The major objective of this article is to discuss briefly the roots of the new public management (NPM) and public governance (PG) movements. To achieve this, it develops a theoretical framework to analyze the experiences of a selected set of Arab countries to explain critically the factors that influence the application of these two modern approaches to public-sector management in these Arab countries. Specifically, the article discusses critically the response of selected Arab world countries to the NPM and PG, and the impact of such factors on the influence of international organizations, their different colonial heritage, types of government systems, and politico-economic philosophies.

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