Alcibiades is one of the most explicitly sexualized figures in fifth-century Athens, a "lover of the people" whom the demos "love and hate and long to possess" (Ar. Frogs 1425). But his eros fits ill with the normative sexuality of the democratic citizen as we usually imagine it. Simultaneously lover and beloved, effeminate and womanizer, Alcibiades is essentially paranomos, lawless or perverse. This paper explores the relation between Alcibiades' paranomia and the norms of Athenian sexuality, and argues that his eros reveals an intrinsic instability within the sexual economy of the democracy: the desire he embodied blurred the categories that defined Athenian masculinity; the desire he inspired rendered the demos passive and "soft." This same instability can be seen in Thucydides' juxtaposition of the mutilation of the Herms and the legend of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. These two episodes (obscurely linked by Thucydides) together tell of an idealized citizen body under threat. The tyrannicide story figures the democratic citizen as an elite lover, whose sexual dominance is vital to his political autonomy. The Herms, with their prominent phalloi, symbolized this citizen-lover, and thus their mutilation was an assault on the masculinity, as well as political power, of the demos. The tyrannicide legend seems to promise a defense against this threat of civic castration; but instead of shoring up the sexually-dominant citizen, Thucydides' version of the legend merely reveals his frailty and fictionality: even in Athens' heroic past there is no inviolable democratic eros to cure the impotence of mutilation and tyranny. Reading these two episodes against the backdrop of Alcibiades' paranomia (as described by Plutarch and Plato), this paper examines the nature of democratic masculinity, the (eroticized) relation between demagogue and demos, and the place of perverse desire within the protocols of sex.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
And. 1
Plut. Alc. 18.5-23
D.S. 13.2.3- 4
Osborne 1985:64-67
Dover 1970:264-88
de Romilly 1995:101-104
Hatzfeld 1951:158-95
MacDowell 1962:192-93
Marr 1971:337-38
Furley 1996, esp. 13-30.
2
Taylor 1981:161-75
Forde 1989:33-57
Palmer 1982:106-109, 114-15
Momi- gliano 1971
Pearson 1949
Münch 1935
Parry 1972.
Schwartz 1919:180-86
Hirsch 1926:139
Zeigler 1928:58-59
Jacoby 1949:158 n.47
Fitzgerald 1957:278-80
Dover 1970:329
Lang 1954:398-99
Thuc. 1.20
Dover 1970:317-29 (esp. 325-29)
Allison 1997:182-86
Diesner 1959
Connor 1977:107-109
1987:178-80
Ridley 1981:27-28
Hunter 1974
Rawlings 1981:100-17
Jacoby 1949:158-64.
3
Forde puts it (1989:35).
Forde 1989:33-37
Allison 1997:182-86
Cornford 1965 [1907]:207-10
Connor 1987:178-79.
Connor 1992 [1971]:99-108, 140-41
4
Winkler 1990a:35-36.
5
Brunt 1952
Delebecque 1965
Bloedow 1973:80-86.
Plu. Alc. 19.1, 20.3, 22.3-4
And. 1.11-16
Isoc. 16.6-7
Lys. 14.41-42
Dem. 21.147
D.S. 13.5.
Dover 1970:276- 82
Ellis 1989:58-62
Dover 1970:264-88
Nussbaum 1986:171 n.17
MacDowell 1962:192-93
Bloedow 1973:15-17
Palmer 1982:112-15
de Romilly 1995:101-23
McGregor 1965:34-36
Marr 1971:328
Westlake 1968:221-22.
6
Strauss calls him "Eros personified" (1993:152)
7
Halperin speaks of "the proper phallocentric protocols" (1990b:23)
1997:49
"Greek canons of sexual propriety" (1990b:36n).
1990b:4-5
Dover 1978:60-109
Foucault 1985
Winkler 1990a
Halperin 1990a
1990b.
Cohen 1991:171-202
Poster 1986
Lefkowitz 1985
Golden 1991
Richlin 1991
Cohen 1992
Thornton 1991
Hexter 1991
Hubbard 1998.
