This article attempts to gather the evidence for panhellenism in the fifth century B.C. and to trace its development both as a political program and as a popular ideology. Panhellenism is here defined as the idea that the various Greek city-states could solve their political disputes and simultaneously enrich themselves by uniting in common cause and conquering all or part of the Persian empire. An attempt is made to trace the evidence for panhellenism throughout the fifth century by combining different kinds of evidence: that is, both poetic and historical texts, as well as the testimonia for monuments which are no longer extant. Any thought of a panhellenic crusade was impossible before the Persian invasions, but such an expedition, under the dual leadership of Athens and Sparta, was espoused by Cimon. After his death it remained an item of popular talk for the rest of the century and this talk intensified during the second half of the Peloponnesian War. The paper has six parts: the first finds hints of panhellenist ideology in the fragments of Simonides' Plataea elegy and in Aeschylus' Persians. The second part attempts to explain several puzzling passages in Herodotus in terms of his reflecting contemporary panhellenist discourse, especially in his account of Aristagoras of Miletus at Sparta. Part three reconstructs Cimon' s belief in dual hegemony and his plans for a joint Athenian-Spartan expedition against the Persian empire. Part four connects an anecdote about Miltiades with the Cimonian monuments and argues that the artistic program of the Stoa Poikile was intended to support Cimon's panhellenist aspirations. Part five discusses panhellenist sentiments in late fifth-century Greek poetry, and dates the Olympic Oration and Funeral Oration of Gorgias to the period 408-405 B.C., Finally, part six relates the panhellenist writings of Isocrates to earlier developments.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Green 1996: 6 and 28 n. 7
Grote in his History of Greece.
2
Perlman 1976: 4
Dillery 1995: 42 and 260 n. 3.
3
E. Hall 1989: esp. 3-13
E. Hall 1993
J. Hall 1997: 44-48.
4
Kessler 1911
Sussmann 1921
Mathieu 1925
Ryder 1965
Dobesch 1968
Perlman 1976
Sakellariou 1980
Green 1996.
n. 118 below.
5
Paneg. 3
6
Cartledge 1993: 43
de Romilly 1992: 225-33
Perlman 1976
Green 1996.
7
De Romilly 1992: 225-33.
8
Typical is Markle 1976: 80
Cawkwell 1982: 324-26.
9
Rutherford 1996: 185
West 1993: 9
Iliad 7.44-53.
Pritchett 1979: 47-90
Jameson 1991.
10
West 1992: 118-22
1993: 8-9.
IEG 112, p. 121
his article "Simonides Redivivus" (1993: 8)
11
he comments (1993: 9)
12
Boedeker: 1995: 219
1996: 236 n. 39.
Rutherford 1996: 184-85
n. 61
13
Hdt. 1.4 and 4.44-45
Aesch. Persians 12, 57, 61, 73, 249, 270, 549, 548, 763, 929.
Iliad 2.461
Leaf: 1900
Kirk: 1985 ad loc.
West, IEG I2
14
Pace Georgacas 1969: 22-24
1971: 27-28
West, IEG II2
Campbell 1982
Merkelbach and West, OCT3
15
Aloni 1997
Boedeker 1995
1996
1998.
16
Cawkwell 1978: 193n.
17
E. Hall 1989: 59-60.
18
1997: 25-27.
fr. 11, lines 33-34
19
P. J. Rhodes 1970
Badian 1993c: 130-33.
Hornblower 1985: 25
Thuc. 1.132.4
20
Lycurgus Against Leocrates 81
Diod. 11. 29. 3
Tod GHI ii 204
Siewert 1972.
21
R. F. Rhodes 1995: 32-33.
22
Hornblower 1991: 144-45
Fornara and Samons 1991: 81-82
23
Bellen 1974
Gehrke 1987.
24
Broadhead 1960: 222-23.
25
Fornara 1971a
1981
Fornara 1971b: 75-91
Raaflaub 1987.
26
1996: 7.
27
Xen. Anab. 1.5.9; 1.7.3-4; 3.1.21-23; 3.2.24-26
Isoc. Paneg. 133-56.
Dillery: 1995: 41-119
Masaracchia 1995: 47-79.
28
Grote 1884: IV 214-15
Macan 1895: 95.
