The first half of Aiskhylos' "Agamemnon" presents three crimes of the House of Atreus: the sacrifice of Iphigeneia (184-247), the wasting of young Argive lives at Ilion (355-487) and the treading of the materials as the victorious king reenters his palace (810-974). We argue that the sequential presentation of the crimes of the House, which are connected thematically, stylistically, and causally, radically redefines the nature of transgression within contemporary models of the polis community. Crime as defined in relationship to oikos alone is displaced by crime as defined in relationship to both oikos and the broader polis community; transgression moves from an aristocratic (oikos alone) to an isonomic (oikos within polis) context. This redefinition culminates in the "Carpet-Scene." We reread Agamemnon's nostos as a contest of epinikia. The king represents himself as victorious idiôtês, and Klutaimestra strives to figure him as returning tyrant. She succeeds in the stichomythia, where Agamemnon fails to recognize the crucial distinction between φθόνος and ζῆλος. Aristotle differentiates the terms at Rhet. 1387-88, where φθόνος is envy toward a social superior and ζῆλος the emotion one experiences in rivalry between equals; we document the development of the terms from the archaic period onwards, demonstrate that Aristotle's distinction is valid for the late archaic and classical periods, and suggest that it arose in an attempt to outline relationships of appropriate and inappropriate competition among fellow-citizens. Agamemnon's failure to recognize this important distinction betrays his misunderstanding of the dynamics of, and his agreement to walk on the materials is an offense against, isonomic community. The rearticulation of the nature of transgression completed by this crime of Agamemnon against the polis does fundamental ideological work for the rest of the Oresteia, offering an aetiology of the claims of the polis against the aristocratic oikos.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Rose 1992: 204
2
Ath. 281B
Eur. Or. 8ff.
3
Conacher 1987: 87-88
Fraenkel 1950 ad 880.
4
Denniston-Page 1957 ad loc.
5
Denniston-Page 1957 ad 140-45
6
Wohl 1998: 68-69
n. 16 below.
7
Mauss 1967: 12-16.
8
Belfiore 1994: 114-17
Herman 1987
Regenos 1955.
9
Thiel 1993: 117.
10
Winnington-Ingram 1974: 5
11
Choe. 2, 19
Eum. 291
IG I3 53.1, 54.16
Hdt. 2.181, 4.120, 5.73.
Wohl 1998: 70.
12
Seaford 1994: 25-29
13
Wohl 1998: 67-82.
14
Wohl 1998: 71-82.
15
Wohl 1998: 81-82.
16
Wohl 1998: 74
17
Wohl 1998: 86.
18
Morris 1986: 12
19
Wohl 1998: 71.
Wohl 1998: 78
Guarducci 1974: 4-5, 28-32.
20
Gernet 1981: 115
Wohl 1998: 59-66.
Scodel 1996.
Il. I 145
Eur. IA 98-103
PEG Bernabé 41
Wohl 1998: 68
21
Roth 1993: 1-8
Goldhill 1984: 13
Daube 1938: 24n 53
Fraenkel 1950 ad 400 n 2
Jones 1962: 83
Winnington-Ingram 1974: 8-9
Griffith 1995: 83n 76.
22
Leahy 1974.
23
Rose 1992: 211
Ag. 326-29
24
Lebeck 1971: 44-45.
25
Peradotto 1969: 255-56
Wohl 1998: 83-89.
26
Lesky 1966: 83.
27
Griffith 1995
28
Podlecki 1986: 90
29
Cohen 1992: 19n 74
Theok. 12.37
30
Fraenkel ad loc.
Hdt. esp. 1.93, 3.95, 98
Wohl 1998: 96
Kurke 1997a: 116
Kurke 1995: 45-46.
31
von Reden 1995: 159
32
Kurke 1989, esp. 538-39.
33
Kurke 1989: 538-39
Hdt. 1.94.1
Wohl 1998
n. 30 above
34
Daube 1938: 135
di Benedetto 1978: 194
35
Denniston-Page 1957 ad loc.
Fraenkel 1950 ad loc.
38
Strubbe 1991: 41
Versnel 1991: 64-75
39
Aiskh. Eum. 311ff., 394-95.
40
Aiskh. Eum. 393
Daube 1938: 136
41
Kurke 1991.
42
Winnington-Ingram 1983: 92-93
43
Kurke 1991: 195ff.
Bulman 1992.