8
Foucault 1978:36-49
Black 1998
9
Winkler views the kinaidos as a "scare-image" that helped reaffirm and enforce the ideal of citizen masculinity (1990b:46).
Halperin 1990a
1990b:45-70
Thornton 1991
Davidson 1997
10
Butler 1990:42, 93
1993:10, 94-95, 122
1997:18.
11
Butler 1990:139-41
1993:1-2, 13-15, 94-95, 232.
12
Butler 1990:141-45
1993:121-37, 231-39.
13
Butler 1993:97-99
1997:55-61, 101-103.
14
Thuc. 2.43.1
Aristophanes' Knights.
15
Thomas 1989:238-82
Ehrenberg 1956
Fornara 1970:159-70
Fehr 1984
Raaflaub (forthcoming).
Dem. 19.280, 20.159-62
Ar. Knights 786-87
Hdt. 6.109.3.
Brunnsåker 1971:120-21
Taylor 1981 ch. 1
Podlecki 1966:129
Fornara 1970:155-59.
Arist. Ath. Pol. 58.1
Hyperides 6.39
IG I2 77.5
Dem. 19.280, 20.29, 20.159-62
Din. 1.101
Isaeus 5.46-47
16
Xen. Hieron 1.29-38
17
Fehr 1984:17
Stewart 1997:73
Brunnsåker 1971:33-164
Taylor 1981 ch. 2
Fehr 1984
Hölscher 1998:158-60.
Hölscher calls it "the first truly political monument in Greece" (1998:158).
18
Halperin 1986
1990a:4
Dover 1978:149-50
Bremmer 1990
Thornton 1997:193-212
Hubbard 1998
Fisher 1998.
19
Aeschines (1.132)
20
Ar. Wasps 1023-28
Knights 1384-87.
Hubbard 1998
Fisher 1998
Fehr 1984: 27-33.
21
Harmodius or Aristogeiton (Aul. Gel. 9.2.10
Lib. Decl. 1.1.71).
Fisher 1998:100-101.
22
Thomas 1989:242-51
Jacoby 1949
Lang 1954
Fornara 1968
Fitzgerald 1957
Podlecki 1966.
Ober 1989:259-70
Fisher 1998.
Fehr (1984:27-33)
23
Stewart 1997:73.
Hölscher notes that the statue group commemorates not a successful act, but a "political attitude" (1998:160).
24
LSJ take it, III.1
25
Morris 1996
Lavelle 1986:320 and n.7
Rawlings 1981:103- 104
26
skolion 894 (PMG)
Ar. Eccl. 682-83.
Ar. Lys. 631-35
Ar. Wasps 1223-30 and fr. 444 K-A
27
Ober 1996:32-52
28
Thuc. 6.53.2
Thuc. 6.54
Taylor 1981:161-75
Rawlings 1981:101-17.
29
Dover 1978
Foucault 1985
Keuls 1985
Halperin 1990b:29-38
1990a
1997
Winkler 1990b:39-40, 45-70.
30
Halperin 1986:68 n. 17
Dover 1978:103-109
Keuls 1985:291-98
Halperin 1990a
Cohen 1991:171-202.
Hubbard 1998
Poster 1986:212-14.
31
Aes. 1.138-39
Plut. Mor. 152d, 751b
Solon 1.6
Golden 1984
32
Thuc. 2.43.1
33
Winkler 1990a:35-36.
Osborne 1985
Halperin 1990a:16-17.
Lullies 1931
Crome 1935-1936
Devambez 1968
Goldman 1942.
34
Plato Hipparchus
Osborne (1985:47-51)
Shapiro 1989:125-32.
35
Winkler 1990a:36 and n.21
Halperin 1990a:17
Osborne 1985:64-66.
McGlew 1993
36
Halperin 1990a: 17.
Osborne 1985.
37
Osborne 1985:66
38
[Unrepresented Characters], 6.27.1
Plut. Alc. 18.6
Ar. Lys. 1093-94
Dover attempts to reconcile the two accounts: "the natural explanation is that the mutilators damaged the face of every herm and the phallos where there was one to damage" (1970:288-89).
