This is a general reading of Callimachus' work within the socio-political context of Ptolemaic Alexandria. "Alibis" refers to the constitutionally expatriate nature of the populace and culture established there, which in Callimachus gives rise to a poetics based on the principles of displacement and convergence. Close analysis of a wide variety of passages, drawn principally from the epigrams, Aetia, and Hymns, demonstrates how the "order of the alibi" informs all major aspects of the poet's work, from the lexical make-up of his texts to their larger narrative and thematic structure. Certain poems in the corpus, such as the Lock of Berenice and the Hymn to Apollo, not only require detailed knowledge of Greek literature, history, and religious institutions, but also draw extensively on Egyptian mythography and cultural models, which do not so much replace the Hellenic matter as-characteristically-cohabit with it. In this respect, Callimachus served both as a key architect of the new, multi-ethnic culture that the Ptolemies institutionalized in Egypt and as its most penetrating critic.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
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P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1972) chaps. 1-2.
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C. Wendel, Scholia in Apollonium Rhodium Vetera (Berlin, 1958) 2
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Callimachus, Epigram 28.
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Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 22d.
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Propertius, Elegies 3.1.1-16.
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M. Hadas, Hellenistic Culture (New York, 1959) 23.
96
Schwinge, Künstlichkeit von Kunst (n. 90) 23.
97
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Cratinus, fr. 229 Kock: [Unrepresented Characters].
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P.Fayûm 67.2: tU'pOU OVOL CpELq.
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Cratinus, fr. 52 Kock
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M. Asper, Onomata allotria (n. 91).
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V. Shklovsky, 0 teorii prozy, 2nd ed. (Moscow, 1929) 11-13, 18.
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K. J. Beloch, Griechische Geschichte, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (Strassburg, 1912-1927) 4:1:617 n. 3.
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Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 2:827 n. 221.
118
F. Chamoux, Cyréne sous la monarchie des Battiades (Paris, 1953) passim
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119
M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques (n. 39) 2:1152-69
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Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride 362a.
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P. M. Fraser, "Current Problems Concerning the Early History of the Cult of Sarapis," Opuscula Atheniensia 7 (1967) 23-45.
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Fraser, "Sarapis in the Hellenistic World" (n. 120) 5-9.
124
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:275.
125
Fraser, "Sarapis in the Hellenistic World" (n. 120) 30-31, 47.
126
P. Friedlaender and H. Hoffleit, Epigrammata: Greek Inscriptions in Verse from the Begin- nings to the Persian Wars (Berkeley, 1948) 112.
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Aristotle, Historia animalium 525a21.
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137
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A. S. F. Gow and D. L. Page, The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1965) no. 14.
138
J. Henderson, The Maculate Muse, 2nd ed. (New York, 1991) 142.
139
K. Gutzwiller, "The Nautilus, the Halcyon, and Selenaia," Classical Antiquity 11 (1992) 198.
140
G. Longega, Arsinoe II (Rome, 1968).
141
W. W. Tarn, Hellenistic Civilisation (n. 50) 16.
142
S. Sauneron, "Un document égyptien relatif à la divinisation de la reine Arsinoé II," Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Archéologie orientale 60 (1960) 83-109.
143
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 40.
144
Callimachus, fr. 228.
145
Diegesis 10.10, ed. Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:218.
146
J. Tondriau, "Princesses ptolémaïques comparées ou identifiées à déesses," Bulletin. Société royale d'Archéologie d'Alexandrie 37 (1948) 15-21.
147
Posidippus 12, ed. Gow-Page (n. 137) 1:170.
148
Posidippus 13, ed. Gow-Page (n. 137) 1:170.
149
L. Robert, "Sur un décret d'Ilion et sur un papyrus concernant des cultes royaux," American Studies in Papyrology 1 (1966) 175-211.
150
Giangrande, "Three Alexandrian Epigrams" (n. 128).
151
A. Tcherikover, Die hellenistische Städtegründungen von Alexander der Grossen bis auf die Römerzeit (Leipzig, 1927) 24-25.
152
Robert, "Sur un décret des Korésiens" (n. 135) 146ff.
153
Prescott, "Epigram on the Nautilus" (n. 129) 328ff.
154
L. Braun, "L'Arte di Callimacho negli epigrammi funerari," Studi Classici e Orientali 35 (1985) 63-64
G. B. Walsh, "Callimachean Passages: The Rhetoric of Epitaph in Epigram," Arethusa 24 (1991) 91-92.
155
W. Peek, Griechische Vers-Inschriften, I: Grab-Epigramme (Berlin, 1955) no. 62.
156
Euripides, Medea 1-7.
157
Walsh, "Callimachean Passages" (n. 154) 83.
158
Wilamowitz, Hellenistisch Dichtung (n. 89) 2:120.
159
Odyssey 11.100 and 23.253.
160
Gow-Page, Greek Anthology (n. 137) 2:153
161
Epigram 42.
Plato, Republic 365e7
Laws 906d1
Arisophanes, Clouds 25
Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 1123b32.
162
Olympian 4.8-12
Pythian 8.18-20
Nemean 2.24-24
Nemean 9.1-5
Isthmian 2.30-32
Isthmian 6.52-58
Isthmian 8.1-5.
L. Kurke, The Traffic in Praise (Cornell, 1991).
Theocritus 3.1.
163
K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, rev. ed. (Cambridge, 1989).
164
H. Beckby, Anthologia Graeca, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (Munich, n.d.) 1:32.
165
S. Johnson, "Upon Pope's Epitaphs," The Works of Samuel Johnson, 9 vols. (Oxford, 1825) 8:350-51.
166
R. Reitzenstein, Epigramm und Skolion (Giessen, 1893).
167
W. Swinnen, "Herakleitos of Halikarnassos, an Alexandrian Poet and Diplomat?" Ancient Society 1 (1970) 39-52.
168
Fraser, "Sarapis in the Hellenistic World," (n. 120) 34 n. 3.
169
fr. 178.16
Commentarius ad Aet., lib. 1, fr. 2a.44
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 2:104.
170
Hesiod, Works and Days 493.
171
R. Hunter, "Callimachus and Heraclitus," Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici 28 (1992) 113-23.
172
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:328ff.
R. Blum, Kallimachos: The Alexandrian Library and the Origins of Bibliography, trans. H. H. Wellisch (Madison, 1991) 133-37.
173
Achilles Tatius, Isagoga 33, ed. E. Maass, Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae (Berlin, 1898) 68.
Hecale, ed. A. S. Hollis (Oxford, 1990) fr. 18.15
Hymn to Artemis 114
Hymn to Delos 26
174
G. Codrignani, "L'aition' nella poesia greca prima di Callimaco," Convivium 26 (1958) 527-45.
175
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (Göttingen, 1988) 71 n. 34.
