The study identifies the contribution of Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of political trends that signify the beginnings of democracy. This leads to constructive and innovative thought by ensuring freedom of opinion and expression, while the absence of democracy generates a state of political and ideological despotism. The loss of basic rights and freedom of individuals negatively affects political stability of countries’ religious and moral trends, as well as developmental trends which represent an enhancement of ideological security. Ideological security is a key issue in any society due to its association with the concept of national security. The researchers in this study adopt a quantitative approach in which a questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The study sample consisted of 1093 male and female students who were chosen by multistage sampling. The study instrument consisted of two parts: first, the demographic variables; and second, the 24 items that measured the process of enhancing ideological security with its three dimensions. The responses to the items were measured according to the Likert five-point scale. The study had several results. First, there is a low level of contribution from Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security on the whole, and enhancing each trend in particular. The first part addresses the formation of ideological conceptualization, while the second part focuses on analyzing the dimensions of societal processing with the contribution of religious, educational, familial, security, and media institutions, whereas the third part emphasizes several future recommendations that are suggested by the researcher. Second, there are no differences in the level of the contribution of Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of political, religious and, moral trends, while there is a difference regarding the level of contribution of Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of developmental trends according to the variable of gender in favor of females. Third, there are differences in the level of contribution of the Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security for each of the three domains: political, developmental, and religious, in particular, as well as all the domains as a whole in terms of the variable of membership of civil society institutions and these differences were in favor of the students who were not members of these institutions.

Introduction

The prevalence of the ideologically deviant groups that cannot cope with development leads to deviance in different parts of the world, causing an increase and escalation of terrorist and violent movements of all types (Al-Shammari and Al-Jaradat 2012). Consequently, the world has witnessed wars and conflicts that have killed thousands of innocent people. This issue requires the integrated efforts of all international, regional, and local actors to promote ideological security and challenge deviant thought in all communities in the world.

Islamic nations, in general, are faced with frequent and successive crises on economic, cultural, and political levels. The authors suggest that the crisis of thought represents one of these crises; especially as we experience rapid and successive developments in the time of globalization, where the mission of enhancing ideological security and challenging extremism among the upcoming generations is not exclusively for military and security institutions, but also extends to social upbringing and political institutions, as well as civil society institutions. Not coping with developments also leads to oblique thought, which reflects negatively on national security. This obliges one to confront all the deviant ideas, values, and habits (including terrorism), as well as to challenge wrong ideas and concepts within the frame of right thinking.

Therefore, civil society institutions have a great responsibility to enhance ideological security among upcoming generations by focusing on all economic, moral, political, and developmental domains to enhance the freedom of political practice and democracy, as well as the culture of dialogue between civilizations and comprehensive development work to enhance ideological security among people.

Ideological security

The topic of ideological security is an important topic in any society because of its association with the concept of national security and, subsequently, with the country’s entity, stability, and existence (Al-Ashqar 2010). The importance of ideological security signifies achieving integration and unity in thought, approach, and purpose; it is also an entry point for innovation and development in the culture of a society (Al-Shammari and Al-Jaradat 2012).

Various definitions of ideological security vary according to the social, political, religious, and cultural background of the researchers and authors, where the researchers in this domain focused on three trends: political, moral, and religious (Hariz 2005).

  • Political trend: this suggests that the existence of democracy contributes to constructive and innovative thought by ensuring freedom of opinion and expression, while the absence of democracy generates a state of political and ideological despotism. The prevalence of political despotism, as well as the loss of basic rights and freedoms of individuals, negatively affects the political stability of countries. The citizen who does not enjoy his/her basic rights and freedom will not experience effective participation and, subsequently, will have a feeling of social and political alienation, which will lead to having deviant beliefs. Al-Quraan and Al-Taweel (2013) suggest that there is a positive relationship between some dimensions of political alienation, on the one hand, and student violence and even terrorism, on the other. Thus, if university students have no political trust, no loyalty, and no political standards, student violence will result. Some research shows that 19.1% of student violence is attributed to these causes (Al-Quraan and Al-Taweel 2013). In order to deal with the risks associated with deviant beliefs that are motivated by depression, tyranny, and hatred, there must be effective political participation, which is one of the pillars of political security, where the ruling authority gains its legitimacy when it controls the government (Al-Doghaim 2006).