Osborne comments that targeting the faces made the vandalization a self-mutilation, as "the face of the herm was the face of every Athenian" (1985:65).
39
Hdt. 3.80
Eur. Suppl. 452-54
Xen. Hieron 1.26, 8.6
Arist. Ath. Pol. 18.1-2
Pol. 5.8.9-12
Isoc. 2.29-31, 3.36-44.
40
Thuc. 1.20.1-2.
At Thuc. 6.54.3
41
Lavelle 1986.
42
Winkler 1990b:45-70
Gleason 1990
Richlin 1993.
Davidson 1997:167-82
43
Foucault 1985:80-85
McGlew 1993:187-90.
Plato's Gorgias
Connor 1977
Hunter 1974
Raaflaub 1984
forthcoming
Tuplin 1985.
44
Foucault differentiates between the "vicious tyrant," "incapable of mastering his own passions and ... therefore always prone to abuse his power and to do violence (hubrizein) to his subjects," and the "positive image of the leader who was capable of exercising a strict control over himself in the authority he exercised over others" (1985:81).
45
Momigliano 1971:32
McGlew 1993:155
Taylor 1981 ch. 6
Brunnsåker 1971:123
47
Arist. Ath. Pol. 16.7-10, 18.1
Hdt. 5.62.2, 6.123.2
Arist. Ath. Pol. 19.1.
48
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters], 6.54.3
Rawlings 1981:103-106
49
Aristophanes' Birds
Arrowsmith 1973
Connor 1977
Raaflaub 1984
forthcoming
Tuplin 1985
Hunter 1974.
50
Butler 1993
51
Plut. Alc. 11
Thuc. 6.16.2
Isoc. 16.34
Plut. Alc. 11.3
Bowra 1960
52
Thuc. 6.15.4, 28.2
Plut. Alc. 16.2
Ps.-And. 4.10.
53
Plato's Protagoras
[Unrepresented Characters], Alc. 1.5
de Romilly (1995:3)
Pl. Symp. 182a1-3, 184a2-185b5
Xen. Symp. 8.18-9
Dover 1978:81-91
Halperin 1986
1990a:6
1990b: 130
Cohen 1991:195-202.
DeVries 1997
McNiven 1995.
55
Plut. Alc. 24.5
Plato Alc. 123b3-c3.
Thuc. 6.88-93, 8.6-17, 45-48.
56
Plutarch (Alc. 23.5)
Bergren 1983
Zeitlin 1996:361-63, 375-416.
57
Plut. Alc. 1.6-8
Ar. Wasps 44-46
Archippos fr. 48 (K-A).
[Unrepresented Characters], Alc. 1.4
Arist. Physiognomics 808a12-13
58
Alcibiades' personal life (Alc. 16)
Plato Rep. 579b3- c2
Bushnell 1990:20-25
Schmitt-Pantel 1979
Griffith 1995:84-85
Kurke 1992.
Thuc. 6.15.4, 6.28.2
Plut. Alc. 16.2, 16.7
Isoc. 16.38
Plato. Alc. 105c
Ps.-And. 4.16, 23-24, 27-28
Forde 1989:92-94, 184-87
Seager 1967
Palmer 1982:121-24.
59
Plut. Alc. 16.2
Thuc. 6.15.4.
60
Plut. Alc. 2.1, 11, 16.4-5
Isoc. 16.32-34
Xen. Mem. 1.2.12-14
Thuc. 6.15.
Plutarch (16.4)
Plut. Alc. 16.5
Ps.-And. 4.17
Whitehead 1983.
61
Thuc. 6.15.4.
Forde 1989:76-77
Peremens 1956.
Alc. 16.2.
Forde 1989:78-95
Kurke 1991:171-77
62
Thuc. 6.28.2
Isoc. 16.38.
Arist. Pol. 1310b15-17
Andrewes 1956:100-15.