176
Diegesis (10.18-11.7)
Hollis, Hecale (n. 173) 65.
177
Already in Homer, Odyssey 1.50.
178
Aeschylus, Eumenides 166
Plato, Republic 427c.
179
Callimachus, fr. 197
180
Diegesis 7.32-8.20
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:193.
Callimachus: Fragments, ed. C. A. Trypanis (Cambridge, Mass., 1975) 132-34.
181
Homer, Iliad 21.210-382.
182
Homeric Hymn to Hermes 3.
183
L. R. Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, 5 vols. (Oxford, 1896-1909) 5:1-16
P. Raingeard, Hermès psychagogue (Paris, 1935)
K. Kerényi, Hermes der Seelenführer (Zurich, 1944)
N. O. Brown, Hermes the Thief (Madison, 1947)
L. Kahn, Hermès passe, ou, Les ambiguités de la communication (Paris, 1978).
Greek Religion, trans. J. Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1985) 156.
185
Schol. Flor. ll. 23-39, ed. Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:13.
186
Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin, Inscriptiones Graecae[= IG], 14 vols. (Berlin, 1873-) 13.8.358.
187
Apollodorus, Library 3.15.7.
188
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 263-483
Archilochus, fr. 1-13
Ovid, Amores 1.1-4
189
Callimachus, Aetia 1.1-6.
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 338
Sophocles, Electra 414
190
D. Frame, The Myth of Return in Early Greek Epic (New Haven, 1978).
R. Hunter, "Callimachus Swings (Frr. 178 and 43 Pf.)" Ramus 25 (1996) 17-26.
191
G. Lukács, The Theory of the Novel, trans. A. Bostock (Cambridge, Mass., 1971) 33.
192
M. Heath, Unity in Greek Poetics (Oxford, 1989)
A. Ford, "Unity in Greek Criticism and Poetry," Arion 3rd ser. 1 (1991) 125-54
D. M. Schenkeveld, "Unity and Variety in Ancient Criticism," Mnemosyne 45 (1992) 1-8.
A. Harder, "Untrodden Paths: Where do they Lead?" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 93 (1990) 287-309
"Aspects of the Structure of Callimachus' Aetia," Hellenistica Groningana 1 (1993) 99-110.
193
H. Reinsch-Werner, Callimachus Hesiodicus (Berlin, 1976) 8.
194
P. Berlin 3033
Leiden Dem. Pap. I 384
G. Lefebvre, Romans et contes égyptiens de l'époque pharaonique (Paris, 1949)
W. Spiegelberg, Der ägyptische Mythus vom Sonnenauge (Der Papyrus der Tierfablen-"Kufi") nach dem Leidner Demotischen Papyrus I 384 (Strassburg, 1917).
S. West, "The Greek Version of the Legend of Tefnut," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 55 (1969) 161-83
J. Tait, "The Tale of Sight and Hearing in the Demotic Kufi Text," Acta Orientalia 37
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M. C. Betró, "L'alchimia delle traduzione: Il Mito dell'Occhio del Sole e il P. B. M. inv. no. 274," Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia, 3 vols. (Naples, 1984) 3:1355-60.
195
"Its marvelous beauty binds me. I do not believe that antiquity has bequeathed to us a lyric poem which surpasses it, and no poem of our era (le età nostre) can compare to it," La Chioma di Berenice, poema di Callimaco, tradotto da Valerio Catullo, volgarizzato ed illustrato da Ugo Foscolo (Milan, 1803), Dedication.
196
C. J. Fordyce, Catullus I (Oxford, 1961) 329.
M. Rausch et al., La gloire d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1998) 75.
197
Justin, Historiae Philippicae 26.3.
198
F. Chamoux, "Le roi Magas," Revue Historique 216 (1956) 18-34.
199
Appian, Syriaca 65
E. Will, Histoire politique du monde hellénistique, 2 vols. (Nancy, 1966-67) 1:221-22
Hammond, Macedonian State (n. 31) 312-13.
200
Plutarch, Moralia 267b
P. Schredelseker, De superstitionibus Graecorum quae ad crines pertinent (Diss. Heidelberg, 1913) 52-63.
L. Sommer, Das Haar in Religion und Aberglauben der Griechen (Diss. Münster, 1912).
201
Hyginus, Astronomica 2.24.
202
W. Dittenberger, ed., Orientis graeci inscriptiones selectae [= OGIS], 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1903-1905), no. 54.
203
Justin, Historiae Philippicae 27.1.
Appian, Syriaca 65
Polyaenus, Strategemata 8.50
Jerome, Commentaria in Danielem 11.7ff.
204
Meillier, Callimaque (n. 136) 147-48.
K. Gutzwiller, "Callimachus' Lock of Berenice: Fantasy, Romance, and Propaganda," American Journal of Philology 113 (1992) 359-85.
205
Foscolo, Chioma di Berenice (n. 195) 38.
206
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 2:xxxvi-xxxvii.
207
Koenen, "The Ptolemaic King as a Religious Figure" (n. 30) 94-95.
208
Catullus, Carmina 66.
N. Marinone, Berenice da Callimaco a Catullo (Rome, 1984)
P. Bing, "Reconstructing Berenike's Lock," in G. W. Most, ed., Collecting Fragments (Göttingen, 1997) 78-94.
209
Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 15, 689a
H. Herter, "Die Haarole der Berenike," Medizingeschichte in anderer Zeit, ed. H. Eulner et al. (Stuttgart, 1971) 54-68.
210
J. von Beckerath, Handbuch der dgyptischen Konigsnamen (Munich, 1984) 288.
211
Koenen, "The Ptolemaic King as a Religious Figure" (n. 30) 89-113.
212
G. Nachtergael, "Bérénice II, Arsinoé III et l'offrande de la boucle," Chronique d'Égypte 55 (1980) 240-53.
213
Epigram 35
214
Herodotus 2.181.
215
Herodotus, Histories 2.134
216
Catullus, Carmina 66.11-32
D. S. Carne-Ross, Callimachus: Hymns, Epigrams, Select Fragments (Baltimore, 1988) 78, modified.
217
Catullus, Carmina 66.12 and 35-36.
