Using the Iraqi Tishreen movement as a case study, this paper applies frame and content analysis to explore the multimodal framing of the 2019 popular protests in Iraq to understand how protesters’ signs framed mass demands on social media. It analyses themes in the signs used by Iraqi protesters during the October 2019 uprising which were later posted on social media. The author collected 2113 posts from social media (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram), including digital images of people holding protest materials, graphic designs, and placard designs. Images of protesters and their signs were considered material data. The author stopped compiling images after finding duplicates. The images included textual and visual signs as well as icons and symbols. The analysis revealed four major themes and messages intended by the protesters: a willingness to sacrifice for the nation, national unity, feminism, and demands. The theme of the demands is divided into 14 subthemes, such as ending militias, the separation of religion and state, and the rejection of sectarianism. The findings revealed Iraqi political expression on social media and the developments of Arab visual protest culture.
The Multimodal Framing Demands by Protesters’ Signs in Social Media: Meaning and Sources of Visual and Textual Messages: The Case of Iraq
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Haitham Numan; The Multimodal Framing Demands by Protesters’ Signs in Social Media: Meaning and Sources of Visual and Textual Messages: The Case of Iraq. Contemporary Arab Affairs 1 December 2022; 15 (3-4): 7–33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/caa.2022.15.3-4.7
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