The paper argues that the act of looking, as defined between the story of Gyges, Candaules, and the offended queen and the story of Solon's visit to Lydia, functions in the first book of Herodotus, and perhaps also elsewhere throughout the Inquiry, as a metaphor for the relation of the histôr to the object of his investigation. Further, by a careful comparison of the Gyges story in Herodotus with the queen's own narration in the enigmatic "Gyges Tragedy" (P. Oxy. 2382), we can define a Herodotean psychology of spectation that bears a striking resemblance to the specifically tragic psychology manifest in the fragment. Herodotus positions his readers, the paper argues, in the place of Gyges, forcing them to look-in their imaginations-on what does not belong to them, just as the theatai in the Theater of Dionysus must look in imagination on the scene described by the queen. While the tragic audience is protected from the fate of Candaules and of Gyges' descendant Croesus by the constitutive blindness of tragedy that prevents the spectators from seeing what happens in the mukhos, Herodotus' audience must seek some other reassurance that they will not face the voyeur's penalty. This paper finally argues that Solon's theôria, with its crucial purpose of establishing the nomoi of Athens and its crucial ethic of looking not at the object of desire but at the end, installs in Herodotus' historiê the psychology of tragedy: to look desiringly is to lose, but to look inquiringly is to learn.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
P.Oxy. 2382, ll. 1-5
Hude's 1927
2
Lobel 1950.
Raubitschek 1954
Evans 1955
3
Konstan 1987.
Connor 1993
Thomas 1997
Hartog 1988: 365-66
4
Johnson 1994
5
Hartog 1988: 365-66
Nagy 1990: 258-73.
Lang 1984: 3-5
6
Hegyi 1965
McGlew 1994: 26- 27. 31-32
7
Flory 1987: 30-38.
8
Waters 1985: 106-108
Vandiver 1991: 118
9
Lang 1984: 73-74.
10
Gould 1989: 73-78.
11
Benardete 1969: 11-12.
12
Benardete 1969: 11-16.
13
Freud 1900
Klein 1945
14
Chantraine 1968-1980 [Unrepresented Characters]
15
Humphreys 1987.
16
Cairns 1996
Dewald 1993
n. 20 below.
18
Lacan 1948
19
Lacan 1948.
20
Dewald 1993: 62
21
Lang 1984: 65
Russo 1983: 26-29.
23
Hall 1989, esp. 1-13.
24
Dewald 1993.
25
Cairns 1996.
26
Bassi 1995: 6-7
Bassi 1998: 109-15.
28
Lacan 1977: 67-119.
Mulvey 1975.
Rose 1986: 167-97
de Lauretis 1984: 26-27
29
Loraux 1987: 23-24
Padel 1990 passim
Wohl 1998.
30
Marincola 1987: 121-23
Hartog 1988: 260-73.
31
Nagy 1990: 250-73
Hartog 1988: 270-73
Connor 1993.
32
Aesch. Ag. 177
33
Lang 1984: 37-51.
34
Padel 1990: 359-62.
35
Bassi 1998, ch. 3.
36
Rosenbloom 1993
37
Rep. 359c-e.
38
Shell 1978: 11-62 (esp. 30-36).
39
Kurke 1995.
40
Konstan 1987
Thermopylae (8.24-25)
42
Redfield 1985: 98, 116-18
43
Konstan 1987.
44
Konstan 1987: 62-65
Immerwahr 1966: 182

Bibliography

Bibliography
Austin, J. L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. 2nd ed. J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisà, eds. Cambridge, Mass.
Bassi, K. 1995. "Male Nudity and Disguise in the Discourse of Greek Histrionics." Helios 22: 3-22.
-. 1998. Acting Like Men: Gender, Drama and Nostalgia in Ancient Greece. Ann Arbor.
Benardete, S. G. 1969. Herodotean Inquiries. The Hague.
Butler, J. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York.
Cairns, D. 1996. "'Off with her AIAQE': Herodotus 1.8.3-4." CQ 46: 78-83.
Chantraine, P. 1968-1980. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. 4 vols. Paris.
Connor, W. R. 1993. "The Histor in History." In Rosen and Farrell 1993, 3-15.
Derrida, J. 1977. "Signature Event Context." Trans. Samuel Weber and Jeffrey Mehlman. In Limited, Inc, 1-24. Evanston, Ill.
Dewald, C. 1981. "Women and Culture in Herodotus' Histories." In H. Foley, ed., Reflections of Women in Antiquity, 91-125. New York.
