This paper aims to reexamine how traditions about the spolia opima developed with special emphasis on two crucial phases of their evolution, the time of Marcus Claudius Marcellus' dedication in 222 BC and the early years of Augustus' principate, following the restoration of the temple of Jupiter Feretrius on the Capitol. In particular, I will argue that Marcellus invented the spolia opima, that his feat shaped the entire tradition about such dedications, and that this tradition was later enhanced and "reinvented" by Augustus, probably following upon renewed interest under Julius Caesar. Through an evaluation of the surviving evidence about the three canonical dedicators (Romulus, A. Cornelius Cossus, and Marcellus) the possibility is explored that the spolia opima, rather than being an archaic ritual dating back to the regal period, represent a tradition invented (and reinvented) by specific individuals at certain well-defined moments in Roman history. Augustus himself, beginning while he was still a child, was influenced by traditions about the career and achievements of M. Claudius Marcellus. Augustus' interest in Marcellus helps to explain his special focus on the spolia opima as a significant and hallowed Roman tradition. Consequently, in the late first century B.C., spolia opima were associated both with old-fashioned "republican" aspirations and also with the iconography and self-definition of the new ruling family. In this context other leading Romans of the age considered dedicating such spolia, notably M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the triumvir, and the elder Drusus, brother of Tiberius. In addition, Virgil included the spolia opima as a recurring theme in the second half of the Aeneid. The poem reaches its climax when Aeneas kills his rival Italian leader Turnus in a duel which would have entitled him to dedicate spolia opima.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Picard 1957: 123-36
Rüpke 1990: 199-202, 217-23.
2
Festus 202-204L
ILS 64
II 13.3.70
Cic. Rep. 2.7.12-10.17
Livy 1.10
Dion. Hal. 2.34.4
Prop. 4.10
Plut. Rom. 16
Val. Max. 3.2.3
Flor. 1.1.11
Serv. A. 6.859
Sol. 1.20, vir ill. 2.4.
3
Oakley 1985: 398
Rich 1996: 124-25
McDonnell 1999: 552
4
A. Cornelius Cossus (RE 112)
Livy 4.19-20
Prop. 4.10
Dion. Hal. 12.5
Festus 204L
Val. Max. 3.2.4
Manil. Astr. 1.788
Front. Strat. 2.8.9
Plut. Rom. 16
Marc. 8
Serv. A.6.841 and 855
Flor. 1.6.9
Ampel. 21
Priscian 5.13.
M. Claudius Marcellus (RE 220)
Polyb. 2.34.5-9
Cic. Tusc.4.49
Livy Per 20
Verg. A. 6.855-59
Prop. 4.10
Manil. Ast. 1.787ff.
Val. Max. 3.2.5
Festus 204L
Sil Ital. 1.133, 3.587, 12.278-80
Front. Strat.4.5.4
Plut. Marc. 7-8
Rom. 16.7-8
Comp. Pelop. and Marc. 1.2
Crawford no. 439
Flor. 1.20.4
Eutrop. 3.6
Ampel. 21, vir ill. 45
Oros. 4.13.15.
5
Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983: 1.
Wiseman 1995: 103-28
6
Stewart 1998: 79-88
7
I. I. 13.1, 79 and 550
8
Plut. Marc. 8.2.
9
Livy 29.11.13
Flower 1995
Wiseman 1998.
Contra Gruen 1990: 94
10
Plut. Marc. 2.
Pliny Nat. 7.92
Oakley 1985
Rawlings 1996.
Silius 12.197-98
T. Quinctius Crispinus in 211
Livy 25.18.4-15
Val. Max. 5.1.3
M. Servilius Geminus Pulex cos. 202
Livy 45.39.16
Plut. Aem.31.2
Crawford no. 289
12
Plut. Marc. 6-7.
Klotz 1934
Scardigli 1979
Ferrary 1988: 493-94.
14
Livy 27.7, 29.11.13
Val. Max. 1.1.8.
15
So Front. Strat.4.5.4.
16
Gros 1979: 103-108
17
Servius A. 6.859.
Festus 204L
Versnel 1970: 308-309
Rampelberg 1978
Magdelain 1984
Rü"pke 1990: 218-22
Rich 1996: 124.