Cawkwell 1982: 325
Starr 1976: 58-59
Austin 1993: 203.
Osborne 1996: 324
29
As Grote 1884: IV 215
30
Kirk, Raven, and Schofield 1983: 104-105.
Myres 1953: 34-37
Dilke 1985: 22-24.
Fehling 1989: 144
Dover 1998: 221-22.
31
Dover 1998: 222.
32
Nenci 1995: 225
Pizzagalli 1937
Westenholz 1997: 102-39.
West (1997) 70-71.
33
Westenholz 1997: 119-21
34
Hdt. 3.46-47, 54-56 with Cawkwell 1993: 520-23.
Hdt. 3.148
35
Iliad 5.63, 9.604
Hdt. 5.30.1, 6.98.1
Thuc. 1.12.3.
36
Hammond CAH2 IV: 497
37
Gould 1985: 12-13.
39
Moles 1996
Pelling 1997a
Dewald 1997.
40
Xenophanes F 1 and Hdt. 6.11-15
Flower 1994: 130-32
1997: 256-57.
41
Cawkwell 1997b: 38-39.
Starr 1976: 58-59
42
Lateiner 1989: 140-44, 193-96, 203-205.
Gould 1989.
Raaflaub 1987: 228
43
Fornara 1971b: 75-91
Raaflaub 1987: 247-48.
44
Thuc. 1.107-108 and 1.1 14
45
Podlecki 1998: 35-45.
46
Badian 1993a: 6-10
Schreiner 1997
47
Thuc. 1.100.3
Plut. Cimon 12-13
Diod. 11.60-61
Miller 1997: 12-13, 38-40.
48
Miller 1997: 38-40
Cimon 13.5-7.
49
Paus. 10.15.4-5
Plut. Nicias 13.3
Mor. 397f
Diod. 11.62.3
Stiihler 1989.
50
Badian's (1993a)
Cawkwell 1997a
Thucydides (1.102.4)
Briant 1996: 574-75.
51
Fomara and Samons 1991: 126.
52
Plut. Pericles 5.3.
Dover 1986
Strasburger 1990.
53
Kassel and Austin 1983: 122
Blamire 1989: 131.
54
Barron 1980.
55
Davies 1971: 306-307
56
Thuc. 1.102.
57
Hornblower 1985: 21-24.
Hornblower 1991: 142-43.
Cawkwell 1997: 132 n. 55
Fornara and Samons 1991: 114-29
58
Hornblower 1996: ii, 176-77.
Thuc. 5.29.3
Aristophanes Peace 1080-82.
59
Cawkwell 1997b: 38-39.
60
Thuc. 1.112.1
Andocides 3.3-4
Theopompus FGrHist 115 F88
Plut. Cimon 18.1.
Blamire 1989: 177-78
Fornara and Samons 1991: 138-39
Podlecki 1998: 43-45.
61
Parker 1976.
Badian 1993a: 58-60.
62
Meiggs 1972: 508-12
Thuc. 1.109.2-3
64
West 1985: 74.
Contra Jacoby 1947: 9
65
Cimon 18.1 and 18.6
Wade-Gery 1945: 219-22.
Parker 1976: 32
66
Cimon 18.7.
67
Thuc. 1.112.4
Diod. 12.3.
Diodorus (11.62.3)
Badian 1993a: 20,64-66.
68
Meiggs 1972: 124-28.
69
Schreiner 1977: 21-29.
Parke 1967: 215
Thuc. 1.112.3
Thomas 1989: 203-205
70
Bosworth 1990
Schwartz 1900: 109
Parke 1985: 63
Pédech 1984, 27-31
Prandi 1985: 53-54.
71
FGrHist 325.
73
Ages. 15.3-4
Flam. 10-11.
Shipley 1997: 45-46.
74
Plutarch claims at Ages. 15.1
Ages. 1.36
Shipley 1997: 202.
75
Volquardsen 1868
Schwartz 1903: col. 679
Hornblower 1994: 36-38
Stylianou 1998: 49-50.
76
Flower 1998.
Flower 1994: 42-62.
77
Georges 1994: 66-68
Hecataeus (FGrHist 1 F 286)
78
Lazenby 1993: 57-58.