  • Moral and religious trend: this suggests that the future of stability, security, and development in the world is related to the enhancement of the culture of dialogue between all the cultures and religions, as well as enhancing tolerance between all the nations. Strengthening national security requires a rethinking of the rules, procedures, and methods of building mind and envisioning positive interaction among world civilizations, as well as taking advantage of contemporary technological progress (Al-Hammash 2009). Some researchers suggest that ideological deviation is a deviation from intermediation and balance, and in order to modify this deviation, there must be a return to the state of intermediation and moderation by giving more space to the other party and accepting dialogue with him/her, as well as encouraging discussion and using methods of proof and persuasion, even though the other party has a different perspective, religion, or ideology (Al-Doghaim 2006).

  • Developmental trend: this suggests that the availability of reasons related to comprehensive development for all classes in society would enhance the basis of ideological security. Some researchers suggest there is a correlation between economic development and ideological security, whereby ideological security contributes to the development of the economy and the maintenance of the country’s resources, as well as investing them in a manner that provides advantages for all members of society and, consequently, this creates a state of security and stability for all citizens (Al-Ashqar 2010).

In order to promote ideological security in different fields (religious, political, and developmental), there must be cooperation between the efforts of governmental institutions, represented by educational institutions, through carefully planned education, as well as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), represented by civil society institutions.

Civil society institutions

Civil society is defined as the sum of non-heritage social volunteerism and NGOs that take care of the interests of individuals and groups and enhance their effective participation in public life events (Qandeel 2000, 46–47). Civil society also represents a voluntary institutional unity that is relatively independent from the government and accepts diversity and difference between the self and others (including NGOs). Studies suggest that global civil society institutions developed considerably in the twentieth century (Cenap 2004). However, researchers have various perspectives regarding their types, as some suggest that they represent NGOs, professional groups, laborers’ unions, clubs, youth centers, popular organizations, and social movements (Hennebuch 1993, 243). Others argue that they also include political parties, professional syndicates, associations, clubs, and cultural ties (Diamond 1994, 7). Other researchers have added tribes, sects, and religious affiliations, which are considered important within Arab society and its development, and others still have asserted that governmental institutions should be included, and limiting civil society institutions to nongovernmental groups and institutions is a scientific mistake (Diamond 1994). Civil society is formed by the correlation between democracy and political society, wherein individuals and groups start to challenge the limits of permitted margins and confront the governing regime as they appeal to the government to satisfy their different societal needs (Schwedler 1995). The concept of civil society is related to several factors, including: the processes of democratic transfer, civil education, good citizenship, sustainable development, fighting terrorism and extremism. It is also about disseminating the culture of human rights in order to reduce societal and authoritarian tyranny, the reduction of the culture of one-party politics, and the reduction of tribal mindsets so as to give more space for institutions in society that are based on democracy as well as respecting different perspectives (Al-Jabiri 2006).

Literature Review

Those interested in this topic will find several studies that deal with civil society and ideological security, which are now discussed.

Al-Kharji (2010) identified the effectiveness of the students’ counselor in enhancing ideological security among secondary stage students as well as identifying the obstacles that could reduce this effectiveness. The study derived several results including that student counselors are highly effective at enhancing ideological security among students, despite sometimes facing difficulties, such as the negative impact of social media on the students. These difficulties were also compounded by the lack of training courses in the domain of ideological security as well as burdening counselors with extra tasks unrelated to their specialization and remit.

Abu Khotwa and Al-Baz (2014) identified university students’ use of social media network, as well as the key factors of ideological security among university students and the implications of the social media network on ideological security among those students. The study came to several conclusions, including that there is a medium degree of social, psychological, religious, and ethical consequences, as well as political consequences from using the social media network, while there is a high degree of impact relating to economic factors.