218
A. Loprieno, Topos und Mimesis (Wiesbaden, 1988)
D. Valbelle, Les neuf arcs (Paris, 1990)
D. B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton, 1992).
219
R. Anthes, "The Original Meaning of mC' brw," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 13 (1954) 21ff.
W. Westendorf, "Ursprung und Wesen der Maat," in Studien zur Sprache und Religion Ägyptens: Festschrift für W. Westendorf (Göttingen, 1984) 687-701
E. Hornung, "Maat—Gerechtigkeit für alle? Zur altägyptischen Ethik," Eranos Jahrbuch 56 (1987) 385-427
J. Assman, Ma'at: Gerechtigkeit und Unsterblichkeit im alten Ägypten (Munich, 1990).
B. J. Kemp, in Ancient Egypt (London, 1989)
220
W. Helck, Die Prophezeiung des Nfr-tj (Wiesbaden, 1970) 11. 57-70
H. Goedicke, The Protocol of Neferyt (Baltimore, 1977).
221
E. Naville, The Temple of Deir el-Bahari (London, 1898-1908) 3: pl. 62
Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel (n. 218) 151
222
K. Sethe and W. Helck, eds., Urkunden des dgyptischen Altertums, Abteilung IV. Urkunden der 18. Dynastie (Leipzig and Berlin, 1906-1958) IV, 372.5-8.
223
Sethe and Helck, Urkunden (n. 222) IV, 356-69
M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 3 vols. (Berkeley, 1973-1980) 2:25-29.
224
Von Beckerath, Königsnamen (n. 210) 226.
225
Sethe and Helck, Urkunden (n. 222) IV, 648.
226
Ibid. IV, 651.
227
Ibid. IV, 661.
228
Ibid. IV, 613.
Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 223) 2:36.
229
J. B. Pritchard, AncientNearEastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. (Princeton, 1969) 242-43.
230
C. Kuentz, La bataille de Qadech (Cairo, 1928) Poem 5, 96-97, 336.
231
H. Gauthier, Les fêtes du dieu Min (Cairo, 1931)
C. J. Bleeker, Die Geburt eines Gottes (Leiden, 1956).
below, n. 298
232
E. Chassinat, S. Cauville, et al., Le Temple d'Edfou, 15 vols. (1892-1987) 1:390-91, 398, 489
H. Brugsch, Reise nach der grossen Oase El Khargeh in der libyschen Wüste (Leipzig, 1878) 27, col. 38.
233
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 390 n. 23.
234
"Min-Horus: the hero who smites his enemy ... the ruler of foreign lands," L. V. Žabkar, Hymns to Isis in Her Temple at Philae (Hanover, 1988) 21-22.
235
Naples Museum 1034, 11. 8-11.
Herodotus, Histories 3.1-39
G. Posener, La premiere domination Perse en Egypte (Cairo, 1936)
F. Kienitz, Die politische Geschichte Ägyptens vom 7. bis zum 4. Jahrhundert vor der Zeitwende (Berlin, 1953)
E. Bresciani, "La satrapia d'Egitto," Studi classici e orientali 7 (1958), 132-88
M. F. Gyles, Pharaonic Policies and Administration 663 to 323 B.C. (Chapel Hill, 1959).
236
J. K. Winnicki, "Carrying Off and Bringing Home the Statues of the Gods," Journal of Juristic Papyrology 24 (1994) 149-90.
237
Satrap Stela, ll. 3-6
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 14-15.
E. R. Bevan, The House of Ptolemy [London, 1927] 28-32
238
Pithom Stela, ll. 10-11
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 91.
239
Canopus Decree, ll. 6-7
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 128-29.
240
W. Helck, Der Text der Lehre Amenemhets I. für seinen Sohn (Wiesbaden, 1969) III, 3.
Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 223) 1:137.
241
Palestine and Syria. K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions, 8 vols. (Oxford, 1975-1990) 4:12-19
Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 223) 2:73-77.
242
S. Burstein, "Images of Egypt in Greek Historiography," in A. Loprieno, ed., Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and Forms (Leiden, 1996) 591-604.
Herodotus, Histories 2.102-109
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1.53-57 (Hecataeus of Abdera)
Josephus, Contra Apionem 1.97-102 (Manetho).
243
Callimachus, fr. 110.52.
244
F. Jacoby, Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 3 vols. in 15 (Leiden, 1923-1958) 3A: 11-64 (no. 264)
O. Murray, "Hecataeus of Abdera and Pharaonic Kingship," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 56 (1970) 141-71
Burstein, Graeco-Africana (n. 28) 3-27.
245
Diodorus 1.27.4-5.
Murray, "Hecataeus of Abdera" (n. 244) 146
246
O. Neugebauer and R. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts, 3 vols. (Providence, 1960- 1969) 1:72 and 74n.
247
K. Sethe, Die altägyptischen Pyramidentexte, 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1908-1922) 632-33.
248
R. O. Faulkner, "The Lamentations of Isis and Nephys," Mélanges Maspero I, 1 (1934) 337-48; lines 4.10ff.
249
S. Cauville, Le zodiaque d'Osiris (Leuven, 1997) 70.
250
Ibid. 72.
251
Ibid. 70-71.
252
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 181-212.
253
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:238-46
J. Quaeberger: "Ptolémée II en adoration devant Arsinoe II divinisée," Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Archéologie orientale 69 (1970) 191-217
"Reines ptolémaïques et traditions égyptiennes," in H. Maehler and V M. Strocka, eds., Das ptolemäische Ägypten (Mainz, 1978) 245-62
"Cleopatra VII and the Cults of the Ptolemaic Queens," in R. S. Bianchi, ed., Cleopatra's Egypt (New York, 1988) 41-54.
254
D. B. Thompson, Ptolemaic Oinochoai and Portraits in Faience (Oxford, 1973) nos. 141- 43
Bianchi, Cleopatra's Egypt (n. 253) Cat. 66.
255
Žabkar, Hymns to Isis (n. 234) 89-90.
256
P.Petr. 3.1 col. 2.6
Dittenberger, OGIS (n. 202) no. 60
E. Carney, "The Reappearance of Royal Sibling Marriage in Ptolemaic Egypt," Parola del Passato 237 (1987) 420-39.
257
F. Dunand, Le culte d'Isis dans le bassin orientale de la Méditerranée, 3 vols. (Leiden, 1973) 1:38-39 and pl. XIV.
Rausch, La gloire d'Alexandrie (n. 196) no. 145.
Tondriau, "Princesses ptolémaiques comparées ou identifiées à déesses" (n. 146).
258
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 3:12-14.
259
Louvre N 664 = AF 895
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 3:60.
260
Canopus Decree, 1. 23
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 142.
261
Callimachus, fr. 228.5.
262
H. Frankfort, The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos, 2 vols. (London, 1933) 1:72-86 and 2: plates LXXXI-LXXXV.
P.Carlsberg 1 and 1a.
263
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 1:68.
264
C. Maystre, Les Declarations d'Innocence (Livres des Morts, Chapitre 125) (Cairo, 1937).
265
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 1:78.
266
Neuge- bauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 3:214-15.
