The absorption of the Greek world into the Roman empire created intellectual problems on several levels. In the first instance, Greek confidence in the superiority of Hellenic culture made explanations for the swiftness of Roman conquest all the more necessary. In accounting for Rome's success, Greeks focused on the structure and character of the Roman state, on Roman attitudes towards citizenship, and on the nature of the Roman constitution. Greeks initially attempted to understand Roman institutions and beliefs by assimilating them to paradigms within Hellenistic political thought. On the one hand, this process tended to obscure substantial differences between Greek and Roman political theory. At the same time, appreciation of Rome's relations with Italy created a means through which Greeks could imagine their own integration into the Roman community. Among the conceptual models available to Greeks of this age, only the polis provided a paradigm for a collectivity in which individuals had equal rights and toward which they directed their patriotic sentiments. That Roman Italy was not a polis did not force the coinage of new terminology: the polis formed a conceptual boundary that Hellenistic political philosophy never truly escaped. Repeated construals of Roman ideas and institutions on analogy with polis-based models ultimately forced a shift in the semantic fields of Greek political terminology and altered Greeks' conceptual archetype of the political collectivity. This process provided a framework within which Greeks could justify their wholesale participation in imperial culture and political life: they could, on these terms, argue that the gradual evolution of the world toward a single, unified empire actualized man's natural tendency to center his life around a single polis.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Tac. Agr. 21.1-2
Florus 2.33.59-60.
2
Gruen 1990:158-92
1992.
3
Horace Epist. 2.1.156-57
Cicero Brut. 73.254.
4
Austin 1986:454-56.
5
Fuchs 1938
Gauger 1980
Swain 1996.
Momigliano 1986:103-104.
6
Jones 1971:122-30
Gabba 1982
1984
Eckstein 1985
1990
1995: 8-27 and 194-236
Stern 1987
Erksine 1990:181-204
Rogers 1991
Woolf 1993
Shaw 1995.
7
Sartre 1991
Millar 1993
Mitchell 1993
Sartre 1995.
8
Swain 1996
Hidber 1996:75-81 and 117-23
Jones 1996
Birley 1997:217-20.
9
Lakoff and Turner 1980
Bourdieu 1990:54-55.
10
Dio 52.19.6
n. 115.
11
Mommsen 1887-1888: vol. 3, part 1, 231 n. 1
12
Soskice 1985:50-55.
13
Black 1962:220-42.
14
Thomas 1996
15
Lakoff and Turner 1989:60-67
Sweetser 1990:1-13 and 47-48.
16
Aelian Hist. 2.38
19
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1.3.5 and 5.2
Appian Praef 8.30 and 10.42
Polybius 5.106.3-5
20
Dio Chrys. Or 38-41
Jones 1978:83-94
Pausanias 7.17.4
Jones 1971:17-18
Habicht 1985:123
Cassius Dio 52.37.9-10
Herodian 3.2.8.
Augustine Civ. Dei 17.23
John Chrys. Homil. contra Iudaeos et Gentiles 3
Sefer Ha-Aggadah 5.92.
21
Posidonius fr. 253 Kidd, ll. 82-84 (Athenaeus 213B)
22
Euseb. Hist. Ecl. 5.1.47
Acts 22:24-29.
23
Kramer 1993.
24
Seneca on the rhetor Argentarius, Controv. 9.3.13
25
Hall 1997:40-51.
26
Hansen 1996b
Beck 1997:165-66.
27
Hartog 1988:212-30.
28
Bowersock 1965:131-32
Gabba 1991:190-216.
29
Dionysius 1.4.2
30
Bickerman 1952.
Gruen 1992:6-51
Wiseman 1995:43-62.
Giovannini 1993:277-79
Curty 1995
31
Momigliano 1966, esp. 44-51.
32
Hypsicrates: FGrH ii B 923.
Philoxenus: Cicero Att. 13.8
Suda [Unrepresented Characters] 394.
Suda T 1185
33
Bowersock 1965:108
Sacks 1990:135.
34
n. 86
Paneg. 50
35
Plutarch Flam. 11.4
SEG 30.1073
36
n. 30.
37
L Lampsakos 4
Curty 1995, no. 39.
Curty 1995:81-82 and 251.
38
Polybius 6.9.12-13.
39
Walbank 1965
Derow 1979
Eckstein 1985.
41
Momigliano 1975:37
1942:119-20.
42
Momigliano 1975:37.
43
Cicero Att. 7.8.4.
Rep. 1.41
Leg. 1.15
44
Hansen 1996a: 14-34.
Gauthier 1981:168-72
BMCR 97.7.16
BMCR 98.2.7
45
Cicero Rep. 1.39.1
Zetzel 1995 ad loc.
Brunt 1988:2 and 326.
46
Cicero Mur. 5 1
Gellius 10.20.5
Inst. 1.2.4
Ruggiero, Diz. Epigr. s.v. Instinky 1940
Nicolet 1979:332-39.
47
M. Humbert 1978:85-143
Gauthier 1981
Meier 1996.
