The "Commentariolum Petitionis" has long served to demonstrate the validity of the theory that Republican electoral politics were founded on relationships of patronage that permeated the entire society, and that appeals to the voting citizenry were relatively unimportant for election. Yet the attention the author pays to the necessity of cultivating the popularis voluntas strongly implies that a successful canvasser cannot rely on the direct or indirect ties of patronage and amicitia but must win the electoral support of the anonymous mass of voters. A consular campaign emerges as to a great extent a public performance before the populus in which the candidate seeks to demonstrate to those who do not know him personally that he is dignus consulatu. While the exploitation of personal connections is undeniably important, certain features of the treatment of the studia amicorum in the Commentariolum suggest that the traditional, Gelzerian emphasis on noble patronage is misplaced. Noble allies are particularly prized not for networks of clients but for the luster they shed on a candidate; on the other hand, the homines gratiosi whose electioneering activities are most suggestive of patronage tend to be of middle and lower rank. Nor can all the personal political relationships discussed in the Commentariolum be plausibly subsumed under the concept of patronage, which entails asymmetry between the parties and a connection of some duration; rather, the picture presented here is one of a relatively "free market" of political deal-making between candidates and vote-brokers. The "Commentariolum Petitionis" offers no obstacle to a new model of Republican politics that assigns a much greater role to symbolic appeals to a voting citizenry, and a less dominant role to personal patronage, than have until recently been accepted.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Gelzer 1969, quoted from pp. 62, 139
Gelzer 1983.
2
Taylor 1949, ch. 3
Meier 1966/1980:7-63, 162-200, esp. 7-23.
"Faktionsthese" (1966/1980:174-90
Brunt 1988:443-502)
Wiseman 1971:135
3
Staveley 1972:193.
Taylor 1949:63, 71.
4
Syme 1939, esp. ch. 2, "The Roman Oligarchy," pp. 10-27.
Gruen 1974:121-61, esp. 127-28 (with n. 26), 155, 161.
5
Brunt 1988, esp. ch. 8, "Clientela," pp. 382-442
Millar 1984:1-19
1986:1-l1
Nicolet 1980.
North 1990
Jehne 1995b
6
Rouland 1979, esp. pp. 434, 482
Rouland 1981:326-32
Paterson 1985:27-39
Comm. Pet. passim
Brunt 1988:428-29 (cf. 399, 424).
7
Yakobson 1992:32-52
1995:426-42
Jehne 1995c
Comm. Pet. at pp. 58-62.
below, n. 15.
8
Burckhardt 1990:94.
9
Meier 1966/1980:7-23, 38-40, 174- 80, 190-200.
Wiseman 1971:95-142
Staveley 1972:191-206
Urban 1983
Taylor 1966
10
My translation of Nardo 1970:7.
Balsdon 1963:242-50
Henderson 1950:8-21
Richardson 1971
David et al. 1973
Ramsay 1980
Brugisser 1984.
11
Nardo 1970
Brugisser 1984
Richardson 1971:440-41.
12
Syme 1947:200
Stockton 1971:53 n. 21
Gruen 1974:139 n. 76
Rawson 1975:57
Urban 1983:607
Brunt 1988:428
Bell 1997:9 n. 56.
13
Yakobson 1992:32-52, quoted at 43.
14
Yakobson 1995:436-42.
15
Yakobson 1992:50
Aigner 1978.
Linderski 1985:187-94
Lintott 1990:1-16
Yakobson 1995.
16
Yakobson 1992:43.
17
Yakobson 1992:44-50.
18
Fam. 2.6.3
Yakobson 1992:38.
19
Att. 4.17.3
Q.F. 3.2.3, 6.3, 7.3.
Pompey's opposition (Att. 4.15.7).
Att. 4.17.4
Brunt 1988:427.
20
MacMullen 1980:454-57
Taylor 1966:54
Cic. Att. 4.16.8
Yakobson 1995:434 n. 32.
21
MacMullen 1980:457
22
Att. 1.1.2
23
Yakobson 1992:34.
24
Wiseman 1971:132
Meier 1966/1980:10-11
Rouland 1981:144
1995:97
99 n. 57
Nardo 1970:95
Jehne 1995c:58-62 and esp. 76
27
Nardo 1970:106
28
Sall. Cat. 23.5
Gruen 1974:137-38
Mitchell 1979:170-76
Stockton 1971:71-72, 81-82
Rawson 1975:58
Habicht 1990:29
Plut. Cic. 10-11
App. BC 2.2
Cic. Mur. 48-53.
29
Meier 1966/1980:10-23
Gelzer 1969:62
Taylor 1949:64.