267
A. de Buck and A. H. Gardiner, The Egyptian Coffin Texts, 7 vols. (Chicago, 1935-1962) 5, 389ff.
R. O. Faukner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, 3 vols. (Warminster, 1973-1978) 2:101-102.
268
K. Sethe, Pyramidentexte (n. 247) 379-80.
R. O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Oxford, 1969) 77-78.
T. G. Allen, The Book of the Dead, or Going Forth By Day (Chicago, 1974) 157.
269
De Buck and Gardiner, Coffin Texts (n. 267) I, 264 and VI, 51.
Faulkner, Coffin Texts (idem) 1:57 and 2:127.
270
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 1:68.
271
Sethe, Pyramidentexte (n. 247) 2071-73.
Faulkner, Pyramid Texts (n. 268) 296.
272
De Buck and Gardiner, Coffin Texts (n. 267) V, 394.
Faukner, Coffin Texts (idem) 2:102.
273
H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. H. S. Jones and R. McKenzie [= LSJ], 9th ed. with Supplement (Oxford, 1968), s.v. TLWrIL III.11.
274
F. Boll, Sphaera (Leipzig, 1903) 158-244
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 3:183-212.
275
Neugebauer and Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts (n. 246) 3:1-104.
276
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32)
H. te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion (Leiden, 1967)
J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Horus and Seth (Liverpool, 1960).
277
J. Vandier, Le Papyrus Jumilhac (Paris, 1961) 129.
278
Fordyce, Catullus (n. 196) 338.
279
G. Nachtergael, "La chevelure d'Isis," L'Antiquité Classique 50 (1981) 584-605.
280
J. Yoyotte, "Une étude sur l'anthroponymie gréco-égyptienne du nome Prosopite," Bulletin de l'Institut franņais d'Archéologie orientale 55 (1955) 135-38.
281
Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride 14.
Etymologicum Magnum, ed. T. Gaisford (Oxford, 1848)
E. Bernand, Inscriptions métriques de l'Égypte gréco-romaine (Besançon, 1969) 410 and n. 13.
282
R. 0. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, ed. C. Andrews (Austin, 1990) 149 (Spell 17)
283
J. Wasserman, The Egyptian Book of the Dead. The Book cf Going Forth by Day, Being the Papyrus of Ani, trans. R. 0. Faulkner and 0. Goelet, Jr., ed. E. von Dassow (San Francisco, 1994) plates 7-10.
284
Allen, Book of the Dead (n. 268) 80 (chap. 99).
285
J. von Beckerath, "Die 'Stele der Verbannten' im Museum des Louvre," Revue d'Égyptologie 20 (1968) 7-36.
J. Baines, "Interpreting Sinuhe," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68 (1982) 41 n. 41.
286
Catullus, Carmina 66.33-35
287
M. Münster, Untersuchungen zur Göttin Isis (Berlin. 1968) 120
J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult (Leiden, 1980) 50.
288
S. T. Hollis comments, The Ancient Egyptian "Tale of Two Brothers" (Norman, 1990) 137
289
Buck and Gardiner, Coffin Texts (n. 267) VI, 298
VI, 403: "Hathor who is in the sky."
290
G. Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (Cambridge, Mass., 1993) 21-25
S. Allam, Beiträge zum Hathorkult bis zum Ende des Mittleren Reiches (Berlin, 1963).
H. Brunner, "Das Besänftigungslied in Sinuhe," Zeitschrift ftr ägyptische Sprache 80 (1955) 10.
Žabkar, Hymns to Isis (n. 234) 41-42, 19-23
291
P. Derchain, "La perruque et le cristal," Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur 2 (1975) 55-74.
292
G. Posener, "La légende de la tresse d'Hathor," in L. H. Lesko, ed., Egyptological Studies in Honor of Richard A. Parker (Hanover, 1986) 111-17.
293
A. H. Gardiner, The Ramesseum Papyri (Oxford, 1955) 14.
294
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 36-47
te Velde, Seth (n. 276) 32-59.
295
Posener, "La tresse d'Hathor" (no. 292)
Hollis, Tale of the Two Brothers (n. 288) 142.
296
Vandier, Papyrus Jumilhac (n. 277) 45-46, 105-106.
297
P.D'Obriney 10.4-12.7
Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 223) 2:207-208.
298
Hollis, The Tale of Two Brothers (n. 288) 49-169.
H. Jacobsohn, Die dogmatische Stellung des Königs in der Theologie der alten Ägypter (Glückstadt, 1939)
"Der altägyptische, der christliche, und der moderne Mythos," Eranos Jahrbuch (1968) 411-48.
299
Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker [n. 244] 3C: 112
Ptolemaic Alexandria [n. 5] 1:330
Blum, Kallimachos (n. 172) 103
Pliny, Natural History 30.4
300
Hollis, Tale of Two Brothers (n. 288) 168.
A. Loprieno, "Defining Egyptian Literature: Ancient Texts and Modern Theories," in Loprieno, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 242) 55-58
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W. J. Tait, "Demotic Literature: Forms and Genres," in Loprieno, Ancient Literture (n. 242) 179.
301
E. Hornung, Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, trans. J. Baines (Ithaca, 1982) 240-41
H. Bonnet, "Zum Verstiindnis des Synkretismus," Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache 75 (1939) 41-52
J. Zandee, Het ongedifferen- tieerde denken der oude Egyptanaren (Leiden, 1966)
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302
D. P. Silverman, "Divinity and Deities in Ancient Egypt," in B. Shafer, ed., Religion in Ancient Egypt (Ithaca, 1991) 64.
de Buck and Gardiner, Coffin Texts [n. 267] III, 396b and III, 383a
K. Sethe, Amun und die acht Urgötter von Hermopolis [Berlin, 1929] § 200.
303
Lucian, Deorum concilium 10-11.
Quintilian, Institutio oratoria 8.6.52.
304
Aetia fr. 1.17-18
305
Aristotle, Poetics 1462b12, 1454a10, 1447a20, 1451a24.
306
Aristophanes, Frogs 766, 785, and 1519.
Wimmel, Kallimachos in Rom (n. 88) 115 n. 1.
307
Hymn to Zeus 4.
308
Iambi frr. 191 and 203
309
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 374-79.
310
Scholia Florentina ll. 4-15, ed. Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84)1:3.
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 185-409.
311
Aetia fr. 1.
312
Scholia Florentina ll. 16-18
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:11.
313
A.P. 7.42, ed. Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:11.
314
Odyssey 19.562-67.
315
Tyre, Philosophumena, ed. H. Hobein (Leipzig, 1910) 439.
H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th ed. (Berlin, 1951) no. 457.
316
Hesiod, Theogony 26-27
Gregory Nagy's comments on the "Cretan lies" of Odysseus in the Odyssey, "Hesiod and the Poetics of Pan-Hellenism," in Greek Mythology and Poetics (Ithaca, 1990) 44-45.