-. 1993. "Reading the World: The Interpretation of Objects in Herodotus' His- tories." In Rosen and Farrell 1993, 55-70.
Evans, J. A. S. 1955. "Herodotus and the Gyges Drama." Athenaeum 33: 333-36.
-. 1985. " 'Candaules, whom the Greeks name Myrsilus ....' " GRBS 26: 229-33.
Flory, S. 1987. The Archaic Smile of Herodotus. Detroit.
Foucault, M. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York.
Freud, S. 1900. The Interpretation of Dreams. In J. Strachey, trans. and ed., The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols, vols. 4 and 5.1-627. London, 1953.
Gould, J. P. 1989. Herodotus: Historians on Historians. London.
Gray, V. 1995. "Herodotus and the Rhetoric of Otherness." AJP 116: 185-211.
Hall, E. 1989. Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-definition through Tragedy. Oxford.
Hartog, F. 1988. The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History. Trans. J. Lloyd. Berkeley.
Hegyi, D. 1965. "Notes on the Origin of Greek Tyrannis." Acta Antiqua 13: 303-18.
Humphreys, S. 1987. "Law, Culture and Custom in Herodotus." Arethusa 20: 211-20.
Immerwahr, H. 1966. Form and Thought in Herodotus. APA Philological Monographs 23. Cleveland.
Johnson, W. A. 1994. "Oral Performance and the Composition of Herodotus' Histories." GRBS 35: 229-54.
Klein, M. 1945. "The Oedipus Complex in the Light of Early Anxieties." In M. Klein, Contributions to Psycho-Analysis 1921-45, 339-90. London, 1948.
Konstan, D. 1987. "Persians, Greeks and Empire." Arethusa 20: 59-73.
Kurke, L. 1995. "Herodotus and the Language of Metals." Helios 22: 36-64.
Lacan, J. 1948. "Aggressivity in Psychoanalysis." In Alan Sheridan, trans., Ecrits: A Selection, 8-29. New York.
-. 1977. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. Ed. J.-A. Miller. Trans. A. Sheridan. New York.
Lang, M. 1984. Herodotean Narrative and Discourse. Cambridge, Mass.
de Lauretis, T. 1984. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. Bloomington.
Lobel, E. 1950. "A Greek Historical Drama." Proceedings of the British Academy 35: 1-12.
Loraux, N. 1987. Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman. Trans. Anthony Forster. Cambridge, Mass.
Marincola, J. 1987. "Herodotean Narrative and the Narrator's Presence." Arethusa 20: 121-37.
McGlew, J. 1994. Tyranny and Political Culture in Ancient Greece. Ithaca.
Mulvey, L. 1975. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." Screen 16: 8-18.
Nagy, G. 1990. Pindar's Homer: The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore.
Nesselrath, H.-G. 1995. "Herodot und die Enden der Erde." MH 52: 20-44.
Padel, R. 1990. "Making Space Speak." In J. Winkler and F. Zeitlin, eds., Nothing to do with Dionysos? 336-65. Princeton.
Page, D. 1951. A New Chapter in the History of Greek Tragedy. London.
Raubitschek, A. E. 1954. "Gyges in Herodotus." CW 48: 48-50.
Redfield, J. 1985. "Herodotus the Tourist." CP 80: 97-118.
Rose, J. 1986. Sexuality in the Field of Vision. London.
Rosen, R., and J. Farrell, eds. 1993. Nomodeiktes: Greek Studies in Honor of Martin Ostwald. Ann Arbor.
Rosenbloom, D. 1993. "Shouting Fire in a Crowded Theater: Phrynichos's Capture of Miletos and the Politics of Fear in Early Attic Tragedy." Philologus 137: 159-96.
Russo, J. 1983. "The Poetics of the Ancient Greek Proverb." Journal of Folklore Research 20: 121-30.
Shell, M. 1978. The Economy of Literature. Baltimore.
Snell, B. 1973. "Gyges und Kroisos als Tragödien-Figuren." ZPE 12: 197-205.
Thomas, R. 1997. "Ethnography, Proof and Argument in Herodotus's Histories." PCPS 43: 128-48.
Vandiver, E. 1991. Heroes in Herodotus: The Interaction of Myth and History. Frankfurt am Main.
Waters, K. H. 1985. Herodotus the Historian: His Problems, Methods, and Originality. Norman, Okla.
Wohl, V. 1998. Intimate Commerce: Exchange, Gender, and Subjectivity in Greek Tragedy. Austin.
This content is only available via PDF.