18
Liou-Gille 1998: 39-55
19
Plut. Marc. 8.5
20
Polyb. 2.34
Contra Gruen 1990: 93-94
McDonnell 1999: 551
Livy 26.21.1-5
Richardson 1975: 54-55
Eckstein 1987: 169-77.
21
Livy 26.29-32
Plut. Marc. 23.
22
Cic. Verr. 2.2.4, 2.2.50-51, 2.4.151
Plut. Marc. 23
Prop. 3.18.33.
Cic. Pis. 44
Marcellus' grandson (cos. 166, 155, 152).
23
Livy 27.25.7-10
Plut. Marc. 28.1.
Orlin 1997: 116-61
24
Polyb. 10.32-33
Livy 27.27-28
Val. Max. 1.6.9, 5.1 ext. 6
Plut. Marc. 29-30
App. Hann. 50, vir ill. 45.
Caltabiano 1975.
25
Plut. Comp. Pelop. and Marc. 3.3
Livy 22.7.5
Plut. Fab. 3
26
Appian BC 1.43.6
27
Livy 27.27.13.
28
Càssola 1962: 224-326.
29
Livy 23.31.12-14
Plut. Marc. 12.1.
30
Livy 24.9.1-4, 26.22, 27.20.9-21.5.
31
Plut. Marc. 20-21
Polyb. 9.10
Livy 25.40.1-3.
Gros 1979
Ferrary 1988: 509-10, 573-78, 581-82
Pelling 1989: 199-208.
32
Livy 26.21.1-14
Val. Max. 2.8.5
Plut. Marc. 21-22, vir ill. 45.6.
Brennan 1997: 323-25.
C. Papirius Maso in 231.
Picard 1957: 130-32
Bonfante Warren 1970
Versnel 1970: 312
33
Plut. Marc. 30
CIL 6.474
ILLRP 218
ILS 3139
Degrassi Imagines no. 99
CIL 6.1281
ILLRP 295
ILS 12
Livy 24.39
Plut. Marc. 2
Cic. Verr. 2.4.121
Rep. 1.21
Livy 25.40.1-3
Plut. Marc. 8.6
Livy 5.23.8-11
Stewart 1998: 86 n. 95.
34
Cic. ND 2.61
Livy 27.25.7-9
Val. Max. 1.1.8
Plut. Marc. 28.1
Serv. A. 1.8
Symm. Ep. 1.20.
ILS 3617
Platner and Ashby 1929 ad loc.
Richardson 1992 ad loc.
Steinby 1996: 31-33.
Contra Richardson 1978
Rullianus cens. 304
Maximus Cunctator (vir ill. 32).
36
Bucher 1987/1995
37
Classen 1962: 194-95
Burkert 1962
Evans 1992.
39
Livy 1.10.5-7
Dion. Hal. 2.34.4
Plut. Rom. 16.5-8
Platner and Ashby 1929 ad loc.
Springer 1954-1955
Richardson 1992 ad loc.
Coarelli in Steinby 1996: 135-36 with fig. 91.
40
Dion. Hal. 2.34.4
Nepos Att. 20.3
41
Ogilvie 1965: 70-73.
42
Càssola's 1970
43
102L, Livy 1.24.9, 30.43.9.
Wiedemann 1986
Harrison 1989: 409.
44
Livy 1.24.8
45
Walde and Hoffmann 1938: 481
Ernout and Meillet 1951: 403
Radke 1979: 123-24.
46
MMR 1: 232
Eckstein 1987: 15-17
Stewart 1998: 85-87.
47
Livy 21.63.7
Plut. Marc. 4.3
Fab. 2.4
Zon. 8.20.
48
Livy 21.63.2
Plut. Marc. 4.3
Zon. 8.20.
Eckstein 1987: 16 n. 53
49
Eckstein 1987: 17
Stewart 1998: 86
50
Polyb. 2.25.2
Polyb. 2.28.10
51
Weinstock 1971: 177-79
53
Festus 466-8L with Platner and Ashby 1929 ad loc.
Richardson 1978
1992 ad loc.
Steinby 1996: 33-35.
Hinard 1987
54
Bishop 1948
Ogilvie 1965: 558
Versnel 1970: 308
Rampelberg 1978: 195
Daly 1981
Magdelain 1984: 207
Rich 1996: 86
Stewart 1998.