Plato, Laws 677e2-3
Plutarch, Septem sapientium convivium 157d
Pindar, Olympian 1.126
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2.1122
317
Aetia fr. 2.
318
Hesiod, Theogony 22-23.
319
Hesiod, Works and Days 265.
320
Hesiod, Theogony 6.
321
Ibid. 30-31.
322
A. Kambylis, Die Dichterweihe und ihre Symbolik (Heidelberg, 1965).
Propertius, Elegies 3.1.
323
Reinsch-Werner, Callimachus Hesiodicus (n. 193) 1-23.
324
Hymn to Apollo 108-12
Epigram 28.3-4.
325
Σ to Pindar, Nemean 2.1.
326
Nagy, "Hesiod" (n. 316) 45.
327
Epimenides, fr. 11 Diels-Kranz.
328
Jacques Derrida (toujours déjà) in De la grammatologie (Paris, 1966)
329
fr. 191.
330
W. H. Mineur, Callimachus. Hymn to Delos (Leiden, 1984) 16-18.
V. Gigante Lanzara, Callimaco. Inno a Delo (Pisa, 1990) 19
331
Mineur, Hymn to Delos (n. 330) ad 281.
334
Mineur, Hymn to Delos (n. 330) ad loc.
335
Iliad 18.604
Odyssey 4.17, 13.27.
336
K. Lehrs, De Aristarchi Studiis Homericis (Leipzig, 1882) 138-40.
337
B. Snell, ed., Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos (Göttingen, 1955- )
C. Calame, Les choeurs de jeunesfilles en Grèce archaïque, 2 vols. (Rome, 1977) 1:163-65.
338
Hesiod, Scutum 201ff.
Iliad 17.182-83
339
H. White, "Three Textual Problems in Callimachus' Hymn to Delos," Corolla Londiniensis 2 (1982) 193-204
340
Mineur, Hymn to Delos (n. 330) ad loc.
F. Williams, Callimachus. Hymn to Apollo (Oxford, 1978) 20.
341
Calame, Choeurs dejeunesfilles (n. 337) 1:77-84
S. Ferri, "Xop6o xuxXLxO6. Nuovi documenti archeologici e vecchia tradizione letteraria," Rivista dell' Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte 3 (1931) 299-330.
342
Pfeiffer, Callimachus [n. 84] 2:72
343
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 24-70.
345
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 94
Aetia prologue, Hymn to Apollo, Epigram 30, Iambi 1.
346
Pindar, fr. 33b Snell.
347
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 96-110.
349
Gigante Lanzara, Inno a Delo (n. 330) ad loc.
350
L. J. Bauer, "Callimachus, Hymn IV: An Exegesis" (Diss. Brown, 1970)
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 116ff.
351
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:652
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) 2
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 407-409.
352
K. Bassi, "The Poetics of Exclusion in Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo," Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 119 (1989) 219-31.
353
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) 85-89 (with earlier bibliography)
G. Giangrande, "On Callimachus' Literary Theories," Corolla Londiniensis 2 (1982) 57-67
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 403-407.
354
S. Wide, Lakonische Kulte (Leipzig, 1893) 63-87
M. P. Nilsson, Griechische Feste (Leipzig, 1906) 118-29.
355
Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, ed. T. W. Allen, Homeri Opera, vol. 5 (Oxford, 1912) 237
356
Wimmel, Kallimachos in Rom (n. 88) 65-70.
357
Iliad 3.125-28
Wimmel, Kallimachos in Rom (n. 88) 67.
358
Bacchylides 5.9-10
Pindar, fr. 179 Snell.
359
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) frr. 66.3ff., 383.13ff., 520, 547, 640, 672
Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, Supplementum Hellenisticum (n. 87) no. 254.
360
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) ad fr. 532.
361
Prometheus Bound 450-51
Plato, Critias 116b2-4
E. Kagis McEwen, Socrates' Ancestor: An Essay on Architectural Beginnings (Cambridge, Mass., 1993) 80-93.
362
Homeric Hymn to Apollo 287-95.
363
H. R. Jauss, "Literaturgeschichte als Provokation der Literaturwissenschaft," in Liter- aturgeschichte als Provokation (Frankfurt a. M., 1970) 168-206.
364
Callimachus, Epigram 28.3-4.
365
Diegesis 9.33-35, ed. Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:205.
366
Callimachus, fr. 203.18.
367
Ibid. 63-66.
368
R. Hunter, "(B)ionic Man: Callimachus' Iambic Programme," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 43 (1997) 41-52.
369
Hymn to Artemis 196.
370
Iliad 12.10-30.
371
Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 128-34.
372
The Bath of Pallas 37-39
Aetia, fr. 75.
373
R. Schmitt, Die Nominalbildung in den Dichtungen des Kallimachos von Kyrene (Wiesbaden, 1970), 51-52
375
Callimachus, Hymn to Delos 13-15.
376
Knights 819
Frogs 1041
P Oxy. 1381
377
LSJ (n. 273) s.v.
378
Iliad 2.629
Odyssey 15.254
Hesiod, Works and Days 639
379
Iliad 11.111
W. Leaf, The Iliad, 2 vols. (London, 1900-1902) ad loc.
380
G. R. McLennan, Hymn to Zeus (Rome, 1977)
F. Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340)
F. Bornmann, Hymnus in Dianam (Florence, 1968)
W. H. Mineur, Hymn to Delos (n. 330)
A. W. Bulloch, Callimachus. The Fifth Hymn (Cambridge, 1985)
N. Hopkinson, Hymn to Demeter (Cambridge, 1984)
Hollis, Hecale (n. 173).
H. Reinsch-Werner, Callimachus Hesiodicus (n. 193).
381
Hollis, Hecale (n. 173) 13-14.
382
Hymns 1.52, 2.76,4.302
Epigram 5.5
The Deification of Arsinoe 228.41
frr. 634 and 657.
F. von Jan, De Callimacho Homeri Interprete (Strasburg, 1893) 8-13.
383
Hesiod, Works and Days 301, 307.
384
Ibid. 374, 503.
385
Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis 96.
Hecale fr. 80.4 Hollis.
386
Hymn to Artemis 72.
387
Agamemnon 1562
Choephoroi 886.
388
Hymn to Artemis 12.
389
G. W. Most, "Callimachus and Herophilus," Hermes 109 (1981) 188ff.
390
Scripta Minora Alexandrina, 2 vols (Amsterdam, 1980).
Reinsch-Wemer (n. 193) 24-395.
