Arab countries can be partially referred to the failure of the newly political class that took power to reconcile the conflicting trends of heritage with those of modernity. As a matter of fact, though one can hardly ignore such a conflict between the...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 104596–622 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1403753
Published: 01 October 2017
... Marxist Leninist thought and were clearly dominated by ideological principles such as the class struggle, the proletarian internationalism and the Three Realms of Mao s theory (Jisi 2011). In fact, during the Maoist era, China s pol- itical power did not use the term core interests in diplomatic and...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 104482–509 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1343838
Published: 01 October 2017
... around access to political, institutional and legal reforms that themselves stem from political will. Such will expresses a vision for the future that moves away from the cocoon of poor governance, characterized by individual or collective autocracy and economic and social corruption, towards the space...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 104537–560 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1402482
Published: 01 October 2017
... scored the lowest rate on this variable (F = 16.77; p < 0.001). On the other hand, they classify themselves, on the scale of class status, among the working classes. These results are largely in line with the studies of the relationship between authoritarian orientation and social and economic variables...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 10193–117 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2017.1279384
Published: 01 January 2017
... society, for its part, has been overwhelmingly dominated by the educated middle classes. Despite an increasing wave of strikes and the emergence of a few independent trade unions in the years prior to 2011, the working class mostly remained outside the pol- itical equation, as was even more the case with...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2017; 101118–137 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1241532
Published: 01 January 2017
... Palestine, in general, with designs of spreading Catholicism by supporting the spread of education and providing healthcare as well as orphanages and initiatives to help the poor and the needy. The mon- asteries in these countries took the lead in the push for missions to the East, in general, and Jerusalem...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 94552–564 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1229421
Published: 01 October 2016
... Middle East. Stewart uses a Jane Austen style to present the gossip of a wealthy British class living mostly in Egypt. The question of the mahdis in Sudan and the killing of [AQ9] Major General Charles Gordon are also emphasized, for the novel covers the period between 1890 to 1918 (Stewart 1965, 1968...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2016; 94523–535 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2016.1241531
Published: 01 October 2016
... democratic mechanisms and struc- tures is not viable, except with the existence of a capitalist economic framework driven by free markets,14 where a liberal capitalist economy serves as a guarantor for the develop- ment of a working middle class representing the bourgeoisie. It is said that one of the...