In addition, Al-Barashi (2011) identified the role of ideological security in preventing terrorism in the Yemini republic. They came to several conclusions, one being that there are various and interacting reasons for ideological deviation, such as religious, political, social, economic, educational, and cultural factors, as well as personal factors, in addition to the existence of a clear and strong relationship between ideological deviation and terrorism. The study purports that terrorist operations increase in society as a result of the increasing level of ideological deviation among individuals in society, implying that ideological deviation is a rich environment for the prevalence of terrorism.

Furthermore, Mohammad (2009) investigated examples of research data that addressed the issue of ideological security in Arab Islamic society as well as addressing it in relation to globalization variables with the aim of formulating a strategy for supporting ideological security in Arab societies. The study came to several conclusions, including the necessity of establishing and enhancing ideological security on several levels, where the first level addressed the formation of ideological conceptualization, while the second level focused on analyzing the dimensions of societal processing with the contribution of religious, educational, familial, security, and media institutions, whereas the third level emphasized establishing and suggesting several future recommendations.

Hamdan and Al-Sayid (2009) identified the concept of ideological security and demonstrated the importance of the role of family, school, and mosque in achieving ideological security in society. The study derived several results, including that there is a considerable role for the pedagogical institutions to enhance ideological security, which is represented by the necessity of finding an integrated strategy in order to deal with the issue of extremism and disseminating the concept of self-monitoring among children, as well as to enhance the awareness of security among them, in addition to establishing the intermediation of Islam and the moderation of its principles.

In terms of studies in schools, Guzzetti and Williams (2004) identified the extent that students’ beliefs are affected according to the variable of gender during educational activity and their discussion related to it in the classroom. The study concluded several results, one of which was that teachers were unaware of key sensitivities related to gender, while the students themselves, from both genders, were aware of these sensitivities.

In the context of terrorism, Ibn Qarmalah (2007) identified the concept of terrorism and the factors leading to it, in addition to the role of civil society institutions in preventing terrorism. The study concluded that there is an important role for civil society institutions at preventing terrorism and emphasized the vital role of the family, school, and mosque in the process of upbringing.

Al-Saleem (2013) analyzed the impact of civil society institutions on the constitutional amendments in Jordan during the stage of democratic transition (1989–2012), as well as their impact on development, in the context of respecting the constitution and being committed to it in comparison with the period that preceded 1989. It also identified whether these amendments enhance the democratic process. The study concluded that there is a positive relationship between civil society institutions and the positive change at the level of the constitution during the stage of transition towards democracy, whether it is related to the enhancement of the constitutional amendments for the democratic process and the transition process towards it, or related to respecting the constitution and being committed to it.

Kassis (2001) conducted research into the development of democratic transition in Palestine by analyzing the role of civil society institutions. The study concluded that despite the difficult circumstances that face civil society institutions, they were able to develop and they have had a positive role in Palestine. The authors attempted to develop civil society values as well as a competitive relationship in civil society institutions in relation to the Palestinian Authority. The researcher also suggests that despite the obstacles that face civil society institutions in Palestine, these obstacles will be an important focus for institutions’ activities in promoting and developing the democratic principles of pluralism.

Tsutsui and Minwotipka (2004) identified patterns of citizen participation in international human rights NGOs (HRINGOs). The study concluded several findings, including that the NGOs, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch were the main drivers of guidance in the international human rights movement during World War II, because these organizations had a significant role in promoting international human rights.

The Importance and Objectives of the Study

This study aims to identify the level of contribution of Jordanian civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security among university students by enhancing political, religious, and moral rends, as well as developmental trends and to examine whether these contributions vary according to some personal variables among these students (i.e., gender, academic year, faculty, political trend, and membership of civil society institutions).

The importance of this study is characterized by two factors: one scientific, the other practical, and it addresses this topic in Jordan in a unique way. It is especially important at this time when we witness several waves of extremism, terrorism, and ideological deviation among some groups which have gone astray. This study also introduces several scientific findings for decision-makers in order to implement suitable policies so as to enhance ideological security and challenge deviant beliefs among university students, particularly as they represent the future of the nation.

