Thucydides uses the first extended episode in the History, the Corcyrean conflict (1.24-55), to present the world of political discourse, deliberation, and battle. This episode is programmatic for a number of reasons: it is the first episode with a pair of speeches; Thucydides ties this episode directly to the outbreak of the war; certain questions, such as morality's relevance to foreign policy, are introduced here for the first time; and, most importantly, it is here that Thucydides establishes what the reader's role is to be throughout the work. This paper argues that, for all the significance of Thucydides' Archaeology and Statement of Method (1.2-23), the "participatory" dimension of the History begins with the Corcyrean conflict. It is only with the introduction of speeches that the reader must address the ways in which speech and narrative confirm and undermine each other, as the historian's voice now alternates and competes with that of his characters in speech. From an authorial perspective we find that various techniques Thucydides employs-multiple perspective, authorial reticence, and episodic presentation-are used to recreate the political arena of fifth-century Greece. The various facets of the reader's extensive labor may be clustered under the heading of extrapolation and conjecture (best captured by the Greek term eikazein), as the reader must endeavor to see events from the perspective of the participants, evaluate claims made in speeches, experience battle vicariously, and consider events-which are past from the reader's perspective-as future in terms of the subsequent narrative. Analogous to what Plato did for philosophy, Thucydides has produced an interactive, open-ended, and participatory type of literature by appealing to the reader's involvement and by bringing written literature as close as possible to the live, extemporaneous, face-to-face debate of oral Greek culture.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Crane (1992) 4.
Shapiro (1996)
Connor (1984) 27
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 8.
2
Connor (1985) 12
Kitto (1966) 349
3
Connor (1985)
Arnold (1992).
Macleod (1983)
4
Connor (1985) 8, 10
Arnold (1992) 45
5
Rosenbloom (1995).
Turasiewicz (1990), esp. 88
6
de Jong (1987)
(1997)
de Jong and Sullivan (1994) 282-83
Homblower (1994) "Narratology and Narrative Techniques" 131-66.
Schneider (1974)
de Jong and Sullivan (1994) 284-85
9
de Jong (1987), esp. 38-i 10
Schneider (1974)
Davidson (1990) 13
10
de Jong (1987) 113
De Jong (1987) 118
11
HCT ( 1945-1981) I 1-8
Gomme (24-25)
Ridley (1984) 41
Homblower (1994) 164
12
Walker (1993).
13
Davidson (1990) 15-16
15
Macleod (1983) "Thucydides and Tragedy" 146
Hornblower (1991-1996) II 16
Connor (1984) 12
Farrar (1988) 136
Arnold (1992)
17
Connor (1985) 9.
Connor (1985)
Arnold (1992) 44
Plutarch Moralia 346A
Gorgias Helen 9
MacDowell (1993).
Walker (1993).
18
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 33
Gomme (HCT) I 111 (s.v. 1.9)
Hunter (1973) 27
20
Hornblower [1991-1996] I 223
22
Thucydides (1954).
23
Macleod (1983) "Thucydides and Tragedy" 146
White (1984) 88
Hornblower (1987) 133
Orwin (1994) 4.
24
Yunis (1991) 180
Yunis (1996).
Cleon (esp. 190-200)
180-86 and 189n. 26.
25
Yunis (1991) 199.
Homblower (1991-1996) I 148
26
Yunis (1991) 185, 199.
Arnold (1992) 56
Arnold (1992) 46
29
Halliwell (1987) 59-60.
30
Flory (1990) 194.
Hornblower (1987)
85 n. 50
31
Croix (1972) 16-17
32
Newman (1988) 45
33
Newman (1988)45
34
Homblower (1987) 34-44.
35
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 79
36
Thucydides' History.
Pindar Pythian 3.75.
ekbole, 1.97.2
37
HCT (1945-1981) I 1-29
Kitto (1966) 259-79
Hornblower (1992).
Crane (1996)
38
ethnos, 1.24.1
39
Hornblower (1991-1996) II 61-80.
40
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 67.
HCT (1945-1981) I 196-98
Wilson (1987) 31-32.
41
White (1984)
Strasburger (1968)
Macleod (1983) "Rhetoric and History" 84
Hornblower (1987) 61.
42
Westlake (1977)
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 68
43
Lang (1995) 53
Hornblower (1987) 78-79
Westlake (1989).
44
nomn- izontes, 1.25.3
45
HCT (1945-1981) I 159
Crane (1992)
Homblower (1991- 1996) I 69
Kagan (1995) 7-8
Corinthians (37-41).