391
G. Manetti, Le teorie del segno nell'antichitá classica (Milan, 1987).
392
Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematicos 8.11-12
A. A. Long and D. N. Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1987) 1:201.
393
Aristotle, On Interpretation 16a3-9
J. von Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1903-1924) 2:45.23 and 26 (fr. 151).
394
Aristotle, On Interpretation 16a5-8
395
Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematicos 8.70
Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers 7.49-50.
Long and Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers (n. 392) 2:496-98.
396
U. Eco, Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (Bloomington, 1984) 3 1.
397
Sextus Empricus, Adversus Mathematicos 8.12.
398
Diogenes Laertius, Lives 7.62.
400
Homeric Hymns 12.1 and 2.459.
401
Aristophanes Acharnians 583 and 733.
402
Diogenes Laertius, Lives 7.62.
403
Hymn to Demeter 43
Hymn to Zeus 50.
404
Odyssey 1.155 and 8.266.
405
Philostratus, Imagines 1.29
406
Odyssey 6.201 and 9.43.
407
PVQ to Odyssey 6.201
Hesychius, Lexicon, s.v.
scholia K to Theocritus, Idylls 1.55.
408
A. Zinato, "Nota zu 8LEPOS," Bollettino dell'Istituto di Filologia greca dell' Universitá di Padova 1 (1974) 173-79
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) ad loc.
"L\ELp6q: Further Ramifications," Museum Philologum Londiniense 5 (1981) 84-93.
409
J. Lacan, Écrits (Paris, 1966) 502.
410
Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter 12 and 16
Hopkinson, Hymn to Demeter (n. 380) 49.
411
Hopkinson, Hymn to Demeter (n. 380) ad loc.
412
Hymn to Isis IG (n. 186) 12.5.73a
Eustathius, Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem, ed. M. van der Valk, 4 vols. (Leiden, 1971-1987) 877.58
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.44.3.
A. C. Cassio, "Iperdorismi callimachei e testo antico dei lirici," in R. Pretagostini, ed., Tradizione e innovazione nella cultura greca da omero all'etá ellenistica. Scritti in onore di Bruno Gentili, 3 vols. (Rome, 1993) 3:903-10.
413
Hopkinson, Hymn to Demeter (n. 380) ad oc.
414
Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematicos 8.12
above, n. 392.
415
W. Geoffrey Arnott, "Two Functions of Ambiguity in Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus," Rivista di Cultura classica e medioevale 18 (1976) 13-18
n. 2.
Hopkinson's commentary ad loc. (Hymn to Demeter [n. 380])
416
Plato, Republic 563d2.
417
Callimachus, Epigram 32.2.
418
Palatine Anthology 7.42
419
Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis 37.
Plato, Laws 909c1
420
Iliad 21.172.
421
Iliad 1 1.548 et passim.
422
E. Benveniste, Noms d'agent et noms d'action en indo-européen (Paris, 1948) 65-66.
423
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) ad loc.
424
F. Lapp, De Callimachi Cyranaei Tropis et Figuris (Bonn, 1965) 146.
425
Aetia fr. 10
Hymn to Delos 205.
426
Hymn to Delos 325
Aetia fr. 24.3 et passim.
427
LSJ (n. 273) s.vv.
428
Benveniste, Noms d'agent (n. 422) 86.
429
É. Cahen, Callimaque et son oeuvre poétique (Paris, 1929) 510.
430
Aristophanes, Frogs 836ff.
431
B. Wyss, Antimachi Colophonii Reliquiae (Berlin, 1936) xxxii.
432
E. Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik, 3 vols. (Munich, 1939-1950) 1:506-507.
433
F. Bredau, De Callimacho verborum inventore (Bratislava, 1892).
434
Tam, Hellenistic Civilization (n. 50) 275.
435
L. Hjelmslev, Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, rev. ed. (Madison, 1961) 13.
436
S. Stephens, "Callimachus at Court," Hellenistica Groningana 3 (1998) 178.
437
C. Dougherty, The Poetics of Colonization (New York, 1993) 56.
438
Herodotus, Histories 4.155.
439
Herodotus (loc. cit.)
440
F. Saussure, Cours de linguistique générale, ed. T. de Mauro (Paris, 1980) 144-75.
441
J. Derrida, "La différance," Bulletin de la Société française de philosophie 62 (1968).
442
R. Barthes, Le plaisir du texte (Paris, 1973) 16.
443
Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo 25 and 27.
444
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) ad loc.
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 407-409.
445
above, n. 444
446
J. D. Denniston, The Greek Particles, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1934) s.v. xat, 1.1 and II.C.4.
447
R. Hunter, The Argonautica of Apollonius (Cambridge,1993) 158.
448
G. Weber, Dichtung und höische Gesellschaft: Die Rezeption von Zeitgeschichte am Hof der ersten drei Ptolemäer (Stuttgart, 1993) 220
F. T. Griffiths, Theocritus at Court (Leiden, 1979).
449
A. Moret, Du caractère religieux de la royauté pharaonique (n. 32)
G. Posener, De la divinité du pharaon (n. 32).
451
Sethe and Helck, Urkunden (n. 222) IV, 244.
452
Ibid. IV, 1236 and 165.
453
L. Habachi, Features of the Deification of Ramesses II (Gluckstadt, 1969)
D. Wildung, "Göttlichkeitsstufen des Pharao," Orientalische Literaturzeitung 68 (1973) 549-65.
454
H. Goedicke, Die Stellung des Königs im Alten Reich (Wiesbaden, 1960)
E. Hornung, Geschichte als Fest (Darmstadt, 1966) 23ff.
E. Otto, Gott und Mensch nach den ägyptischen Tempelinschriften der griechisch-römischen Zeit (Heidelberg, 1964).
455
Sethe and Helck, Urkunden (n. 222) IV, 276 and 1724.
456
A. Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies (Brussels, 1937) 15.
457
Hesiod, Theogony 94-96
Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 78.
458
W. Furtwängler, "Apollon," in W. H. Roscher, ed., Ausführliches Lexikon der griechis- chen und römischen Mythologie, 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1884-1886) 1:438-40
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States (n. 183) 4:161-75.
459
Herodotus, Histories 4.33.
460
Herodotus, Histories 2.144.2
461
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 36-57
462
J. Baines, "Kingship, Definition of Culture, and Legitimation," in O'Connor and Silverman, Ancient Egyptian Kingship (n. 32) 39f.
463
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 16 et passim.
464
A. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1957) 71-76
S. Quirke, Who Were the Pharaohs? (New York, 1990).
von Beckerath, Königsnamen (n. 210).
465
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 85.
466
Žabkar, Hymns to Isis (n. 234) 35.