The Study’s Problem and Questions

Civil society institutions have a considerable role in instilling democratic values and human rights ethics, while challenging terrorism and deviant beliefs, as well as enhancing ideological security among university students in collaboration with governmental educational institutions. It tries to answer the following questions:

  • What is the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in raising awareness to enhance intellectual security?

  • Are there differences in the level of the contribution of civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security according to the variables of gender, academic year, faculty, and membership of civil society institutions?

Methodology and Procedures

The researcher used an empirical approach based on quantitative methods, where questionnaires were used as a tool for data collection; this process took place using several approaches:

The study’s population and sample

The study’s population consisted of all students at Jordanian public universities. The study sample consisted of 1093 male and female students who were chosen by multistage sampling, after 57 questionnaires were returned because they were not valid for analysis, where the confidence interval was 95% with an error of ±3. In the first stage, a sample was chosen by using cluster-stratified random sampling, where the sample consisted of three universities, with one university in each region, and then two faculties were chosen from each university: one of them from the sciences and the other from the humanities. In the third stage, teaching classes were chosen and the instrument was distributed to all students in the class. The number of students chosen was based on the number of students in each university (Table 1) (see also  Appendix A).

Table 1.

Distribution of the Study Sample Respondees to its Variable Levels

Distribution of the Study Sample Respondees to its Variable Levels
Distribution of the Study Sample Respondees to its Variable Levels

The study instrument

The study instrument consists of two parts. The first includes the demographic variables (gender, academic year, faculty, political affiliation membership of civil society institutions), while the second part consists of 23 items that measure the process of enhancing ideological security with its three dimensions (political, religious and moral, and developmental (see  Appendix A). The responses to the items were measured with a five-point Likert scale.

The validity and reliability of the instrument

In order to verify the validity of the instrument, the preliminary instrument was distributed to several faculty members in the specializations of political science, law, political sociology, measurement and evaluation, as well as Arabic language. They were asked to give their opinions about the importance and language of each item as well as the items’ appropriateness for the study sample. The observations of the faculty members including deletion, modification, and addition were taken into consideration, knowing that this procedure represents evidence of the content validity of the study instrument. In order to verify the reliability of the instrument, the final version of the instrument was distributed to a sample of 50 individuals from the study population, and the reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s Alpha (internal consistency), with a value of 0.92, where its value for the first domain was 0.82, its value for the second domain was 0.84, and its value for the third domain was 0.90. This is an accepted value in social science studies.

The statistical analysis

The researcher coded the returned questionnaires and inserted the data into the statistical package. The means and standard deviations (SDs) were then calculated. The researcher also calculated the t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey test for post-comparisons.

Correcting the instrument

In order to answer the study questions and identify the extent of the contribution to enhancing ideological security, the researcher used the Likert five-point scale in order to measure the responses of the study sample respondees. Table 2 illustrates the scale of contribution degree and estimation of responses after the analysis.

Table 2.

Measuring the Extent of Practice and Contribution according to the Means

Measuring the Extent of Practice and Contribution according to the Means
Measuring the Extent of Practice and Contribution according to the Means

Results and Discussion

The outcomes of the study results and their analysis were displayed for the purposes of organization. After inserting the questionnaire data, they were statistically processed and divided into parts so as to correspond with the study questions, as follows:

First, in order to answer the research question, “What is the role of civil society organizations in raising awareness to enhance intellectual security?” the means and SDs were calculated for the total items that measure the civil society institutions’ contribution at enhancing ideological security with its three dimensions (political, religious and moral, and developmental). The mean for the total items was 2.3395 with an SD of 0.787, which signifies that the institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security was of a low degree and less than desired. There is an increasing role for civil society institutions at the international level, as well as other levels. The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (A/RES/58/4) (2003) emphasized the role of civil society in combating corruption as an example for the increasing role of the civil society institutions and their efforts in doing more tasks, where the Article 13 of the convention states that: “Each State Party shall take appropriate measures, within its means and in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, to promote the active participation of individuals and groups outside the public sector, such as civil society, non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations, in the prevention of and the fight against corruption and to raise public awareness regarding the existence, causes and gravity of and the threat posed by corruption.” Kassis (2001) demonstrated the role of civil society institutions in Palestine, despite the difficult circumstances, where these institutions attempted to develop civil society values and a competitive relationship with the Palestinian Authority, and they also enhanced the process of democratic transition in Palestine.

