This article endorses with substantial modifications M. Bernal's claim that the Greeks based Memnon on Ammenemes II of Egypt. An Egyptian origin for Memnon appears likely from Zeus' weighing of his fate against Achilles' in the Aethiopis, which is similar to an early spell of the Book of the Dead; from his Amazonian ally, who resembles the Nile-god, clad in a girdle with a single breast; and from his apotheosis, which is unlike Homer's usual view that the soul is witless in death, yet is reminiscent of the soteriological Osiris-cult, which was known to the Mycenaeans. Bernal's view that Memnon was specifically Ammenemes, however, rests on one word in Strabo, judged by editors to be a scribal error. Cases for two other proposed models, Khumben-numena I of Elam and Sethos I of Egypt, are too complex and fragile to accept. Since at least the first century, the Greeks themselves linked Memnon to Amenhotep III of Egypt, calling a portrait-colossus of that pharaoh "Memnon." This identification was based, I argue, on the fact that the statue faces sunrise on the winter solstice (obviously an original feature from Amenhotep's own time) and so was linked to the dawn. Amenhotep's name is too unlike Memnon's to have attracted to him a preexisting Greek figure, but, as P. Gilbert proposed, Amenhotep may have been the basis for that figure, for archaeological evidence shows his contact with the Aegean. Like Memnon, Amenhotep formed military pacts with eastern kings, was son of a solar deity, and was exceptionally handsome. Moreover, his father's name was Tuthmosis (cf. Tithonus). In short, Bernal argues well that epic based Memnon on a real person, rightly seeks him in Egypt, but fails to rule out Amenhotep.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
ABL refers to Haspels 1936
ABV to Beazley 1956
ANET to Pritchard 1969
ARV2 to Beazley 1963.
Mercer 1939
Faulkner 1969.
Edwards, Gadd and Hammond 1971 vol. 1.2 pp. 995-96
vol. 2.2 p. 1038.
1
Bernal 1987, 1991: vol. 1.19, 64 and vol. 2.268.
2
Mette 1963: 108-12
Taplin 1977: 422-23 and 431-33.
3
Kossatz-Deissmann 1992.
Lung 1912.
4
Kakrides 1930
King 1986
Segal 1986.
5
F. Jacoby, FGrHist 1a.528 commentary ad 49 F 6.
6
Lung 1912: 14-19
Arafat 1990: 147-49.
7
S. West ad Od. 1.23-24
Heubeck, West and Hainsworth 1988: 75.
8
Goossens 1939: 337 n. 8
Snowden 1970: 151-55
1983: 46-49
Neiman 1980.
9
Last 1923.
10
Bloedow 1988
Burkert 1995
Hood 1995.
11
Bernal 1987, 1991: vol. 2.261
12
Lang 1995.
13
Kakridis 1949: 65-95
Schadewaldt 1965: 155-202
Schoeck 1961
Willcock 1973: 5-9
1983.
Kullmann 1981
1991
Clark 1986
Edwards 1991: 15-19
Slatkin 1991: 10-11
Burgess 1997.
Fenik 1968: 237.
14
Faulkner 1985: 15
Andrews 1994: 56-57.
15
Wüst 1939
Onians 1951: 397-98
Dietrich 1964: 113-19
Vermeule 1979: 160-62.
16
Griffiths 1980: 173-84
ibid. 216-35.
17
Lloyd-Jones 1971
Borges and Guerrero 1969: 85-86.
18
Von Leutsch and Schneidewin 1839: vol. 1.93.
Burkert 1983: 226-30.
Lee 1961.
19
Griffiths 1966.
Te Velde 1969-1970.
20
Von Bothmer 1957
Tyrrell 1984
Blok 1995
Dowden 1997.
21
Pind. Nem. 3.22
Hdt. 2.44
Talbert 1975
Levy 1979
Anderson 1981
Clay 1981-1982.
22
Faulkner 1966: 157-59.
23
[Unrepresented Characters], PT § 494
Reisner 1913: xxi ff.
Černý 1955
Nour, Osman, Iskander and Moustafa 1960.
Od. 5.272-77
24
Badawy 1964
Trimble 1964
1992: 3-8.
Bauval and Gilbert 1994, which (pp. 237-41)
Krupp 1997.
Bruck 1995.
25
Burkert 1987: 20
Sander-Hansen 1956: 35-43.
26
Bernal 1987, 1991: vol. 1.63, 84
Morris 1992: 181.