46
Homblower (1991-1996) I
Hades (1.46.4)
Kitto (1966) 261
47
Ambracians and Leucadians (1.26.1-2
48
Wilson (1987) 33-34
50
Wilson (1987) 31.
51
Wilson (1987) 38
Hornblower (1991- 1996) I 73
HCT (1945-1981) I 182
52
Kagan (1995) 19
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 72
53
Flory (1990) above.
54
Scodel (1997).
55
HCT (1945- 1981) I 162-63
White (1984) 305 n. 5
56
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 86
HCT (1945-1981) I 166.
Stadter (1983)
Plutarch Pericles 29
Kitto (1966) 292-94
Kagan (1969) 237-45
Orwin (1994) 60 n. 60.
57
Newman (1988).
58
Ober (1993) 86
59
Kagan (1995) 71
Stadter (1983) 133
Kagan (1995)
Wilson (1987) 138
60
Connor (1984) 34
62
adik- oumen, 1.37.1
Kagan (1969) 231
63
aischune, 1.5.1
64
White (1984) 65-66.
65
Connor (1984) 34-35 n. 37
Darbo-Peschanski (1987).
69
Hornblower (1991-1996) II 73
de Ste. Croix (1972) 71.
71
HCT (1945-1981) I 176
73
Hornblower (1987) 162
74
mathoite, 1.36.3
75
[Unrepresented Characters], 1.37.1
[Unrepresented Characters], 1.32.1
[Unrepresented Characters], 1.37.1
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters], 1.42.1
didaskalias, 1.68.3
77
tekmerion, 1.1.3, 1.3.3, 1.9.4, 1.20.1, 1.21.1
semeion, 1.6.2, 1.10.1, 1.21.1
martyrion, 1.8.1
skopein, 1.1.3, 1.20.5, 1.21.2, 1.22.4
apodeiknumi. 1.6.6
Hornblower (1987) 100- 107.
Ober (1993) 90
78
Crane (1992) esp. 14-17.
79
Crane (1992) esp. 14-17, 22.
80
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 77
81
[Unrepresented Characters], 1.33.1
82
Calder (1955) 179
HCT (1945-1981) I 169.
83
Ober (1993) 87-90.
84
Ostwald (1988) 65
de Romilly (1963) 43-44.
Wilson (1987) 29
85
Ober (1993) 88
86
Arnold (1992) 45.
87
Macleod (1983) "Rhetoric and History" 77
Connor (1984) 36
88
Kitto (1966) 339
89
Farrar (1988) 145
Kagan (1995) 10
Stahl (1968) 54
90
Kagan (1995) 58
91
Kagan (1995) 70.
Connor (1984) 32 n. 31
92
Kagan (1995) 46
note 59 above
93
Stahl (1968) 60-64
Gould (1989)
Varnedoe (1990)
Bernstein (1995)
Ferguson (1997)
94
HCT (1945-1981) I 179
95
Wilson (1987) 45
96
Wilson (1987) 47-48
diekploi, 1.49.3
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 92.
[Unrepresented Characters], 1.50.2
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters] , 1.49.3
97
Corinthians (1.49.5).
98
deisantes, 1.50.5
de Romilly (1956).
99
Hornblower (1991-1996)
Hornblower (1987) 192.
100
Hornblower (1991-1996) I 94
Badian (1990).
101
Wilson (1987) 31.
de Ste. Croix (1972) 77
note 59 above
102
Orwin (1994) 59-60
103
HCT (1945-1981) I 190
105
HCT (1945-1981) I 196
106
Wilson (1987) 120.
Kitto (1966) 294
107
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters], 3.82.2
Hornblower [1991- 1996] I 481).
Kitto (1966) 343-44
108
Havelock (1963)
Havelock (1982)
(1986).
109
Havelock (1963) 46
Havelock [1986] 8
Ong (1982) 31-77.
Thomas (1989)
(1992)
Harris (1989)
Robb (1994).
110
Robb (1994) 235-36
Nightingale (1995) 5
111
Havelock (1963) 56n. 16
54n. 8
Havelock (1986) 16
Turasiewicz (1990), esp. 85
112
Kitto (1966) 298
Orwin (1994) 4
White (1984) 88
Connor (1984) 16
113
Havelock (1963) 38
Havelock (1986) 17
114
Havelock (1982) 10
Thomas (1992) 104
116
Athenians (Phaedrus 230d).
117
Havelock (1982) 148
118
Ober (1993) 81-82
Nightingale (1995) 52

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