Hdt. 6.136
Plut. Cimon 4.4
79
Castriota 1992: 81
Miller 1997: 31-32
80
Vidal-Naquet 1986: 304-305
Mills 1997: 40-41
n. 174.
81
Castriota 1992: 76-89, 127-33
Mills 1997: 40-42
Hölscher 1998: 166-67.
Wycherley 1957: 31-47.
82
Castriota 1992: 259 n. 84
Plut. Cim. 4.6
Diogenes Laertius 7.1.5.
83
Hölscher 1973: 74.
Boersma 1970: 55-56
84
Shear 1984: 13-15, 18.
85
Aeschines Against Ctesiphon 186
Aelius Aristides On the Four 174
scholiast on Aristides On the Four 174
Nepos Miltiades 6.3
Harrison 1972: 356-57.
86
Vickers 1985a
1985b
Francis 1990: 85-89
Castriota 1992: 78-79, 260-61
Badian 1993b: 210 n. 39
Bollansée 1991
Develin 1993
Hölscher 1998: 166
87
Meiggs 1972: 96-97, 469-72.
Pritchett 1994
Thuc. 6.7.1-2.
88
Mills 1997: 9-10
Paus. 10.25-27
Castriota 1992: 127-28
89
Barron 1980
90
Pelling 1997b: 11
91
Badian 1993a: 1-72
Cawkwell 1997a.
92
Plut. Per. 17
Bosworth 1971
93
Xen. Hell. 1.6.7.
Hell. 5.1.17.
Cawkwell (1979: 79, 250)
Moles 1994.
94
Lines 1128ff.
95
Sommerstein 1990: 213
Hugill 1936: 16-20
96
Gibert 1995
97
Gibert 1995: 220-21
his notes 38-39
98
Croally 1994: 103-19
Saïd 1989.
99
Knox 1979: 246-47
Gibert 1995: 252-54.
100
Politics 1252b
101
E. Hall 1994
Lloyd-Jones and Parsons 1983: 146-51
102
Bassett 1931
Hansen 1984
Janssen 1984: 22
Hose 1994.
103
Greenblatt 1991: 127.
Pelling 1997b
1997a
Hose 1994: 86
104
Ages. 14.4.
E. Hall 1994.
Plut. Ages. 15. 8
Shipley 1997: 208-10.
105
Campbell 1993
Campbell 1993
106
Campbell 1993
107
Paus. 3.11.3
Vitruvius 1.1.6.
108
Wilamowitz 1893: 172-73
n. 75.
109
Blass 1892: 58-59
Beloch 1922: 521 n. 3.
110
de Romilly 1992: 228
n. 5
Ostwald and Lynch CAH2 VI: 598
111
Diod. 13.52-53
Aristotle (Ath. Pol. 34.1-2)
P. J. Rhodes 1981: 424-25
112
Kleinow 1988.
Green 1996: 30 n. 39
Diod. 14.109
Dion. Hal. Lysias 29
113
Photius (Bibl. 487a)
114
Buchner 1958: 1-10.
Photius (Bibl. 101b)
115
Ryder 1965: 50
Dillery 1995: 56.
116
Ryder 1963
Stylianou 1998: 185-86
n. 25
Stylianou 1998: 49-50, 147-49.
117
Speusippus (Letter to Philip 13
Bickermann and Sykutris 1928
Too (1995: 199)
118
Baynes 1955
Kennedy 1963: 198-203
Markle 1976
Dillery 1995: 54-58
Too 1995: 129-50.
Cawkwell 1982: 324-26.
Bringmann 1965
Dobesch 1968
119
Letter 3, To Philip 6 (338 BC).
Note also Philippus 9 (346 BC).
Flower 2000.
120
The Spartan Lysander (Xen. Hell. 3.4.2)
Jason of Pherae (Xen. Hell. 6.1.12)
Alexander the Great (Arr. 2.7.8-9)
Cawkwell 1972: 26-33
Starr 1976
Austin 1993: 203-204, esp. 204 n. 1
Briant 1996.
121
Schauenberg 1975
Winkler 1990: 51.
Miller 1997: figs. 1-2.
Pinney 1984.
122
Cartledge 1987: 180-202
Hamilton 1991: 86-119
Shipley 1997: 41-46, 116-210.
123
Cawkwell 1978: 150-65.
124
Flower 2000.
Seibert (1998)

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