Near the end of his Euboean Discourse, Dio attacks prostitution because it encourages men to seek sexual pleasure from other sources as well, including youths from noble households. While some scholars find no evidence in this diatribe for Dio's revulsion against male-male sexual relations per se, others conclude that it does indeed reflect Dio's contempt for all sexual relations between men. This study considers afresh Dio's treatments of sexual relations between men in his Discourses, and concludes that Dio may endorse both male-male and male-female sexual relations when the agent initiating sexual contact pursues philia and eunoia. On the other hand, Dio expresses his disgust when the agent uses sexual relations self-indulgently for pleasure. The content and form of his arguments illustrate his familiarity with both Stoic doctrine and the forms of popular moralizing discourse. The paper first examines Dio's remarks in the third Discourse on Kingship, where he praises sexual relations in a measured way, indicating his familiarity with Stoic teachings on eros. Second, it considers Dio's remarks in the Euboean Discourse and supports John Winkler's argument that Dio objects to prostitution because it is rooted in self-indulgent pleasure-seeking. Dio's rhetorical approach reflects his awareness of popular teachings against self-indulgence typical of Cynic-Stoic diatribe. Third, the essay argues that Dio's remarks in the First Tarsian oration condemn adult male sexual passivity, not all aspects of sexual relations between males. Fourth, brief remarks in his Borystheniticus are not to be taken as evidence for Dio's hostility to sexual relations between men, though they possibly indicate his discomfort with how he imagines non-Greeks engage in sex.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
2
John J. Winkler, The Constraints of Desire (New York, 1990) 17-44.
Plato Laws 636C
3
Winkler (n. 2, above) 21-22
4
David Halperin, One Hundred Years of Homosexuality (New York, 1990) 15-40, esp. 29ff.
5
Halperin (n. 4, above) 34-35.
6
Orr. 3, 13, 33.
7
D. A. Russell, ed., Dio Chrysostom: Orations VII, XII and XXVI (Cambridge, 1992), esp. 150, 157, 216.
Orations 4, 7, 36, and 77/78.
Simon Swain, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, AD 50-250 (Oxford, 1996) 84, 125-26, 214-16.
M. Foucault, The History of Sexuality II: The Use of Pleasure, trans. Robert Hurley (New York, 1985) 187-203.
John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago, 1980), writes a chapter in the history of "gay people," a phrase Boswell uses throughout his introduction (pp. 3-39).
Halperin (n. 4, above) 15-40.
Halperin and Winkler (n. 2, above)
Amy Richlin, "Not Before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the Cinaedus and the Roman Law against Love between Men," Journal of the History of Sexuality 3 (1993) 523-73.
Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor, rev. ed. (Oxford, 1992) xiii-xxx.
8
Swain (n. 7, above) 214-15.
G. A. Highet, "Mutilations in the Text of Dio Chrysostom," in R. J. Ball, ed., The Classical Papers of Gilbert Highet (New York, 1983) 95.
9
Oration 22.2.
Swain (n. 7, above) 215.
10
Swain (n. 7, above) 192
C. P. Jones, The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom (Cambridge, Mass., 1978) 115-20.
Hans von Arnim, Leben und Werke des Dio von Prusa (Berlin, 1898) 405
Jones (p. 119)
11
Jones (n. 10, above) 120.
12
Or. 36.29-37.
13
Swain (n. 7, above) 195-200
Olympic Discourse (Oration 5).
16
Malcolm Schofield, The Stoic Idea of the City (Cambridge, 1991) 113-14, 117.
18
Or. 12.12, 44.1-2, and 65.10.
19
Daniel Babut, "Les Stoiciens et l'Amour," REG 76 (1963) 56
Russell (n. 7, above) 150.
P. A. Brunt, "Aspects of the Social Thought of Dio Chrysostom and the Stoics," PCPS 19 (1973) 9-34
20
A. W. Price, Love and Friendship in Plato andAristotle (Oxford, 1989) 1-14.
David Konstan, Friendship in the Classical World (Cambridge, 1997) 91.
21
Schofield (n. 16, above) 29-30
23
Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Pyrrhonism I.160, III.200, III.245
Stobaeus Ecl. II.9-11.
Plutarch Quaest. Conviv. 653E.
Andrew Erskine, The Hellenistic Stoa (Ithaca, 1990) 23.
