Commentators since antiquity have seen connections between Virgil's Dido and the philosophy of the Garden, and several recent studies have drawn attention to the echoes of Lucretius in the first and fourth books of the Aeneid. This essay proposes that there is an even richer and more extensive Epicurean presence intertwined with the Dido episode. Although Virgilian quotations of Lucretius provide the most obvious references to Epicureanism, too narrow a focus on the traces of the De Rerum Natura obscures important resonances with Virgil's more obvious models: the Odyssey and Apollonius' Argonautica. Reversion to Homer and Apollonius, however, does not dim the Epicurean aura around Dido. Rather: echoes of Nausikaa and other Phaeacian traditions reinforce Dido's links with the Garden. At play here is a widespread ancient tradition of disparaging Epicurus by calling him "the Phaeacian philosopher." But by evoking this tradition, Virgil is not necessarily engaging in a standard polemic against the Epicureans. Instead of foreclosing any particular reading, the intertextual modes of the Aeneid turn various possibilities of interpretation over to the reader.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Athenaeus Deipnosophistae 1.16e.
2
Pease 1935
Dyson 1996.
3
Hardie 1986
Hamilton 1993
Lyne 1994
Dyson 1996.
Brown 1987: 142.
Farrell 1997: 234-35
Nisus and Euryalus in Aen. 9.
4
Bignone 1936: 269-70.
DeWitt 1954: 365 (note 12 to chap. 4)
Buffière 1956: 319-21
Obbink 1995.
5
Buffière 1962.
6
Plato Republic 3.390a-b
Od. 9.5-11
Athenaeus Deipn. 12.531a-b
Od. 9.5-11
7
Ambrose 1965.
8
Buffière 1962: 86
9
Ps. Plutarch Essay on the Life and Poetry of Homer 150.
Most 1989.
10
Od. 9.28
Dindorf 1855: 408.
11
DRN 4.1030-1287
Brennan 1996.
12
Usener 433 and 552.
DRN 2.18-19.
13
Gordon forthcoming.
14
DRN 2.34-36
Virgil's Carthage (e.g. 1.700 and 11.72-75)
15
Bailey 1947: 802 on line 2.25.
Gale 1994: 111
16
Sider 1997: 156.
17
Sider 1997: 152
Obbink 1995: 47.
18
Sider 1995: 47.
19
Clay 1995
Asmis 1995
Sider 1995
Wigodsky 1995
Obbink 1995.
20
Asmis 1991: 37 and 41
Sider 50.
Jufresa 1982
Sider 1997: 160
21
Fuchs 1977: 54.
22
Asmis 1991: 38.
23
Fuchs 1977: 56.
24
Diog. Laert. (10.137)
Epicurus Ep. Men. 132.
Gosling and Taylor 1982: 349-54
Long 1986.
25
Hexter 1992, especially p. 337.
26
Aulus Gellius 9.9
Knauer 1964: 174 and passim
Clausen 1987: 15-26
Hardie 1986 passim.
27
Hardie 1986: 60-66.
28
Knauer 1964: 158-63.
Knauer points out that Aeneas' comparison of his (disguised) mother to Diana recalls Odysseus' comparison of Nausikaa to Artemis (1964: 159 n. 1).
29
Reece 1993: 109-10.
Clausen 1987.
30
Clausen 1987: 23-25.
31
Hardie 1986 passim.
32
Hexter 1992.
DRN 2.28
Dyson 1996
33
Feeney 1991: 171-72
Dyson 1996.
Williams 1983: 210-13
Mellinghoff-Bourgerie 1990.
34
Heubeck 1988: 341.
Carnes 1993
Reece 1993.
35
Pfeiffer 1968: 152-70.
36
Diogenes of Oenoanda, Smith fragment 10. col. 4.
37
Dyson: 205.
38
Segal 1971
Hardie 1986
Dyson 1996.
39
Servius ad Aen. 1.742
40
Hardie 1986: 33-51.
Gale 1994: 36-61.
Segal 1971
41
Dyson 1996: 204
42
Brown 1987: 142
Hamilton 1993: 249.
43
Hamilton 1993: 250.
44
Genette's interview of himself in the conclusion of The Architext: An Introduction (1992: 82).
45
Clausen 1987
Conte 1986
Farrell 1991
1997
Lyne 1994.
1986: 69
46
Riffaterre 1987: 12.
47
Roland Barthes, "From Work to Text," in Barthes 1986.
48
Lyne 1994: 196.
49
Lyne 1994: 196.
50
Dyson 1996: 219.
51
Perkell 1994.
52
Perkell 1994, especially 66-67
53
Galinsky 1988
Putnam 1990
Erler 1992
Fowler 1997.
55
Görler 1996.
56
DRN 3.937
57
Rosenbaum 1990: 22

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