Rouland 1981:132-33, 332.
30
Sall. Iug. 73
Plut. Mar. 8.5.
31
Taylor 1949:209 n. 83.
BC 1.121
Cic. Verr 1.45.
32
Gruen 1974:422-28
Brunt 1988:251-53.
33
Bell 1997:10.
Melloni 1981:18-22
34
Plutarch (Cic. 7.1-2)
Cic. Mur. 77 (Cato!)
Plut. Cato min. 8.2
Gruen 1974:216
Fascione 1984:51
Kolendo 1989:16-17.
Plut. Mor. 200C-D
Vogt 1978
Vanderbroeck 1987:57-58
Kolendo 1989:13-26.
35
Cic. Planc. 29
Comm. Pet. 50
Plin. NH 35.23
Plut. Cato min. 50.2
Dio 40.58.2-3
36
Cic. Planc. 13, 63-67
Mur. 21.
37
Cicero (Mur. 75-76)
Cic. Off. 2.52-63
38
Lintott 1990:10
Cic. Mur. 67, 73
Gruen 1974:223 n. 56
Fascione 1984:70-71
Lintott p. 11
Rouland 1981:224.
Lintott pp. 5-6
Deniaux 1987:299-302.
39
Cic. Off 2.65-71
Mur. 24-29
cos. 149
Cic. De Or. 3.133
40
Deniaux 1987:279-304.
41
Cic. Planc. 11-14, esp. 11
Val. Max. 4.5.4
1995:79
Nicolet 1980:235.
42
Cic. Planc. 11
above, n. 41
Leg. agr. 2.16-19.
43
Tac. Ann. 1.15.1.
Vell. 2.126.2
Cic. De Or. 1.112
Linderski 1985:87-89.
44
Cic. Att. 1.1.1
De Or 1.112
Liv. 4.6.9
45
Val. Max. 7.5.2
cos. 138
cos. 111?
Broughton 1991:40-41.
46
Bell 1997
Comm. Pet. at 8-10.
49
Meier 1966/1980:10
Brunt 1988:428, 430.
50
Planc. 29.
51
Off. 2.46.
52
Planc. 29.
53
Planc. 29
Cic. Cael. 4-6.
54
Planc. 24.
Deniaux 1987:285, 288-89
Verr. 1.25
Taylor 1966:69
Planc. 55
Deniaux 1987:289- 92
Planc. 69.
55
Planc. 24-26.
Cic. Fam. 2.6.3
56
Mur. 38.
ibid.
Wiseman 1971:121-22.
Broughton, MRR 2.119
57
above, n. 33.
58
Att. 4.1.5
Pis. 53-55.
Plut. Cic. 22.5
Nepos (Pis. 7)
Deniaux 1987:283
Plut. Cic. 31
Cic. Att. 1.18.1
Pis. 64
Att. 2.22.3
QF 2.15.2.
1979:483-90
"Nous sommes dans un pays méditerranéen, ne l'oublions pas: le théâtre compte beaucoup, et presque tout se passe dans la rue" (1981:328).
59
Deniaux 1987:283-85
Vanderbroeck 1987:83-85.
Taylor 1949:68-69
n. 104
63
Cic. Mur. 70.
Comm. Pet. 36
Taylor 1949:43.
Att. 2.1.5
Cic. Cael. 18
Plut. Cic. 8.6
Mar. 32.1
Deniaux 1987:284-85.
64
Rouland 1979:266-68, 484-85
Brunt 1988:420.
Cic. Att. 6.2.5
65
Cic. Mur. 70-71
Rouland 1979:485-87.
Cic. Cael. 10-14
Comm. Pet. (Fascione 1984:68-71
Gruen 1974:216 n. 25)
Mur. 67, 70-73
Livius Drusus (Sen. Ben. 6.34.1-3)
Vell. 2.14.1
Sen. Brev. Vit. 6.1
66
n. 65 above
Fascione 1984:69-70
Fascione p. 84
Lintott 1990:11
67
Off. 2.46.
70
Meier 1966/1980:177-78.
n. 91.
Planc. 21
71
Att. 1.1.2, 1.2.2
Wiseman 1971:135.
73
Paterson 1985:33
Fiore 1997:70
Rouland 1981:222
Paterson 1985:33.
Cic. Mur. 44-45
74
Bell 1997:10.
76
Off. 2.32
77
Pol. 31.29.8.
Ann. 15.48.2-3
Cic. Off. 2.49-51
Leg. Man.2
David 1992: 407-654.
78
Att. 2.22.3
79
Meier 1966/1980:258 n. 338.