Schofield (n. 16, above) 43-46.
24
Schofield (n. 16, above) 32-34.
Diogenes Laertius 7.130
Plutarch de Comm. Not. 1073B
26
Winkler (n. 2, above) 22.
27
Epictetus diss. 4.1.35
Plutarch Moralia 759f-760c.
D. F. Wright, "Homosexuals or Prostitutes? The Meaning of ARSENOKOITAI (I Cor. 6:9, I Tim. 1:10)," Vigiliae Christianae 38 (1984) 125-53.
Halperin (n. 4, above) 88-112.
28
Winkler (n. 2, above) 21-22
29
Foucault (n. 7, above) 49-50.
30
K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Cambridge, Mass., 1978) 34-39.
D. M. MacDowell, "Hybris in Athens," Greece and Rome 23 (1976) 14-31
N. R. E. Fisher, Hybris: A Study in the Values of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greece (Warminster, 1992).
Douglas L. Cairns, "Hybris, Dishonour, and Thinking Big," JHS 116 (1996) 1-32.
31
Halperin (n. 4, above) 32ff.
33
Winkler (n. 2, above) 22.
34
Jones (n. 10, above) 121.
37
C. Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge, 1993), ch. 2.
M. Gleason, Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome (Princeton, 1995) 55-81.
38
Louis François, trans., Dion Chrysostome, Deux Diogéniques (IVe de regno et fabula Lybica) en grec et en français (Paris, 1922) 72-73.
40
Plato's Symposium
41
Stanley Stowers, The Diatribe and Paul's Letter to the Romans (Chico, Calif., 1981) 7-75.
André Oltramare, Les Origines de la diatribe romaine (Lausanne, 1926)
A. C. van Geytenbeek, Musonius Rufus and Greek Diatribe (Assen, 1963) 13-14
J. F. Kindstrand, Bion of Borysthenes (Uppsala, 1976)
Barbara P Wallach, A History of the Diatribe from its Origin up to the First Century B. C. and a Study of the Influence of the Genre Upon Lucretius. Diss. University of Illinois 1974 (UMI 1976).
42
E. N. O'Neil, Teles the Cynic Teacher (Missoula, 1976)
Cora Lutz, "Musonius Rufus: The Roman Socrates," YCS 10 (1947) 3-147.
Geytenbeek (n. 41, above).
43
Lutz (n. 42, above) 7-8.
44
Fronto Ep. ad Verum 1.1.4 (Haines).
Geytenbeek (n. 41, above) 51-77.
Stowers (n. 41, above) 206 n. 332
45
Discourse on Kingship (4.101).
46
Dover (n. 30, above) 16-17.
Lutz (n. 42, above) 84, 87.
Amand Jagu, Musonius Rufus. Entretiens et Fragments: Introduction, Traduction et Commentaire (Hildesheim. 1979) 62.
47
Hense 63-64.
48
Hense 65-66.
49
Jerome adv. Iovinian 2.48.
51
Geytenbeek (n. 41, above) 72-77.
52
Laws 636c.
53
Swain (n. 7, above) 214.
Gleason (n. 37, above) 82-83
Polemo's Physiognomy (52, 1.266-68F).
Jones (n. 10, above) 73-74.
55
Jones (n. 10, above) 73-74.
"Hellenistic Tarsus," Melanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph (Beirut) 28 (1962) 43-75.
56
Polemo (above, n. 53)
C. Bonner, "A Tarsian Peculiarity," Harvard Theological Review 35 (1942) 1-11.
57
Gleason (n. 37, above) 82-83.
58
Bonner (n. 56, above)
59
Highet (n. 8, above) 95.
Swain (n. 7, above) 214-15.
60
Gleason (n. 37, above) 64.
61
Gleason (n. 37, above) 67-70.
Swain (n. 7, above) 215-16.
62
Swain (n. 7, above) 215.
64
Russell (n. 7, above) 19-20
65
Russell (n. 7, above) 21.
Jones (n. 10, above) 62-63
66
Russell (n. 7, above) 216
67
Russell (n. 7, above) 216
Swain (n. 7, above) 83.
68
Russell (n. 7, above) 216
Dover (n. 30, above) 34-39.
69
Herodotus 1.135
70
Jones (n. 10, above) 45-55
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