Descriptions of battles in ancient authors are not mirrors of reality, however dim and badly cracked, but are a form of literary production in which the real events depicted are filtered through the literary, intellectual, and cultural assumptions of the author. By comparing the battle descriptions of Julius Caesar to those of Xenophon and Polybius this paper attempts to place those battle descriptions in their intellectual and cultural context. Here Caesar appears as a military intellectual engaged in controversies with experts in the Greek tradition of military theory-rejecting materialist strains of Greek thinking-and also as a Roman soldier whose military experience and cultural conceptions about how battles work could not be fully accommodated by Greek models. Caesar adapts from the Greeks an intellectual model of tactics based on physical metaphors, but adjusts Greek theory to Roman experience: Caesar's tactical physics ramifies from the crash-impetus-of the legionary charge rather than the push of the phalanx. Caesar also adapts from the Greeks a simplifying model of military psychology, adjusting a Greek binary scheme of morale into a three-level model to accommodate a Roman military ethos of steadiness in combat. Greek military thinking downplayed the role in battle of innate differences in courage between armies or nations, concentrating instead on tactics and stratagems; Roman culture encouraged Caesar to reject this dismissive view and elaborate a detailed understanding of the role of courage-virtus-in the mechanics of battle. The prominence of virtus in Caesar's battle descriptions illustrates its survival as an important Roman cultural norm and tempts speculation as to its historical consequences. Attempts to reconstruct ancient battles must take into account the cultural and intellectual traditions which guide ancient battle descriptions.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Tuplin 1986: 37
2
Keegan 1976: 68
3
Frankel and Smith 1978: 74
4
Keegan 1976: 36
Fussell 1975: 169-90
5
Loreto 1993[1990]: n. 6
Keegan 1976: 63-66
7
Zecchini 1990: 449-53
8
Vom Kriege bk. 2 ch. 6
9
Vom Kriege bk. 2 ch. 2
Gat 1989
10
Rupke 1992: 209
Adcock 1956: 22-23
Loreto 1993[1990]: 311, 333-35
Linderski 1985: 215-22
11
Polyb. 12.17-22, 12.25f, 16.18-20
Whatley 1964: 120-23
12
Keegan 1976: 36-46
13
Loreto 1993[1990]: 243-44
14
Cato fr. 83 [Peter] = Aul. Gell. 3.7
Claudius Quadrigarius fr. 10b [Peter] = Aul. Gell. 9.13.6-19
fr. 12 [Peter; authorship uncertain] = Aul. Gell. 9.11
Plaut. Amph. 188-261
Gesche 1976: 70
Walsh 1961: 43
15
Harris 1979: 14-15
17
Campbell 1987: 21
18
Astin 1978: 184-85
204-205
Jordan 1860: 80-82
Schenk 1930
Roman army (6.19-42)
Rawson 1971: 14-15
Neumann 1956: col. 356
19
Feller 1929
Gärtner 1975: 63-134
Rowe 1967
Mutschler 1975
Mensching 1988: 39
20
Gesche 1976: 247-57
269-73
277-79
286-87
Béquignon 1970: cols. 1073-74
Pelling 1981: 754
Rambaud 1966: 40-43
63-64
Rambaud 1954/1955: 347-50
Rambaud 1967: 193
Pelling 1981: 741-42
Rupke 1992: 209
21
Rasmussen 1963: 119-29
Gärtner 1975: 130-33
Rambaud 1954/1955
22