Naser Shaikh (2010) suggests that the civil society institutions in Palestine suffer from many obstacles that prevent their development. These institutions represent an image of the case in Palestinian society that faces social, economic, and political crises, and this undermines many of the attempts of these organizations that aim to enhance political participation, reduce corruption, or disseminate the concept of democracy, and even if some attempts succeed, their success was limited. This case may apply to all civil society institutions in Third World countries in general, and in Jordan in particular (see  Appendix A).

Al-Saleem (2013) suggests that there is an impact for the civil society institutions on the enhancement of the transition process towards democracy in Jordan by modifying the constitution. However, this impact was less than desired as it was limited during the period 1989–2001. The following years witnessed a resistance by some civil society institutions to the case of democratic decline in Jordan when successive governments issued temporary laws, disbanded parliament, delayed elections for two years, and the executive power led the political process. The third stage witnessed an increasing role for the civil society institutions that practiced effective and continuous pressures in order to make constitutional amendments while taking advantage of the knock-on effect of the Arab Spring as it supported these institutions in facing governmental authorities. As for the domains that measure the dimensions of ideological security, the means and SDs were calculated for each of the items that measure these domains. They are illustrated in Tables 3,45.

Table 3.

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Political Trend

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Political Trend
Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Political Trend
Table 4.

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Developmental Trend

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Developmental Trend
Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Developmental Trend
Table 5.

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Religious and Moral Trend

Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Religious and Moral Trend
Means and Standard Deviations for the Domain of the Religious and Moral Trend

Table 3 illustrates that the contribution of civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security by fostering political trends and freedom of political practice, as well as the prevalence of democracy, which, in turn, creates constructive thought and allows the freedom to express opinions among university students, was of a low degree, where the total mean for the domain was 2.426 (SD = 0.773). The results of this study agree with those of Al-Azzam (2006), which implied that Jordanian civil society institutions, including political parties and trade unions, are still weak and cannot enhance political trends among individuals by having a more active role in the process of political development because of organizational and financial reasons, in addition to the environment of the political system that adopts these institutions, as well as the system of local regulations, political culture, and social heritage. These findings also agree with Al-Nawaisheh (2011), who found that political parties were not able to represent the concerns of citizens, and that they are still removed from the national needs of the Jordanian people, despite having the freedom to express their programs and perspectives in the national media and the newspapers that belong to them. There is also a dominance of executive power over political parties and trade unions where the assigned ministers dominate the disciplinary council of the trade unions, and the government has the authority to disband the council of any trade union in the interests of public security requirements.

The contribution of the civil society institutions to reducing the dominance of executive power as well as the culture of despotism was of a low degree. Also, the role of these institutions in the enhancement of the values of good citizenship among university students, as well as enhancing the view of intermediation and moderation, was low, as the mean of these items ranged between 1.5 and < 2.5. These institutions designed ideological competitions relating to some political issues in both the local and international communities. This enhanced the values related to freedom of expression values and respect for the opinion of others. It also enhanced the importance of political participation in- and outside the university campus, demonstrated the effects of corruption because of the adoption of deviant and extremist thought, and finally contributed to promoting the process of democratic transition. These contributions were of a medium degree, where their mean ranged from 2.5 to < 3.5.

Despite the important role played by the different civil society institutions in developed countries, regarding local development, Table 4 demonstrates that the contribution of civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security by generating comprehensive development was of a low degree, where the total mean for the domain was 2.361 (SD = 0.785). The Jordanian Economic and Social Council (2011) suggests that civil society institutions should do the following things in order to extend their range in local development:

  • Enhance the principles of institutional governance in order to develop an institutional frame for these institutions and increase confidence in their activities.

  • Enhance their abilities to establish collaboration with the private sector so as to start mutual projects with all interested actors and introduce socially and economically feasible projects for all society by conducting scientific studies.