467
D. J. Thompson, Memphis Under the Ptolemies (Princeton, 1988) 264.
468
W. Spiegelberg, Der demotische Text der Priesterdekrete von Kanopus und Memphis (Rosettana) mit den hieroglyphischen und griechischen Fassungen und deutscher Übersetzung nebst demotischem Glossar (Heidelberg, 1922)
F. Daumas, Les moyens d'expression du grec et de l'égyptien comparés dans les décrets de Canope et de Memphis (Cairo, 1952).
R. S. Simpson, Demotic Grammar in the Ptolemaic Sacerdotal Decrees (Oxford, 1996).
469
H. W. Fairman, The Triumph of Horus (Berkeley, 1974) 79-80.
ibid. 33-34.
470
Dittenberger, OGIS (n. 202) no. 62
OGIS [n. 202] no. 61
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:263.
M. Peters-Destéract, Philae, le domaine d'Isis (Paris, 1997).
471
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 36-47
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:259-64.
472
F. Daumas, Les mammisis des temples égyptiens (Paris, 1958).
473
Dunand, Le culte d'Isis (n. 257) 2:153ff.
474
V. Tam Tinh Tran, Isis Lactans. Corpus des monuments gréco-romains d'Isis allaitant Harpocrate (Leiden, 1973).
475
Dittenberber, OGIS (n. 202) no. 89.
476
E. Breccia, Iscrizioni greche e latine (Cairo, 1911) no. 168.
477
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:269.
478
Ibid. 2:330 n. 38.
480
M. Alliot, Le culte d'Horus à Edfou au temps des Ptolemèes, 2 vols. (Beirut, 1949-1954) 1:414
2:622-25
481
R. Merkelbach, Isis regina—Zeus Sarapis (Stuttgart, 1995) 91.
482
L. Vitali, Fonti per la storia della religione cyrenaica (Padua, 1932) 14-29, 125-29.
483
Herodotus, Histories 4.186
Vitali, Fonti (n. 482) s.vv.
S. Ferni, "Il Telesterio Isiaco di Cirene," Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni 3 (1927) 233-46.
484
S. Stucchi, Architettura cirenaica (Rome, 1975) 100-101.
C. Parisi Presicce, "Nuovi altari nel santuario di Apollo a Cirene. Indagini preparatorie per la ricostruzione grafica delle fasi architettoniche dell' area sacra," in Giornata Lincea sull'archeologia cirenaica (Rome, 1990) 121-55.
485
P. G. Warden, "The Small Finds," in D. White, ed., The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya. Final Reports, 5 vols. (Philadelphia, 1990) 4:3-13.
Herodotus, Histories 2.156.5
486
E. Paribeni, Catalogo delle sculture di Cirene (Rome, 1959) nos. 409-20.
487
Vitali, Fonti (n. 482) no. 229
488
Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum[= SEG], ed. P. Roussel et al. (Leiden, 1926-) XVIII 743.
489
K. A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 2nd ed. (Warminster, 1986).
490
W. A. Laidlaw, A History of Delos (Oxford, 1933) 94-138
R. Bagnall, The Admin- istration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt (Leiden, 1976) 151-56.
491
P. Roussel, Les cultes égyptiens á Délos du IIIe au Ier siécle av. J.C. (Paris, 1916)
P. Bruneau, Recherches sur les cultes de Délos á l'époque hellénistique et á l'époque impériale (Paris, 1970) 457-66
F. Dunand, Le culte d'Isis (n. 257) 2:83-115.
492
Inscriptions de Délos, ed. F. Durrbach et al., 8 vols. (Paris, 1926- ) no. 1299, ll. 2-6.
493
Bruneau, Recherches (n. 491) 168.
494
J. Marcadé, Au Musée de Délos (Paris, 1969) 176-77.
495
U. Köhler, Das Imiut (Wiesbaden, 1975) 383-84.
Hollis comments, Tale of Two Brothers (n. 288) 74-75
496
Inscriptions de Délos (n. 492) nos. 1417, B, I, 21-22, 25, 27-28, and 1442, A, 73.
497
Ibid. no. 1417, B, I, 25.
Marcadé, Musée de Délos (n. 494) 174-76.
498
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) 1:195-96.
499
Homeric Hymn to Hephaestus 3-8
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.77
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 450-53
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1088-89.
500
Williams, Hymn to Apollo (n. 340) ad loc.
Odyssey 1.257
Categories 2b26
Politics 1257a19
501
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States (n. 183) 161-62
SEG (n. 488) IX: 128, 172, 257, 268, 278, 282, 286, 290, 292-97.
502
Homer, Iliad 7.452-53
Theognis, Elegies 773-74.
503
Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (n. 464) 75.
504
Hieratic text: A. de Buck, Studia Aegyptiaca (Rome, 1938) 1:48-57.
Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (n. 223) 1:116-17
505
Hornung, Geschichte als Fest (n. 454).
506
A. M. Blackman and H. W. Fairman, "The Consecration of an Egyptian Temple According to the Use of Edfu," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 32 (1946) 75-76.
507
The history of this connection is the subject of B. Kemp, Ancient Egypt (n. 219).
508
M. Atzler, "Einige Bemerkungen zu hwt and niwt im Alten Reich," Chronique d'Égypte 47 (1973) 17-44
J. Parlebas, "La notion de niout (localité) dans la pensée égyptienne antique," in F. Brüschweiler et al., eds., La ville dans le Proche-Orient ancien (Leuven, 1983) 199-207.
509
Kemp, Ancient Egypt (n. 219) 137-80.
510
A. Badawy, "The Civic Sense of Pharaoh and Urban Development in Ancient Egypt," Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 6 (1967) 103-109
P. Lacovara, The New Kingdom Royal City (London, 1997).
511
B. J. Kemp, "Temple and Town in Ancient Egypt," in P. Ucko et al., eds., Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London, 1972) 657-80.
512
Atzler, "Bemerkungen" (n. 508) 25.
513
M. de Rochemonteux, "Le temple égyptien," Revue internationale de 1'enseignment, 15 July 1887
H. Nelson, "The Egyptian Temple," Biblical Archaeologist 7 (1944) 44-53
J. Baines, "Temple Symbolism," Royal Anthropological Institute Newsletter 15 (1976) 10-15
F. Teichmann, Der Mensch und sein Tempel—Ägypten (Stuttgart, 1978)
Assman, Ägypten (n. 301) 35-63
W. Helck, ed., Tempel und Kult (Wiesbaden, 1987)
B. Shafer, ed., Temples of Ancient Egypt (Ithaca. 1997).
514
A. de Buck, De egyptische voorstellingen betreffende den oerheuvel (Leiden, 1922).
515
E. Hornung, Idea into Image, trans. E. Bredeck (New York, 1992) 123-24
516
E. Otto, "Altägyptische Zeitvorstellungen und Zeitbe- griffe," Welt als Geschichte 14 (1954) 135-48
J. Assmann, Zeit und Ewigkeit im alten Agypten (Heidelberg, 1975)
E. Hornung, "Zeitliches Jenseits im alten Ägypten," Eranos Jahrbuch 47 (1978) 269-307
L. Kákosky, "Einige Probleme des ägyptischen Zeitbegriffes," Oikumene 2 (1978) 95-111.
517
H. Brunner, "Die Sonnenbahn in ägyptischen Tempeln," Archäologie und alter Tes- tament: Festschrift für K. Galling (Tübingen, 1970) 27-34
E. Graefe, "Der Sonnenaufgang zwischen den Pylontürmen," Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 14 (1983) 55-79.
