In this essay, I distinguish between the ancient tales relating to the dismemberment or sparagmos of Dionysos and the modern fabrication which I call the "Zagreus myth." This myth is put together from several elements: 1) the dismemberment of Dionysos; 2) the punishment of the Titans; 3) the creation of mankind from the Titans; and 4) the inheritance humans receive from the first three parts - the burden of guilt from the Titans' crime and the divine spark from the remains of Dionysos. Building upon Linforth's critical review, I first examine the pieces of evidence out of which this Zagreus myth has been assembled, demonstrating that the few pieces of evidence used to construct the myth fail to support the existence of such a story before the modern era. While ancient sources provide testimony to the first three components of the myth, the final component-the resulting original sin-is an addition of modern scholars. I next show that, viewed without the framework of the Zagreus myth, the pieces of evidence provide testimony to a variety of tellings of the dismemberment myth, which was not the exclusive property of the "Orphics" but rather a well-known element in the Greek mythic tradition. I then explore the Christian models of religion within which the myth was mistakenly reconstructed, noting the role this reconstruction of Orphism played in the turn-of-the-century debates surrounding the nature of the early Church. Finally, I conclude that the gold tablets and their religious contexts have been misunderstood because these texts have been interpreted in terms of a modern fabrication dependent on Christian models, the Zagreus myth. The "Orphic" gold tablets themselves have nothing to do with the stories of sparagmos and anthropogony, but instead supply important evidence for the study of Greek eschatological beliefs.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Zuntz 1971:303
2
Nilsson 1935:202.
3
Morford and Lenardon 1999:223-24.
4
Linforth 1941.
West 1983
5
Burkert 1982.
Detienne 1975
6
Lobeck 1829
Linforth 1941:311
Etymologicum Magnum (fr. 43.117 P)
Euripides Cretans (fr. 472 Nauck).
Alkmaionis fr. 3 PEG
Aeschylus frr. 5, 228)
7
Festugière 1936:310
8
Comparetti 1879.
Ziolkowski 1997, esp. p. xxvii
9
Zeller 1881
Creuzer 1822
Maury 1857
Welcker 1860.
Dieterich 1891,
1893
Frazer 1912
10
Comparetti 1882:111-18
Comparetti 1910.
Franz 1836:149-50
Goettling 1843.
11
Rohde 1925
German 1 st ed. vol. 2 in 1894
Harrison 1922 (1st ed. 1903).
Kern's arrangement of the fragments in his 1922
12
Olympiodorus In Phaed. 1.3 = OF 220
13
Guthrie 1952:83.
14
Proclus In Plat. Rempublicam 2.338 = OF 224
15
Linforth 1941:330.
16
Brisson 1992:493-94
Brisson 1995
17
Berthelot 1888 II:14.2, 10.2.
18
Ibid. II, Les quatres corps, par. 5:151.1
19
Linforth 1941:308
20
West 1983:166.
21
Pausanias 8.37.5 = OT 194
Iliad 14.279
Hom. Hymn to Apollo 334-36.
22
Guthrie 1952:13-14.
Macchioro 1930:151-56
23
Linforth 1941:353.
Pausanias' attribution of poems to Onomakritos: 1.22.7; 8.31.3; 9.35.5.
24
Plato Laws iii, 7Olbc = OF 9
25
Nilsson 1935:203.
26
Linforth 1941:342-44.
Alderink 1981:70-71
Bianchi 1966:119-26
27
Plutarch De Esu Carn. 1.996b-c = OF 210
28
Linforth 1941:337
29
Westerink 1977, vol. 2:15-17
30
Xenokrates fr. 20
Damascius In Phaed. 1.2
31
Linforth 1941:339.
Brisson 1992:497
32
Rose 1936.
33
Pindar fr. 133
Plato Meno 81bc
34
Linforth 1941:350.
West 1983:1 iOn. 82
35
Rose 1936:86
36
Linforth 1941:347.
Seaford 1986
38
Rose 1936:88.
Rose 1943
39
Smith 1990:106-107
40
Boyancé 1963:11
41
Casadio 1986 (esp. p. 311)
Brisson 1985
Finamore 1987.
Scalera McClintock 1995.
44
Osiris and Dionysos. (2.42, 47, 123, 144, 156)
Plutarch De Iside et Osiride 35.364f-365a.
45
West 1983:103-63.
Dodds, "The Greek Shamans and the Origins of Puritanism," in Dodds 1951:135-78
Jeanmaire 1939:147-223.
