Lycurgus' "Against Leocrates" has long been seen as an anomaly in the oratorical corpus by scholars of ancient rhetoric. Its extensive use of quotations from the poets and of personification are two features regularly picked out as especially odd and inexplicable by critics. This paper argues that these and other features of the speech are central to Lycurgus' attempt to persuade his jury to accept his radically un-Athenian political views. In fact, Lycurgus has rejected Athenian approaches to punishment, prosecution, and politics in favor of Platonic views, which bear the taint of the elite philosophical schools. The quotation and the personification are two techniques that Lycurgus uses to craft a "new prosecutorial voice" that will overcome his audience's objections to his elitist and even Platonic political positions. I contend that the whole speech may be read as a study in how to craft a "voice" or form of oratorical self-presentation that will persuade an audience to accept heterodox political views.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
1957: 521-22
Cawkwell 1970
Cawkwell 1996
2
Dem. 18 (On the Crown)
3
1934: 7-8
Treves (1934: 7-8)
4
Bk. 2
Allen 2000
5
Philosophie der Griechen [2, 420]
6
M. Foucault's Discipline and Punish (1991)
My The World of Prometheus (2000)
8
Lys. 10
9
Pinzger (1824)
Cima (1896)
10
Isoc. 13.1; 20.6-9
And. 1.24
Lys. 1.15; 15.12, 19.6; 29.6; 31.11
Isaeus 1.10, 13. 18; 8.37
Dem. 19.265; 21.99; 28.63; 34.19; 35.31; 38.1; 59.51- 55; Aes. 2.3; 3.3
Lyc. 1.86, 91-92.
Isoc. 13.1
Lys. 7.20; 13.1; 15.12
Dem. 53.1-3, 15; 54.33; 58.49, 52; 59.1, 14-15.
Demosthenes (21.123)
Dem. 25.27; 40.5: "Be angry"
Isoc. 18.42
Lys. 12.90
Dem 21.183
Lys. 29.6
Dem. 21.2, 6
Lys. 25.6-7; 29.2.5 (prosecution)
Dem. 22.1.3
Aes. 3.3
Demades 1.3, 4.
11
Allen 2000, chs. 7 and 8.
12
Isoc. 18.42
Lys. 12.90
Dem 21.34, 183; 25.27; 41.3.
Lysias 13.1; 19.6; 29.6
Aes. 2.4
Lyc. 1.91-92
Demades 1.30.
13
Allen 2000
14
Lys. 7.20
Dem. 21.8; 24.8
15
Lys. 1.15
Christ 1998:144-52
16
Lofberg 1917:19-25
Harrison 1971:60ff.
MacDowell 1978:62-66
Harvey 1990:103-21
Osborne 1990:83-102
Hunter 1994:126-27
Christ 1998.
Lys. 13.67
Isaeus 11.13, 31
Dem. 21.102-103, 116; 36.54; 38.3, 16, 20; 39.2, 26, 34; 55; 57; 58
Aes. 1
Lyc. 1.31.
And Isoc. 15.314-15
18
IG i3 102.
19
CP 1.17.9-10
HP 2.7.9-15
20
Dover (1991:178)
21
Dem. 19.105, 138, 231, 270, 284, 343; 21.37, 124, 227; 22.68; 23.99; 24.18, 143; 34.51; 35; 36; 37; 38; 42.15; 45.87; 50.66-67; 51.12; 56.48; [59].77
Lys. 1.35, 47; [6].54-55; 12.5; 14.12, 3, 22; 15.9; 22.5, 19-20, 45; 27.5; 28.18; 30.23, 33.5
Isoc. 18; 20.16-17; 21.18
Aes. 1.89.
Dem. 34, 35, 36, 36, 38
Isoc. 18
Dem. 42
Dem. 56
Isoc. 20
Isoc. 20.16-17
22
Petrie 1922: xxxiii-xxxiv
23
Aeschines 1.151, 156, 158, 178, 186; 2.89, 112, 145; 3.4, 93, 154, 208, 257
Dem. 18.80, 95, 215, 254, 261.
24
Laws 871e1, 784d7, 945a5, 944e5, 916b7, 843b3, 868b3, 937b5
Mackenzie 1981
Saunders 1991:ch. 7.
25
n. 17.
26
Carter 1986
Michelini 1994.
Xen. Hell. 2.3.22
Lys. 12.4-5, 20
And. 1.99
Theophr. Char. 26.
Lys. 12.17; 13.45-54, 56, 66; 26.13
Xen. Hell. 2.3.17
Dem. 24.164-66
Aes. 3.220.
Thuc. 8.74.
Xen. Hell. 2.3.12-13
Xen. Hell. 2.3.13-14
Xen. Hell. 2.3.38
Christ 1992: 343-46
Arist. Ath. Pol. 35.3
Xen. Hell. 2.3.12-13.
Xen. Hell. 2.3.22
27
Allen 2000: ch. 7.
28
Bers 1985.
29
Allen 2000
30
1994:29
Ant. 1.3; 5.73
And. 1.30
Isoc. 14.52-53; 16.48; 18.62
Isaeus 2.44; 5.35
Lys. 3.48; 6.3, 55; 10.22; 18.1; 19.2, 6, 53; [20].34-35; 22.21: "You would not be justified in taking pity on them"; 24.1-2, 7; 28.11, 13-14
Dem. 19.65; 21.98, 148; 24.196; 25.81; 27.58-63; 28.20; [53].29 "They claim your pity; give me forgiveness"
57.1: "Listen to me with good will for it is likely that you listen more pityingly to those in danger"; 57.2, 3, 45, 49
58.69: "Pity us"
Lyc. 1.143-44
Hyp. 3.36
Din. 1.22, 109.
Isoc. 18.36; 20.14
Lys. 21.9: "Be angered because of the misfortune"
Isaeus 6.56
Dem. 25.27; 40.5: "Be angry"; 18.274; 21.127; 22.39; 24.110, 152-53, 200, 218; 25.26-27, 94; 37.20; 45.20; 51.8-(10)
Aes. 1.176, 192-93; 3.198
Lyc. 1.58, 138
Hyp. 5.22
Din. 1.77; 2.4; 3.13, 15
Demades 1.30.
31
Adkins (1972:122)
Isaeus 6.56
Lys. 11.9
Dem. 21.1
Dem. 44.57
Lyc. 1.138
Ant. 1.3; 5.73
And. 2.6
Isoc. 16.48; 20.14
Isaeus 6.56
Lys. 6.55; 11.9; 13.1; 14.2, 20.21; 27.11-13; 31.11
Dem. 21.127, 148, 186; 54.138
Lyc. 1.58
Aes. 3.260
Din. 1.22.
32
Aristotle (Rhet. 2.1.8, 1278a-1380b)
Plato Phaedrus 267c.
Swarney 1993
Carey 1994: 29.
33
Aesch. 3.4, 3.93, 3.154, 3.208, 3.252
Dem. 18.80, 18.95, 18.215, 18.254, 18.261.
34
Burke 1977.
35
Dem. 19.265; 21.99; 28.63; 34.19; 35.31; 38.1; 59.51-55.
Dem. 53.1-3, 15; 54.33; 58.49, 52; 59.1, 14-15.
Demosthenes (21.123)
Dem. 18.274

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