44
Kurke 1991: 118
Bulman 1992: 7.
Thgn. 453-56
Thuc. 2.37.
45
Kurke 1997a: 112
46
Chantraine 1980: 2002
48
West 1978.
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 1928 ad loc.
51
Erga 117-18
hApollo 100
hDem. 168, 223
Daube 1938: 132n 30
Eth. Nik. 1108b
52
Bulman 1992: 2
54
Morris 1996: 19n 1.
55
PV 628.
56
Pers. 362
PV 859
Eum. 686.
57
PV 584
Sept. 236, 480.
58
Sept. 480
Eur. Med. 63
59
Supp. 201
Eum. 371
Supp. 322.
60
Pers. 712
PV 330.
61
Eur. Med. 60 and 62-63
62
Ag. 939
Pers. 710
PV 143
Choe. 1017.
64
Aiskh. Ag. 853
Sept. 501
Su. 301
Pe. 522
Eur. El. 890-91
Hipp. 996
Ion 401-402
IT 476
Med. 720-21.
65
Kurke 1997b: 167n 11
Morris 1996.
66
Higgins 1978: 25
67
Connor 1985.
Aiskh. Choe. 50
Connor 1985: 79n 1
Eum. 354-55
69
Supp. 671, 921, 922
Sept. 596
Eum. 12, 22
Supp. 815
PV 543
Pers. 166
Ag. 258, 274
Sept. 530
70
Kurke 1991: 195ff.
71
Fraenkel 1950 ad 899-902
72
Fraenkel 1950 ad 904
P. 10.20
73
Fraenkel 1950 ad loc.
74
Kurke 1991: 220
Kurke (218-19)
75
Kurke 1991: 224
Race 1987: 138-39nn 23, 24.
76
Crane 1993: 122-23
Dinon (FGrH 690, fr. 2b)
Fraenkel's (1950 ad 918-20)
Cumae (FGrH 689, fr. 1)
77
Lebeck 1971: 80-81
Buxton 1982: 106
Rehm 1992: 85.
78
von Reden 1995: 162-63
Dover 1977: 58
79
Denniston-Page 1957 ad 909
Geddes 1987
Morrell 1997
80
Kurke 1991: 162-224
Wohl 1998: 88
Crane 1993: 133ff.
81
Crane 1993: 120
Lesky 1983: 74
Thomson 1966: 243
82
Michelini 1974
Crane 1993.
83
Pindar fr. 181 SM
85
Kurke 1991: 86
86
Maitland 1992: 30
87
Kurke 1992: 94, 103.
Nagy 1990: 281-87.
88
Fraenkel 1950 ad 918-21.
89
Rosenbloom 1995: 109.
Dover 1977: 63
Hdt. 9.82
Thuc. 1.130.
90
MacLeod 1975
Agamemnon (921, 960, 963).
Goheen 1955: 115-26.
91
Fraenkel 1950 ad 928
Radermacher 1938
Hdt. 1.32.7
Crane 1993: 129-31
92
Murray 1952: 218
Denniston-Page 1957 ad 931
Winnington-Ingram 1983: 92
Jones 1962: 81
Buxton 1982: 106-107.
93
Kraus 1978: 52-53.
Pers. 392
PV 888, 1003
Ag. 1664
Denniston and Page 1957 ad loc.
Eur. Hipp. 388f.
Pers. 392
Ag. 1664
94
Winnington-Ingram 1983: 92
95
Goldhill 1984: 13
n. 21 supra
96
Dover 1977: 62-63
97
Winnington-Ingram 1983: 91
98
Goldhill 1986: 12.
99
Wohl 1998: 88
100
Buxton 1982: 107
Goldhill 1984: 77
Goldhill 1986: 13-14.
101
Gundert 1974: 219-31
Lloyd-Jones 1962: 197
Edwards 1977
102
Gundert 1974: 228.
103
Denniston- Page 1957 ad loc.
104
Denniston-Page 1957
Fraenkel 1950 ad 469ff.
106
Wohl 1998: 86-87.
108
Crane 1993: 134
109
Griffith 1995: 84
110
RE 18:3 p. 227 col. 1
Eur. Andr. 173-80
Hdt. 1.135.
111
Wohl 1998: 86-87.
112
Jones 1962: 88
Goldhill 1986: 11
113
Griffith 1995: 84n 81
Prag 1985.
114
Griffith 1995
Wohl 1998: 236n 11.

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