55
Dessau 1906
Bishop 1948
Springer 1954-1955
Ogilvie 1965: 557-67
Mensching 1967
Càssola 1970
Syme 1979
Daly 1981
Harrison 1989
Badian 1993
Miles 1995
Rich 1996
Stewart 1998.
56
Livy 4.20.1
57
Saulnier 1980: 150-55
Cornell 1995: 311
58
Val. Max. 3.2.4
Front. Strat. 2.8.9, vir ill. 25
Serv. A.6.842
Diod. 12.80.6-8
Livy 4.19.1-6, 4.20.5, 4.32.4
Dion. Hal. 12.5
Serv. A. 6.841
Livy 4.20.5-11 (Augustus)
59
Quadr. 10 P, Livy 7.9.6-10
Dion. Hal. 14.12
Zon. 7.24.
Livy 8.7.1-22
App. Samn. 3
Dio fr. 35.2
Zon. 7.26.
M. Valerius Corvinus in 349
Livy 7.26.1-10
Dion. Hal. 15.1.1-4
Zon. 7.25
Gell. 9.11.1-10.
Oakley 1985: 393-97.
Feldherr 1998: 82-111
60
Contra Stewart 1998: 87
61
Münzer in RE s.v.
Flower 1996: 176-77, and 356-57
62
Livy 20.
Per. 20
63
Degrassi II 13.1. 64-65 with 534 and 538.
64
Pliny Nat. 7.139
ORF4 no. 6 fr. 2.
Kierdorf 1980: 10-21
Flower 1996: 136-42.
67
Lahusen 1989: 20-21, 50-51
Taf. 46-49
Harlan 1995: 175-81
69
Flower 1996: 86-88.
70
Münzer 1905: 93-100.
71
Dio 44.4.3
72
Nep. Att. 20.3.
73
Syme 1979: 419
Contra Harrison 1989: 408-409
Rich 1996: 106.
74
Nep. Att. 20.3
RG 19, Livy 4.20.7
Dion. Hal. 2.34.4
Shipley 1931: 48
Springer 1954-1955
Syme 1979: 420
Perlwitz 1992: 111-12
Badian 1993: 15.
Millar 1988: 51
1976: 15-28, 45, and 49
75
RG 4.7, 15.9
Dio 50.4.4-5.
Wiedemann 1986: 482
Harrison 1989: 409
Rüupke 1990: 241.
Brunt (1990) 305-308
76
Luce 1965: 211-17.
Mensching 1967: 22-23
Badian 1993: 14-16
77
Dio 51.24.4 (PIR L 186).
Groag at RE Licinius 58.
78
Dessau 1906
n. 55 above.
80
Badian 1982.
81
RG 34.1-2
Suet. Aug. 7.2
Dio 53.4, 53.16.7-8.
82
Dessau's point (1906: 144)
83
Groag RE 58
Liou-Gille 1998: 44-47.
84
Hickson 1992.
85
Rawson 1990: 160.
86
II 13.1 86-87 and 571 with Dio 51.25.2.
87
PIR L opp. p. 40
Syme 1979: 496-509.
Groag RE 58
Eck 1993
1996: 78-79
88
Livy Per. 134 and 135
Dio 51.23.2-27
Zon. 10.32
Florus 2.26.
89
Dio 51.26.5
Dio 38.10.
90
AE 1928.44 (Thespiae)
ILS 8810
IG III2 4118 (Athens).
Note Mócsy 1966
Wilkes 1996: 550
91
At RG 29
92
Polyb. 6.39.10
Livy 10.7.9, 23.23.6
Prop. 1.16.1-4
Pliny Nat. 35.7
Rawson 1990
Flower 1996: 41.
Flower 1998
93
Dessau 1906: 145-46
Rich 1996: 99, 106-107.
94
Cic. Dom. 121 and 130-41.
95
Dio 51.24.4
96
Fast. Capit. with Schumacher 1985
Càssola 1970: 7
Rampelberg 1978: 201-204.
Contra Rich 1996: 104
Giovannini 1983: 31-56
97
Dio 51.25.2
Badian 1982: 38-41
Schumacher 1985: 209-10.