63
Ps.-And. 4
Plut. Alc. 4.4-5.5, 7-8, 12, 16
Dem. 21.143-51
Lys. 14.30, 37, 41
Xen. Mem. 1.2.12
Ps.-Andocides' Against Alcibiades (4)
Dover 1970:287
Raubitschek 1948
Burn 1954
Furley 1989.
64
Soph. OT 873
McGlew 1993:52-86.
Aristotle (Pol. 1310b1-1313a18)
Demosthenes (21.143, 170)
65
Plut. Alc. 8.4-5.
Ps.-And. (4.15)
Alc. 8.6
Russell 1995:198-200
Plut. Alc. 4.4-5
Plut. Alc. 8.4
Fisher 1992:87-88, 97-98, 148-49, 458-66
Littman 1970.
Pherecydes fr. 155
Ath. 12.535a-b
D.L. 4.49
Davidson 1997:165-66
Moorton 1988.
66
Ath. 5.220c
Lysias 14.28, 41.
Hdt. 3.31
Soph. OT
D.L.1.96
Gernet 1981
Vernant 1982.
67
Plato's Alcibiades
Nussbaum 1986:177
Littman 1970:269
Perrin 1906.
68
Aes. Ag. 717-36
Knox 1951.
Rose (1992:199-202)
Plutarch (Alc. 23.6).
69
Thuc. 6.54.2
Plut. Alc. 4.1
Ath. 12.534c
70
Plut. Alc. 10.1
De Romilly connects this quail to the birds commonly given by erastai as gifts to their eromenoi (1995:45
Ar. Birds 707).
71
Plato Rep. 577b1
Arist. Pol. 1314a39- 40
Bushnell 1990:17-20.
Ps.-And. 4.22-23
Wilson 1997:81-85
72
Xenophon's version (Hell. 1.4.18-20).
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters], 1.4.13
Bloedow 1973:67-71
de Romilly 1995:197-205
73
Xenophon (Hell. 1.4.20)
Plut. Alc. 33.2-3
D.S. 13.69.1-3.
74
Epictetus, Copenhagen NM 119
Halperin 1990a: n.96
Osborne 1985:48
75
Dover imagines the contemporary argument (in 415) that gave rise to Thucydides' digression (1970:329)
76
D.S. 13.68.4
Plut. Alc. 26.3
77
Plut. Alc. 16.9
Russell 1995.
Ps.-Andocides (4.16)
78
Alc. 1.1, 4
Forde, esp. chs. 1 and 4
de Romilly 1995:11
79
Plato's Symposium
Ps.-And. 4.29
Plut. Alc. 13.3
Thuc. 5.43, 45
Plut. Alc. 14
Bloedow 1990:4 and n. 14.
80
Henderson 1987
Ar. Lys. 630-31
Lambin 1979
Ar. Ach. 980, 1093
Wasps 1224-27; fr. 444 K-A
Antiphanes 3 K-A
Pl. Com. 216 K-A
Ehrenberg 1956.
81
Nussbaum 1986:193.
82
Plutarch (Alc. 4.1-3, 6.1)
Pl. Alc. 131c-e.
Alc. 1.3
Alc. 105e, 124d
Bluck 1953
Clark 1955.
83
Nussbaum 1986:187- 92
Halperin 1986:68
1990b.132.
Cames 1998
84
Symp. 215e6, 216b5
Plut. Alc. 4.3, 6
Plato Alc. 135c-d.
Aristodemus is also an erastes of Socrates (173b3).
Gagarin 1977:28-33
Kahn 1990:293-94
Goldhill 1998:120-24
85
Dover 1980 ad 219a1
his censure of the prurient at 1978:156 n.7
Pausanias' speech (185b) at 1978:91
86
Diotima (209eS-210a4).
And. 1.61-62.
Phaedrus (And. 1.15)
Charmides (And. 1.47)
Akumenos (possibly the father of Eryximachos, And. 1.18).
87
Thuc. 6.28.1
Plut. Alc. 18.8, 19.1
And. 1.61.
Murray 1990.
Fisher 1998.
89
H. Leisengang RE s.v.
Platon 2367
Fornara 1968:419 n.71.
90
above, note 34.
Herm at Symp. 215b1.

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