518
E. Winter, "Zwei Beobachtungen zur Formung der ägyptischen Tempelreliefs der griechisch-römischen Zeit," in Religions en Égypte hellénistique et romain, Colloque de Strasbourg 16-18 Mai 1967 (Paris, 1969) 119-25
"Weitere Beobachtungen zur 'grammaire du temple' in der griechisch-römischen Zeit," in Helck, Temple und Kult (n. 513) 61-76
M.-T. Derchain-Urtel, "Die Bild- und Textgestaltung Esna—eine Rettungsaktion," in U. Verhoeven and E. Graefe, eds., Religion und Philosphie im alten Ägypten (Leuven, 1991) 107-21.
519
P. Derchain, "Un manuel de géographie liturgique á Edfou," Chronique d'Égypte 37 (1962) 31-65
D. Kurth, Den Himmel Stützen: 'Ti pt'- Szenen in den ägyptischen Tempeln der griechisch-römischen Epoche (Brussels, 1975).
520
R. Bjerre Finnestad, "Temples of the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods: Ancient Traditions in New Contexts," in Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt (n. 513) 203-204.
521
S. Aufrère et al., L'Égypte restituée, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (Paris, 1997).
522
D. O'Connor, "Mirror of the Cosmos: The Palace of Merneptah," in Fragments of a Shattered Visage (Memphis, Tenn., 1987) 167-85
"City and Palace in New Kingdom Egypt," Cahiers de recherches de l'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Égyptologie de Lille 11 (1989) 73-87
"Beloved of Maat, the Horizon of Re: The Royal Palace in New Kingdom Egypt," in O'Connor and Silverman, Ancient Egyptian Kingship (n. 32) 263-300.
523
Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (n. 32) 153
W. B. Kristensen, Het Leven uit de Dood 2nd ed. (Haarlem, 1949).
524
Frankfort, Cenotaph (n. 262).
525
De Buck and Gardiner, Coffin Texts (n. 267) VII, 468.
526
H. Bonnet, Reallexikon der ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin, 1952) 847-48.
527
A. Barucq and F. Daumas, Hymnes et prières de l'Égypte ancienne (Paris, 1980) 213-14.
528
D. O'Connor, "Cities and Towns," in E. Brovarski et al., eds., Egypt's Golden Age (Boston, 1982) 21.
529
O'Connor, "City and Palace" (n. 522) 86.
D. B. Redford, Akhenaten (Princeton, 1984).
530
Arrian, Anabasis 3.1.5
531
Sethe, Urkunden (n. 33) II, 177.
532
Strabo, Geography 7.1.7
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 17.52
533
Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon 5.1.
534
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 7.52.2-3.
535
E. A. E. Reymond, The Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple (Manchester, 1969).
536
Chassinat, Edfou (n. 232) 6:169-77, 181-85, 320-30, 353.
537
Reymond, Mythic Origin (n. 535) 316-38.
538
Reymond, Mythical Origin (n. 535) 3-11.
539
C. Calame, "Legendary Narration and Poetic Procedure in Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo," Hellenistica Groningana 1 (1993) 37.
540
Ibid. 41.
541
Williams, Hymn to Apollo [n. 340] ad loc.
Iliad 1.390
542
Odyssey 9.116-24.
Reymond, Mythical Origin (n. 535) 106-27.
543
"Legendary Narration" [n. 539] 40-41
D. Müller, "Der gute Hirte: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte ägyptischer Bildrede," Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache 86 (1961) 126-44.
544
L. Koenen, "Die Adaptation ägyptischer Königsideologie am Ptolemäerhof," Studia Hellenistica 27 (1983) 190.
545
M. Bernal, Black Athena, 2 vols. (New Brunswick, 1987-1991)
Ḫprr (2:586 n. 93).
546
Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (n. 5) chap. 1.
547
S. Freud, Die Traumdeutung (Vienna, 1900) especially chap. 6.
548
Cameron, Callimachus (n. 77) 47-70.
551
Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, Supplementum Hellenisticum (n. 87) nos. 254-69.
Histories 2.104
552
J. Bergman, kch bin Isis (Uppsala, 1968) 137-40
Münster, Göttin Isis (n. 287) 5-12.
553
Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (n. 244) F305.
Herodotus, Histories 2.156
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 137-39
Stephens, "Callimachus at Court" (n. 436).
554
Mineur, Hymn to Delos (n. 330) ad loc.
555
Koenen, "Die Adaptation ägyptischer Königsideologie" (n. 544) 174-89
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 128-34.
557
Stephens, "Callimachus at Court" (n. 436).
558
Diegesis 6.1ff.
Pfeiffer, Callimachus (n. 84) 1:163.
559
Hölderlin, "Mnemonsyne" ll. 17-18
560
G. Lukács, Ästhetik, 2 vols. (Neuwied, 1962).
561
Bing, The Well-Read Muse (n. 175) 56, 64, 71.
562
Hunter, "(B)ionic Man" (n. 368) 51.
563
Callimachus, Aetia fr. 1.17-18.
567
Quintilian, Institutio oratoria 8.6.4-5.
568
M. Ferguson, "Augustine's Region of Unlikeness: The Crossing of Exile and Language," in R. Hexter and D. Selden, eds.. Innovations of Antiquity (New York, 1992) 69-94.
569
Callimachus, fr. 612.
570
LSJ (n. 273), s.v.
571
Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter 65-69, 87-93, 111-15.
Hopkinson, Hymn to Demeter (n. 380)
572
Callimachus, Aetia fr. 1.23-24.
Asper, Onomata allotria (n. 91) 156-89.
573
M. Bakhtin, Tvorčestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaja kul'tura srednevekov'ja (Moscow, 1965)
C. Baudelaire, "De l'essence du rire," Le Portefeuille, 8 July 1855.
574
P. de Man, Blindness and Insight, 2nd ed. (Minneapolis, 1983) 211-16.
575
Tarn, Hellenistic Civilisation (n. 50) 186.
576
Callimachus, The Bath of Pallas 77-78, 98-100.
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