Hansen 1996b: 194
Eder 1990
Nippel 1996.
48
Reynolds 1980:73-74, no. 2
Reynolds 1982, no. 54.
Philo Flacc. 128.
49
Res Gestae 1.1
Mason 1974 s.v.
Wigtil 1982
Judge 1974:280-85.
Drexler 1957
1958.
Stark 1967.
50
Polybius 20.9-10.
Gruen 1982
51
F. W. Walbank in CAH2 VII.1 64-66.
52
Livy 29.12.12-14
Polybius 22.7-8.
53
Dig. 1.4.1.
Béranger 1977.
54
Cicero Leg. 3.2-5.
55
Magie 1905 s.v.
Mason 1974:132-34.
Cicero Rep. 2.56
Livy 2.1.7-8 and 2.7.7
56
Memmius at Sallust Iug. 31. 1.
57
Welles 1934, no. 45
IGLS 3.2.1183
OGIS 331 IV
OGIS 257
58
Habicht 1958.
59
Polybius 6.12.9
60
I Macc. 8:13-16.
61
Shaw 1995:378-80
62
Magie 1950, vol. 2:1103 n. 36
Brunt 1987:223-27
J. G. F. Hind in CAH2 IX 149 n. 67.
Badian 1976
63
Welles 1934 nos. 73 and 74
64
Fr. 253 Kidd, ll. 87-92.
65
Appian Mith. 22.83.
66
Leg. Man. 3.7 and 5.11
Livy Per. 78.
67
Appian Mith. 23.91.
68
SIG 543, from August 215
Walbank 1972:156 n. 151
Cass. Dio 9 fr. 28
69
Res Gestae 25.2
Gabba 1978.
David 1994
M. Crawford, CAH2 X 414-33 and 979-89.
Habinek 1998:88-102.
71
notes 39-43
72
Cornell 1995:321.
73
Humbert 1978:139-43
Brunt 1987:515-16.
74
Balb. 28-30, 42-43
Caec. 100
Brunt 1982
Rawson 1985
Errington 1988:153.
Contra: Sherwin-White 1973:302-304.
75
Gawantka 1975
Beck 1997:174-85.
76
Bonjour 1975.
77
Leg. 2.5.
78
Schmidt 1974.
79
Rut. Namat. 1.63.
80
BCiv. 1.23.99
Brunt 1988:111-20, esp. 112-13.
81
BCiv. 1.34.152.
82
Livy 1.45
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4.23-25.
83
Gabba 1991:19-20.
84
Although Gabba 1991:162-63
Balsdon 1971
Poma 1989 at 201-203
Miles 1995:124-25.
85
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2.16.
Humbert 1978:85-143
Poma 1989.
86
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2.17.1-2
Tacitus' Claudius (Ann. 11.24.4)
87
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7.53.5
88
Millar 1993:143-44, 147, 150, 155. and 257-58.
Millar 1990:9-10.
89
Larsen 1955:24-25, 87-92
Beck 1997:10-19.
91
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4.25.3.
92
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4.26.1-2.
93
Diodorus 37.1.6
94
Diodorus 37.2.4-5
95
Fornara 1983:42-46.
Momigliano 1984
K. Sacks 1990:36.
96
Tarn 1948, vol. 2:399-449.
Badian 1958
97
Polybius 1.3.3-5
98
Walbank 1965
1972:173-81
Eckstein 1985.
99
Pavan 1991
Camoux and Bertrac 1993:xviii-xxii.
100
Diodorus 1.1.3.
Sacks 1990:10-11, 36, and 64.
Burton 1972:35-38.
101
Nigrinos 2, 16, 29, 34
Jones 1986:85 n. 31.
Philostratus Vit. Soph. 488 and 534.
102
Or. 26.80-81.
103
Palm 1959:56-62, 75-76, and 82-83
J. Vogt 1967:8-9
Brunt 1990:473-77.
104
Suda II 2178
105
Millar 1977:116.
Shaw 1995:378-80
n. 61.
106
Millar 1984.
107
Appian BCiv. 1.6.24
108
Appian praef 6.23
Cassius Dio 53.17-18
John Lydus Mag. 1.4
Wifstrand 1939.
109
N. Maj. 1.
Or. 35.12
111
Off 2.8.27
Erskine 1990:202-203
Dyck 1996 ad loc.
112
Buckler 1935.
IGRR IV 1410.6-7
IGRR IV 1611
OGIS 470
IGRR IV 1756, section X, 11. 101-102
IBM 894.
113
Palm 1959 passim.
114
Or. 26.100.
115
Cassius Dio 52.19.6
116
Libanius Or. 49.2.
117
Reynolds 1981:321 no. 4.
118
Plutarch Moralia (Praec. ger. reip.) 814C
Jones 1971:113-16.
119
n. 22.
120
Garnsey 1970:266.
121
Fragment 253 Kidd, ll. 94-97.
122
Moralia (Praec. ger. reip.) 813E
123
Modestinus ad Dig. 50.1.33

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