Wiseman 1971:107-13.
80
Nicolet 1980:311.
81
Cic. Planc. 67
Mur. 16
Sest. 21
Piso, cos. 58
Pis. 1-2.
Fam. 15.12.1
Leg. agr. 2.100
Iug. 85.14-25, 37-38.
Flower 1996, esp. 60-90.
Develin 1985:100
82
Gell. NA 15.4.3
83
Rightly Brunt 1988:425
Syme 1939:11
Wiseman 1971:105
Gruen 1974:122
84
Above, nn. 2-4.
85
Brunt 1988:428.
86
Saller 1982:7-22
1989
Deniaux 1993:3-6
Rouland 1979:455-64.
Johnson and Dandeker 1989, esp. 221-22.
Paterson 1985:31
Rouland's interesting and entertaining survey of modem patronage at 1981:296-325
Schmidt et al. 1977
Gellner and Waterbury 1977
Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984.
87
Contra Millar 1984:17
1988: e.g., 417
88
Deniaux 1993:189-91
89
Saller 1982:1
1985:32- 33, 35
Fiore 1997:69-73
Konstan 1997:128-29
90
above, n. 71.
above, n. 69
92
Meier 1966/1980:192 n. 182.
Taylor 1949:209 n. 86
below, n. 93
94
Cic. Leg. agr. 2.21.
95
Wiseman 1971:132-33.
96
David 1973
Ramsay 1980:406
Balsdon 1963:249
David 1992: 232 n. 11.
97
Cic. Mur. 47
Wiseman 1971:136-38.
99
Flambard 1981
n. 57
Yakobson 1992:34
101
Contra Taylor 1949:63.
Vanderbroeck 1987:56-57
Brunt 1988:428 n. 119.
102
Note esp. Cic. Planc. 45
Fam. 2.6.3
Comm. Pet. 6
Meier 1966/1980:177
Wiseman 1971:135-36.
103
Fam. 2.6.3
Phil. 2.4
Deniaux 1993:287-97.
Fam. 11.16.3
Brunt 1988:430
Plut. Luc. 5.3-6.3
Cic. Paradox. 40
Brut. 178
Ps.-Ascon. p. 259 St
Gruen 1974:39-40
Taylor 1949:70
Meier 1966/1980:180-81
Broughton, MRR 3.64.
104
Cic. Planc. 46.
105
Brunt 1988:427.
106
David and Nicolet 1973.
Flambard, Nicolet, and David 1973.
109
Brunt 1988:390-91, 395-96.
110
Meier 1966/1980:175.
Sall. H. 2.42 M
McGushin 1992:49, 206
111
Taylor 1949:62.
113
Cic. Planc. 44-48.
Nicolet 1980:306-308
Vanderbroeck 1987:62-64
Lintott 1990:7-8
Deniaux 1987:290- 97
Jehne 1995c:66-67.
114
Plut. Cat. min. 44.2-4
115
Cic. Planc. 47.
Fam. 13.58
Fam. 13.23
Deniaux 1993:165-66, 485-87, 492.
116
Cic. Mur. 67, 72-73
Att. 2.1.5
Q F 3.1.1
Ville 1981:430-31
Vanderbroeck 1987:79-80.
Welch 1994:76
C. Gracch. 12.3-4
above, n. 38.
117
Taylor 1949:62-63
1960:198, 211, 221.
Staveley 1972:196-97.
Meier 1966/1980:39-40
Nicolet 1980:274
118
Below, n. 125.
121
Higher: above, n. 69.
David 1992, esp. pp. 49-275.
122
Rouland 1979:474.
124
Rouland 1979:474.
David 1992: 145-64, 232-33.
125
Taylor 1949:53
Cic. Att. 2.1.9
Planc. 54
Meier 1966/1980:178-80
Wiseman 1971:134
127
Brunt 1988:397 with n. 39
Deniaux 1993
128
Brunt 1988:428.
130
Mur. 71
Yakobson 1992:37-38
131
above, nn. 125 and 126.
133
Mur. 42. Meier 1966/1980:192 n. 185
Paterson 1985:33.
135
Brunt 1988:430.
Vanderbroeck 1987:83-85
136
Brunt 1988:428, 429-30.
137
Meier 1966/1980:39-40
Brunt 1988:399, 428-30
Paterson 1985:28.
138
Wiseman 1971:116-22
n. 3
139
Wiseman 1971:139-42.
above, n. 15.
140
Nardo 1970:56-64.
Jehne 1995c:58 n. 42
142
Millar 1986:1-11
143
Millar 1986:4

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