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Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2014) 7 (2): 246–262.
Published: 01 April 2014
... Unity Studies 2014 Arab world class structure influential middle class stable middle class poor middle class civilizational transformations class formations class consciousness class relations Middle class transformations in the Arab World Ahmad Mousa Badawi* Freelance Social Science...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (2): 8–26.
Published: 16 June 2020
... of the social contract forged in the post-independence period, which was marked by state-led development and high social mobility and a prominent role for the middle class. Neoliberal ‘reforms’ dictated by economic crisis and pressures from transnational capital as well international financial institutions led...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (1): 55–74.
Published: 01 March 2019
... the prices of general products and promoting the welfare of the poor ( Hauslohner 2014 ), 9 and portraying itself to lower-class, young Egyptians as the best avenue to a stable job in a country plagued by a 34.4 percent skyrocketing rate of youth unemployment ( United Nations Development Programme (UNDP...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2011) 4 (4): 524–528.
Published: 01 October 2011
...-revolutionary years is tantamount to an act of blasphemy to any committed Arab nationalist! However, in all fairness, the author does acknowledge the accomplishments of the revolution. Yet, such accomplishments as the enlargement of the middle class and its empowerment provoke his nostalgia. In his youth...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2015) 8 (1): 81–95.
Published: 01 January 2015
..., ranging from ration systems to self-targeted systems. First, they impose a heavy burden on the budget because their resources are also distributed to the non-poor and the middle class. In many MENA countries, food subsidies constitute one of the largest social protection programmes, with food subsidy...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (4): 24–44.
Published: 10 December 2020
... of the masses in poor nations against the system of imperialism for the social restructuring of the mode of production and the relationship of humans to nature in accordance with their class interests. War and class struggle remain at the center of the “double break.” Such catastrophic events can appear...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2020) 13 (1): 3–22.
Published: 01 March 2020
.... Eventually, property rights passed from the old Beiruti middle class to the new contracting middle class, which angered some representatives of the old order. However, some of the old elites received better deals. Heiko Schmid reported that property owned by Maqasid and Christian establishments were lobbied...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2022) 15 (3-4): 78–93.
Published: 01 December 2022
... achieved by European and other developed countries lies, in a large part, with the emergence and development of civil society at the hands of an enlightened middle class, or the so-called “bourgeoisie,” that led the French Revolution of 1789, and major changes in Europe and the world. Such civil society...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (4): 104–120.
Published: 01 December 2019
..., patience, indifference/passivity, and sense of humor. Ibrahim argued that religiosity provided the Egyptian poor classes with protection from collapse and alienation, a metaphysical acceptance of fate, and a submission to the ruling authority. It also pointed young people to direct confrontation...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2009) 2 (1): 73–89.
Published: 01 January 2009
... of the impact of all policies and variables on secondary factors that delineate the standard of living of various social classes. It also reflects the whole reform package s impact on their daily lives. The continuing deterioration in the living conditions of the poor when economic variables indicate an overall...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2019) 12 (3): 41–64.
Published: 03 September 2019
... between the poor and the politically patronized class. Hence, these causes proved extremely vital in propelling unrest among the masses and ultimately sparked an unquenchable fire that spread across the nation ( Masri 2017 , 37). The self-immolation of Bouazizi, followed by the brutality perpetrated...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2013) 6 (2): 198–210.
Published: 01 April 2013
... transition in the economic infrastructure, an increase in per capita income and the expansion of the middle class. Several studies reinforce this assumption, including those by Martin Lipset and David E. Apter regarding the difficulties involved in attempting to stabilize new democratic institutions without...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2016) 9 (3): 351–364.
Published: 01 July 2016
..., whether in the public awareness of the Salafists, in general, or in the writings about the Islamist groups, in particular. The first belief is that the Muslim Brotherhood represented the middle class while the Salafists were understood to represent the lower class. The second is that the Islamist movement...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2011) 4 (3): 385–388.
Published: 01 July 2011
... that pertinent considerations are more complex. The small portion of the popu- lation who can afford to be enrolled in private universities come from the (upper) middle classes, so arguably they have better social capital, which consequently affords them better access to the labour market, especially when...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2013) 6 (1): 1–16.
Published: 01 January 2013
... argues that the alienation of the youth was one of the three main currents that brought down the regime (El-Mahdi 2011, 26). Economist Samir Amin contends that the main element of the revolutionary movement was the politicized and organized youth , hailing primar- ily from the middle and lower classes...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2013) 6 (1): 41–70.
Published: 01 January 2013
... of the revolution on Saturday, 15 January 2011, were an indication of how poor conditions in the country had become. The demonstrations were the result of a spontaneous movement mostly by leftist uni- versity students who could no longer accept the poor economic conditions or lack of job opportunities that awaited...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2021) 14 (3): 55–78.
Published: 01 September 2021
... an emerging urban middle class, the working class and the peasantry, at the expense of the old oligarchy. Egypt and Algeria are no exceptions. In Egypt, the army was at the core of the modernization efforts undertaken by the state. Both government expenditures and bureaucracies increased after...
Journal Articles
Contemporary Arab Affairs (2012) 5 (2): 214–229.
Published: 01 April 2012
..., together with members of the upper and middle classes, the educated and intel- lectuals, encouraged a no vote to render the amendments null and void (Hellyer 2011). The main reason behind such an effort was that despite the amendments made to the constitution, it still contained many components...