  • Establish more cooperation networks with governmental commissions and the private sector in order to provide an integrated framework based on cooperative partnerships.

The contribution of these institutions in raising students’ awareness about combating poverty and unemployment as well as developing students’ personality were of a medium degree, where the average mean was 2.500 and 2.613, respectively, while the contribution of these institutions in the other items that measure the developmental trend were low, where the mean ranged from 1.5 to < 2.5, and they are ordered by those that contribute the most, as follows:

  • Developing scientific methods in solving the problems facing students.

  • Investing in students’ abilities to contribute to the construction of Jordanian society in all domains.

  • Contributing to the comprehensive development of society.

  • Contributing to continuous improvement to create affluence for people through their active participation in development as well as the fair distribution of advantages resulting from that.

  • Appealing to the international community to enable countries to practice their complete sovereignty over their wealth and natural resources.

  • Contributing to the provision of suitable work opportunities based on qualifications.

Table 5 illustrates that the contribution of civil society institutions to the enhancement of ideological security by promoting the culture of dialogue between all cultures and religions and promoting tolerance between all the nations was of a low degree, where the mean for the domain was 2.398 (SD = 0.906). This finding agrees with Al-Nawaisheh (2011), who suggests that political parties in Jordan are still weak and have a minimal impact on educating individuals about various political values, such as democratic practices, elections and accepting other points of view, because of the lack of the parties’ media products whether distributed on a daily or a weekly basis as well as their inability to fulfill the needs of citizens and serve their interests.

The contributions of these institutions to the enhancement of religious and moral trends was also of a low degree, as the mean of the items that measure this trend ranged between 1.5 and < 2.5:

  • Contributing to the promotion of critical thinking and avoiding deviant thinking.

  • Giving students training about tolerance and openness to others.

  • Enhancing the skill of dialogue and discussion in solving problems.

  • Promoting awareness concerning the dangers of religious extremism and respecting other religions.

  • Holding seminars and having dialogues about deviant approaches and thoughts in order to avoid them.

Civil society institutions also give students training about the usefulness of dialogue and accepting wisdom and good advice, in addition to the enhancement of the ability to engage in dialogue and respect others regardless of religion, gender, color or ideology, where the mean was 2.583 and 2.805, respectively.

Second, in order to answer the research question: “Are there differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to the enhancement of ideological security according to the variables of gender, academic year, faculty, political trend and membership of civil society institutions?” several statistical tests were used as follows.

In order to identify the differences in the level of the civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security according to the variable of gender, the researcher used a t-test, as illustrated in Table 6.

Table 6.

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of the Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Gender

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of the Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Gender
Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of the Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Gender

Table 6 shows that there are no differences in the level of CSO’s contribution to the promotion of political and religious orientation and all three levels as a whole, where the value was 1.422, 1.768 and 1.812, respectively, which is not statistically significant. While Table 6 shows differences in the level of the contribution of civil society institutions in promoting the development trend, where t = 2.008, which is statistically significant at α ≤ 0.05. This difference was between males and females in favor of females, where the mean was 2.404 for females and 2.309 for males, and this could be attributed to women’s feelings of equal treatment with males that they received from the institutions. This is something these women did not witness in their families and societies, and it is evident in Table 6 when regarding all domains. However, it was not statistically significant except for the developmental trend.

In order to identify the differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security according to the variable of faculty, the reason why there is no difference between the students of faculties of humanities and faculties of science is to integrate the students into one educational institution regardless of the type of faculty they are members of and, thus, inform them about the role and activities of civil society institutions within the universities. The researcher used a t-test, as illustrated in Table 7.

Table 7.

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Faculty

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Faculty
Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Faculty

Table 7 shows that there are no differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students in general in the three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, according to the variable of faculty, where t = 0.011, 0.361, 0.204 and 0.103, respectively, which is not statistically significant at α ≤ 0.05. The reason for the absence of difference between students in both faculties could be attributed to the integration of the students in similar educational institutions, regardless of the faculty type, and their knowledge of the role of civil society institutions and their activities inside the universities.