Actium (Oros. 6.19.14)
Alexandria (ILS 81).
AE 1977.778
Suet. Aug.18.2
Dio 51.1.1-3 and 51.21.1
98
Rich 1996
99
Livy 4.20.5-6
100
Beard 1990: 34-48
n. 82 above.
Liou-Gille 1998: 51
RG 7.3
101
Millar 1964
Swan 1987 esp. 277 ff.
103
Syme 1979: 419-20.
104
Bishop 1948
Ogilvie 1965: 563
Rich 1996: 122.
105
Miles 1995: 40-47.
Daly 1981
Fornara 1983: 74-75
Jaeger 1997: 182
106
Luce 1990.
107
Harrison 1989: 414
Rich 1996: 88
108
Putnam 1985
Picard 1957: 129
109
Aen. 6.855-59 with Norden 1916 ad loc.
Woodman 1989
110
Prop. 3.18.33
Hor. Odes 1.12.45
Plut. Marc. 30.5
Dio 53.30.5
Serv. A. 1.712 with Caltabiano 1975: 75-80.
Münzer 1905: 99
111
Harrison 1989: 413.
Aen. 7.42
113
Cairns 1989: 58-84.
114
Harrison 1991 ad loc.
Putnam 1995: 114-17
Harrison 1998.
Heinze 1903: 205-206
Hornsby 1966
Horsfall 1995: 175-77, 212.
115
Nisbet 1990: 385
Warde Fowler 1929: 153
Johnson 1976: 114-34
Pascal 1990
Leigh 1993.
Stahl 1990
Lyne 1990
Putnam 1995: 152-71, 202-205
Horsfall 1995: 192-216
Thomas 1998, esp. 283.
116
Grimal 1954: 44
Butler and Barber 1933
117
Rem. Am. 764.
Harrison 1989: 411
118
Bonnefond 1987: 273-74.
119
Dio 54.8.2-3
Reusser in Steinby 1996: 230-31
Picard 1957: 274-76
120
Dio 54.8.3
121
van der Vin 1981: 122-24.
Zanker 1988: 187
122
RG 29.3
Ovid Fast. 5.579-94
Dio 55.10.4
van der Vin 1981: 132
Zanker 1988: 194
Kockel in Steinby 1995: 289-95
123
Tacitus Ann. 1.60.4
Bonnefond 1987: 257ff.
Galinsky 1996: 199.
124
Picard 1957: 126-30, 169, 235
Höscher 1980
Marius and Sulla, Viscogliosi 1988: 136-48
125
Dio 51.19.1, 54.8.3
Schol. Verg. Aen. 7.606.
De Maria 1988: 269-72 with Tav. 44-49
Nedergaard 1988.
Simpson 1992.
126
Wallace-Hadrill 1986: 79
Hickson 1992
127
Zanker 1988: 188-92
Kuttner 1995
Galinsky 1996: 107, 155-64.
Kuttner 1995: 29-31
128
Galinsky 1996: 109 fig. 44.
129
Fast. Amit. II 13.2 516 and 519
RG 11, Dio 54.10.3
Coarelli in Steinby 1995: 275.
130
RG 11
Coarelli in Steinby 1995: 275
131
Zanker 1988: 183-92
132
Zanker 1968
Kellum 1981: 107-56
Anderson 1984: 65- 100
Bonnefond 1987
Siebler 1988: 172
Ganzert and Kockel 1988
Kockel in Steinby 1995: 289-95 with figs. 115-22
Flower 1996: 224-36
Galinsky 1996: 197-213.
133
Ovid Fast. 5.559-66 with Kockel 1983.
Flower 1996: 231-35
Springer 1954-1955: 31-2
Kellum 1981: 121-23
Zanker 1988: 203.
134
Kellum 1981
Maggiani 1992.
135
Suet. Claud. 1.4
Rich 1999
Suet. Tib. 3.2
M. Livius Denter, RE 11
Oakley 1985: 394
136
Livy Per. 142 with Levick 1976: 35
Suet. Claud. 1
Dio 55.1-2.
137
Suet. Claud. 1.5
Dio 55.2.2.
138
Dio 55.5.1
RG 4.1.
139
Picard 1957: 277
140
Feldherr 1998: 85-92

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