46
Diodorus Siculus 3.62-65
Cornutus fr. 30
Proclus In Cratyl. p. 108
West 1983:142, 245-46
47
Plutarch De Ei 9.388e
48
Linforth 1941:320.
OF 210, 211.
49
West 1983
Guthne 1952
50
Ps.-Aristotle Problemata 3.43 (Bussemaker).
Jamblichus Vita Pythag. 154
Ath. 656b.
51
Detienne 1979:72.
53
Linforth 1941:328-29
Rohde 1925:353n. 28
54
Solon fr. 1.31
Hereditary punishment of perjury: Il. 4.160-62
Hesiod Op. 282-85.
Il. 6.200-205
Od. 20.66-78
Od. 11.436.
Aeschylus Sept. 653-55, 699-701, 720-91
Ag. 1090-97, 1186-97, 1309, 1338-42, 1460, 1468-88, 1497-1512, 1565-76, 1600-1602
Sophocles El. 504-15
Ant. 583-603
OC 367-70, 964-65, 1299
Euripides El. 699-746, 1306ff.
IT 186-202, 987ff.
Or. 811-18, 985-1012, 1546-48
Phoen. 379-82, 867-88, 1556-59, 1592-94, 161 1.
Parker 1983:191-206.
55
Hdt. 5.70-72
Thucydides 1.126-27.
Plato Rep. 364e-365a
Theophrastus Char. 16.12
56
Herodotus 1.90-91.
57
Republic 364e-365a
Phaedrus 254de, 265b.
59
Graf 1993:244.
60
Sabbatucci 1979:51
Versnel 1991:139, 166
Casadio 1987:199ff.
61
Johnston and McNiven 1996.
62
Seaford 1986
63
Op. 106ff.
Olympian 9
Met. 163-312
Plato's myth in the Protagoras (320-21)
64
Homeric Hymn to Apollo 334ff.
Orphic Hymn to the Titans (37).
65
Dio Chrysostom Or. 30.10-11
Oppian's Haiieutica (5.1-10)
Orphic Argonautica (17ff.)
66
Olympiodorus OF 220
Proclus' version, which does not mention the dismemberment and probably implies the Titanomachy, OF 224.
67
Linforth 1941:324n. 7.
Contra Rohde 1925:354n. 38.
68
Justin Martyr Tryph 69.2
Origen Contra Celsum 4.17.
69
Dodds 1951:156.
70
Guthrie 1952:200.
Guthrie 1952:271
71
Smith 1990:43.
72
Ziolkowski 1997:xxviii.
73
Harrison 1922:461.
74
Macchioro 1930:137.
75
Watmough 1934:56-57.
76
Watmough 1934:50.
77
Morford and Lenardon 1999:280-81.
78
Macchioro 1930:73.
81
Macchioro 1930:123-24.
82
Harrison 1922:468.
Nilsson, contra Kern (Orpheus 26 [Berlin, 1920])
Nilsson 1935:204
83
Morford and Lenardon 1999:278.
84
Euripides Hippolytus (943-57 = OT 213)
Plato in the Republic (364e = OF 3)
Pausanias (1.37.4 = OT 219)
85
Guthrie 1952:202.
86
West 1983:69, 101.
87
Rohde 1925:338.
88
Macchioro 1930:129.
89
Smith 1990:119
90
Guthrie 1952:107.
91
Macchioro 1930:75.
92
Guthrie 1952:84.
93
Nilsson 1935:225
94
Rohde 1925:341
Rohde 1925:338
95
West 1983:140-75
96
Burkert 1985:298
97
Hesiod Op. 108.
Hesiod Theog. 105-106.
98
Theog. 535ff.
99
Republic 364bc
100
Rohde 1925:581-82.
101
Herakles: D.S. 4.38.4-5.
Pind. 0. 2.27; D.S. 5.52.2
Charax ap. Anon. de Incred. xvi
Arist. 1, p. 47 Dind.
Philostr. Imag. 1.14
Nonnos Dion. 8.409ff.
Asclepius: Hesiod fr. 109 Rz.
Lucian DD. 13.
Plut. Lyc. 31
NH 7.152
102
Cameron 1942:458.
103
Dodds 1951:136.
104
Morford and Lenardon 1999:280.
105
Ziegler in P-W, cols. 1354, 1381-82
Schmidt in Roscher, vol. VI, col. 535.
Dodds 1951:168, n. 79

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