27
Schliemann 1875: 54, 112-14
Pottier 1908: 546
1937: 454-73
Leumann 1950: 149
Marinatos 1968.
Pestalozza 1939
O'Brien 1993: 134-42.
29
Hester 1965: 376
Chantraine 1968-1977: vol. 4.994.
30
Kühner and Blass 1890: vol. 1.190
West 1982: 12.
31
Bömer 1958: vol. 2.322 ad Ov. Fast. 5.535.
32
Pfister 1948
Alfonsi 1949-1950.
33
Ruijgh 1967: 386-87 § 358-59
34
Dittenberger 1903: vol. 1.171-72
35
Griffiths 1970: 372
Kees 1943: 426
Brugsch 1883-1891: 80
Beaux 1994.
36
Vermeule 1979: 69-82
Burkert 1961: 208-13
Puhvel 1969
1981: 210-15.
37
Burkert 1992: 23.
38
Heubeck, West and Hainsworth 1988: 176-77.
39
Raaflaub 1997: 628
40
Gurney 1961: 46
Huxley 1968: 5-6.
42
Schmidt 1981
Gordon 1952
West 1988: 169.
Ullendorf 1963-1964
Brock 1968.
West 1997
43
Hüsing 1917: 47
44
Perdrizet and Lefebvre 1919
Jeffrey 1961: 355.
45
Manchester Guardian Tues. 13 Oct. 1992 p. 20
47
Letronne 1833
1881: vol. 2.1-97 with a collection of the Greek and Latin inscriptions, 98-236
Hichens 1908: 107-119
Wiedemann 1917
Bernand and Bernand 1960
Gardiner 1961.
48
Schol. Pind. Ol. 7.95a [1.220-21 Drachmann]
Morris 1992: 215-37.
West 1966: 168 ad Hes. Theog. 35.
49
Lindsay, Criswell, Criswell, and Criswell 1976
Sagan 1995: 51-52.
51
Brewster 1831: 508-11
Brugsch 1879: vol. 1.431
Curzon 1886: 281
1923: 118-19.
52
Courtney 1980: 593 ad Juv. 15.5.
53
Wilcken 1927-1957: vol. 2, no. 189, 191 and 192 (pp. 190-97)
Gardiner 1961: 91.
54
Coldstream 1977: 79
55
Gardiner 1957: 435 n. 1a.
56
Gardiner 1961: 97.
Wiedemann 1917: 64-65
57
Smith 1892: 465
Gilbert 1939: 48-49.
58
Bernal's 1987, 1991
Lloyd 1976: vol. 1.121.
Goossens 1939
59
Pendlebury 1930: 56
Wace 1932: 198.
60
Kitchen 1966
Faure 1968
Cline 1987
1990.
61
Stubbings 1951: 94
Merrillees 1973.
Hankey 1993.
62
Morris 1992: 117.
Stone 1958: 99.
Rice Holmes 1907: 483-98
Stella 1965: 196 n. 8.
63
Brugsch 1954: vol. 1.83
Gardiner 1947: vol. 2.124 and 211
Bernal 1987, 1991: vol. 1.95, vol. 2.443.
64
Grimal 1992: 223.
Schmidt 1993: 159.
Kitchen 1962
Schulman 1979.
65
Issleib 1909
Campbell 1912: 1-49
Baedeker 1914: 258-61.
67
Theoc. 7.16
Ap. Rhod. 4.403-34
Anacreontea 1.8, 13
Verg. Aen. 1.403-404
Lohmeyer 1919
Schmid 1923
Boumoure 1983.
68
PT § 303, § 488
Od. 17.485-87
Ov. Met. 1.212-13, 8.611-724
Plaut. Amphitryo, cf. Acts 14.12
Pind. Ol. 2.25
Eur. Bacch. 6-12
Exodus 33.18-23
Ezek. Ex. 101
Apul. Met. 5.23
Eur. Hipp. 86
Apollod. Bibl. 3.4.4
Pliny NH 36.20
Rose 1956: 65
Dietrich 1983
Hollis 1990: 341-54.
69
Pridik 1942.
70
EA 323.22-23
Judges 19.14
71
Bremmer 1983
Robbins 1993: 11-12.
72
Last 1923.
Hdt. 3.23, 114
Aesch. Pers. 262-63
Et. Mag. 3.23 s.v.
73
Smith 1912: 50.
EA 23
74
Redford 1984: 38-39.

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