In order to identify the differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security according to the variable of membership of civil society institutions, the researcher used a t-test, as illustrated in Table 8.

Table 8.

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Membership of the Civil Society Institutions

Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Membership of the Civil Society Institutions
Results of a t-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Membership of the Civil Society Institutions

Table 8 shows that there are differences in the level of the civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students in general, in each of the three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, as well as the domain in total, according to the variable of membership of civil society institutions, where t = 8.756, 8.888, 9.418 and 9.467, respectively, and the differences were in favor of students who are not members of the civil society institutions. This could be attributed to the fact that the students who are not members of civil society institutions (such as university) still only have a theoretical knowledge about these institutions, while the members of these civil society institutions practiced the work of these institutions and, thus, they experienced the difficulties that face these institutions.

In order to identify the differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security according to the variable of membership of civil society institutions, the researcher used an F-test, as illustrated in Table 9.

Table 9.

Results of an F-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Academic Year

Results of an F-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Academic Year
Results of an F-test to Identify the Differences in the Level of Civil Society Institutions’ Contribution in Enhancing Ideological Security according to the Variable of Academic Year

Table 9 shows that there are differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students in general, in all three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, according to the variable of academic year, where F = 48.458, 42.792, 62.660 and 55.921, respectively, which is statistically significant at α ≤ 0.05.

In order to identify the differences between the levels related to the variable of academic year, the researcher used the Tukey test (a one-step, multi-step comparison and statistical test). It can be used on primary data or in conjunction with ANOVA analysis (post-analysis) to find means that differ greatly from each other, as shown in Table 10.

Table 10.

Results of the Tukey Test to Identify the Statistically Significant Differences between the Levels Related to the Variable of Academic Year

Results of the Tukey Test to Identify the Statistically Significant Differences between the Levels Related to the Variable of Academic Year
Results of the Tukey Test to Identify the Statistically Significant Differences between the Levels Related to the Variable of Academic Year

Table 10 shows that there are differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students in general in each of the three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, as well as the total domains according to the variable of academic year. These differences were between the first-year students and each of the students in the second year, the third year and the fourth year, in favor of the students in the second year, the third year and the fourth year, and this could be attributed to the high level of integration between students at the university, since they will participate more in the extracurricular activities when they integrate more into the environment of the university. Therefore, they would know more about the role of civil society institutions through courses, seminars, workshops, and publications. The activity that integrated students more is courses, because in lectures there is usually more communication between students because attendance is greater.

Conclusions

This study addressed the topic of ideological security with its three dimensions: political, religious and moral, and developmental, and it identified whether civil society institutions have a role in enhancing this through their impact as partners of governmental institutions, in addition to identifying the differences in the level of the civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students according to some personal variables such as gender, academic year, faculty, political trend, and membership of civil society institutions. The study concluded several results.

First, the low level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security in general and in enhancing each of the three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, where the study concluded the following:

  • Civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security by fostering freedom of political practice and democracy, which helps to generate innovative thinking as well as encourage expressions of opinion among university students, was low.

  • Civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security by enhancing comprehensive development was low.

  • Civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security by promoting the culture of dialogue between all cultures and religions, as well as tolerance between all nations, was low.

Second, there are no differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing the political trend, the religious and moral trend, as well as the three trends in total, while the results showed that there are differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing the developmental trend. This difference was between males and females in favor of females. The results showed that there are no differences between students of humanities faculties and students of science faculties regarding civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security among university students in general, and for the three dimensions: political, religious and moral, and developmental.

Third, there are differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security for each of the three domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, as well as the total domains according to the variable of membership of civil society institutions. The differences were in favor of students who are not members of the civil society institutions. There are differences in the level of civil society institutions’ contribution to enhancing ideological security according to the variable of academic year level regarding all the domains: political, religious and moral, and developmental, and the total, and these differences were between the first-year students and each of the students of the second year, the third year and the fourth year in favor of the students of the second year, the third year and the fourth year. There were also differences between the second-year students and each of the students of the third and the fourth year in favor of the students of the third year and the fourth year.

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Appendix A

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graphic