Rambaud 1954/1955: 353
Crastinus and Rambaud 1966: 356-57
23
Richter 1977: 96 n. 3
Gesche 1976: 71-78
257-58
124-25
279-80
Welch and Powell 1998
24
Valerius nr. 365
25
Romilly 1956: 168-72
26
Dillery 1995: 28-29
27
Anderson 1970: 94-110
Wheeler 1983
Whitehead 1990: 34-35
28
Bauer 1893 and
Wheeler 1983: nn. 30-31
Dain 1946: 26-40
Stadter 1978: 118
contra Wheeler 1978: n. 9
29
Wheeler 1988a: 179
30
Sacks 1981: 125-32
Devine 1995
31
Poznanski 1994: 33-34
32
Eckstein 1995: 161-93
33
Pritchett 1985: 44-93
34
Hanson 1989: 171-84
Pritchett 1985: 65-68
notes (29)
Goldsworthy 1997
35
Pritchett 1985: 67-68
36
Krentz 1985: 55-56
37
Merguet 1886
Menge and Preuss 1890
Meusel 1887-93
38
lexicons (supra, n. 37
39
Loreto 1993[1990]: 243-44
40
lexicons (supra, n. 37)
Lindauer 1889: 10-11
41
Rambaud 1974
42
Rambaud 1954/1955: 361
43
C 1.41
G 3.17
C 2.33-34
Loreto 1993[1990]: n. 203
Pritchett 1985: 76-81
44
Goldsworthy 1996: 207-208
Wheeler 1979: 303-18
45
R. MacMullen 1984[1990]
Goldsworthy 1996 passim
Lee 1996
46
Due 1989: 10-12
Gera 1993: 2
Anderson 1970: 11-12
43-44
75-78
84-85
96-104
165-91
47
Delatte 1933: 23-24
48
Breitenbach 1967: 1722, 1732-37
Anderson 1970: 96-110
165-91
49
Borgeaud 1988: 133-37
Artemis, Vemant 1991
50
Eckstein 1995: 168-71
51
Wheeler 1988a: 172-81
Thuc. 7.80
Tacticus 27
Polyaenus 1.2
52
pace Hansen 1993
53
Wheeler 1988b: 11.
Whitehead 1990: 36-37
54
Lammert 1931
Wheeler 1988c
1988b: 11-13
Xen. Cyr. 1.6.27, 1.6.37-41
Hell. 5.1.4, 6.1.15
Polyb. 9.12.2
55
Herodotus, Krentz 1997: 58-59
Thucydides, Heza 1974
Krentz 1997: 57-58
56
Wheeler 1988b: 12-13
Campbell 1987: 14-16
58
Wheeler 1988a: 174-76
59
Wunderer 1905
Pédech 1964: 210-53
Davidson 1991
60
Guelfucci 1986: 232-33
61
Suetonius (Jul. 87)
Cic. Brutus 112
Cilicia (ad Fam. 9.25.1)
Münscher 1920: 74-83
62
Loreto 1993[1990]: 297-98
63
Goldsworthy 1996: 245
64
Collins 1952: 107-25
65
Goldsworthy 1996: 145
66
G 6.40, 7.80
Polyb. 1.76.2
G 1.51, 7.48
C 2.4
67
Wheeler 1988c: 52-55
68
Feller 1929: 21-24
69
Romilly 1956: 113-15
Pritchett 1974: 283-86
70
Eckstein 1995: 28-55
71
Feller 1929: 38-41
Rasmussen 1963
supra, n. 14
72
Wheeler 1991: 137-38
73
Romilly 1956: 142-43
Crane 1998: 225-29
74
Romilly 1980: 309-15
75
Due 1989: 181, 184
76
Pédech 1964: 424-25
77
Polyb. 1.31.1
1.51.3
78
Polyb. 5.23.9-10
10.39.2
Lindauer 1889: 19-20
79
Knoche 1962[1935]: 39
Hellegouarc'h 1963: 291
80
Eisenhut 1973
Harris 1979: 20 n. 3
Rosenstein 1990: 94
Rawlings 1998: 177-80
81
Wheeler 1988d
Wheeler argues (193)
83
Eisenhut 1973: 40-43
supra n. 14
84
Cyr. 3.3.10
7.1.18
Anab. 4.7.12
5.2.11
G. 5.44
7.47
7.50
85
Strat. 4.7.5
86
Pritchett 1974: 153
87
Goldsworthy 1996: 271-73
88
Goldsworthy 1996: 153-54
89
Pritchett 1974: 148, 174-76
90
Keegan 1976: 65
91
Oppermann 1933: 37-41
56-64
85-89
Görler 1980: n. 7
Gesche 1976: 249-51
92
Weiss 1983: 83
93
D'Huys 1990
94
Rambaud 1966: 230
95
Wiedemann 1992: 35-38
1996
96
Lanchester 1916
Dupuy 1979
1987
97
Creveld's (1982: 11-17)
98
Goldsworthy 1996: 1-2
8-9
283-84
99
Goldsworthy 1996: 10, 244 46
285-86
100
van Creveld 1982 passim

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