This article treats representations of victors in the Greek athletic games in the artistic and poetic media of the early classical age, and argues that fifth-century sculptors, painters and poets similarly constructed the athlete as an object designed to arouse desire in audiences for their works. After reviewing the very scanty archaeological evidence for the original victory images, I seek to recover something of the response elicited by these monuments by looking to visualizations of athletes in contemporary vase-painting and literary sources, and most particularly in the epinician odes of Pindar. Poets and painters, I suggest, both place their subjects within an erotically-charged atmosphere which replicates that surrounding actual athletes in the city gymnasia and at the games, and encourage audiences to regard the youthful bodies on display as "spectacularized" objects, sources of both aesthetic and sensual pleasure. The makers of monumental images work within the same paradigm, also prompting the viewer to transfer the sentiments aroused by the real-world athlete and victor to his re-presentation in bronze. Through an examination of the conventions used for victor images, and a close study of the so-called Motya charioteer, I propose that the sculptor deploys techniques analogous to those of artist and poet to highlight the appeal of the athlete's body, and displays the victor in a mode calculated not only to mark him as the alluring target of the gaze, but even to cast him as a potential erômenos. The concluding section of the article investigates the impetus behind this mode of representation, and seeks to place the dynamic between the viewer and the viewed within the context of the early fifth-century polis.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Winter 1996:11.
2
Lattimore 1987:252
Amandry 1957
Bohringer 1979.
3
Hyde 1921
Ridgway 1977
Stewart 1990, esp. 39.
4
Hyde 1921
5
Herrmann 1972:115
Lattimore 1987.
6
Paus. 6.11.6
Euthymos, Pliny NH 7.47
Euthykles, Call. frs. 84-85 Pfeiffer.
Moretti 1957-1959 and 1992.
7
Thomas 1981, esp. 20
Gross 1969-1971:62.
8
Ridgway 1977:49-59.
9
Gross 1969-1971
Stewart 1990:127
NH 34.16
Herrmann 1972.
10
Hyde 1921:99.
11
Ridgway 1977:48
12
Stewart 1990:39.
13
Ebert 1972:251-54.
14
Hyde 1921
Gross 1969-1971:62.
15
Stewart 1997:80
16
Sedgwick 1985.
Solomon-Godeau 1993:288-89.
17
Aristoph. Vesp. 1023-25
Pax 762-63.
Aeschines 1.138-89, 135
Ps.-Luc. Erotes 9
Pl. Charm. 154a-c
Euthd. 237a
Lysis 206e.
Dover 1978:54
18
Pl. Symp. 217c.
Pl. Laws 636c.
19
fr. 95
fr. 217
20
ARV2 177, 3 and 82.AE.53.
Frel 1981:147-50.
22
Hdt. 1.10.3
Thuc. 1.5-6
Pl. Rep. 452c
Paus. 1.44.1
Dion. Hal. 7.22.2-3
Isid. Etym. 18.17.2
McDonnell 1991
Bonfante 1989:552-58
Himmelmann 1990
Stewart 1997:24-42.
23
Himmelmann 1990
Bonfante 1989
Stewart 1997:24-42
Spivey 1996:29
Osborne 1997.
n. 29
24
Stewart 1997:27
n. 49.
25
Crowther 1985.
Boegehold 1996:97-103
Neils 1994.
ARV2 446, 263
26
Bérard 1986:195
Bonfante 1989:555-56
ARV2 401, 3.
27
ABV 406
ARV2 1648 and 1705, 36bis; 815, 4.
Frontisi-Ducroux 1995:127
Stewart 1997:7 and ch. 4 passim.
28
ARV2 274, 43.
ARV2 322, 37.
Ferrari 1990.
29
ARV2 322, 37
Frontisi-Ducroux 1995:125
ARV2 117, 6.
ARV2 321, 23 and 322, 28.
30
Lissarrague 1990:100.
Douris, Karlsruhe 70/395.
32
Oltos (ca. 520-510)
ARV2 54, 7
ARV2 455, 10.
33
Trendall 467
34
Stewart 1997:102, 108, 148
Osborne 1994:86
Oakley and Sinos 1993
35
Frontisi-Ducroux 1995:127-30
1996
Clark 1984:132-33.
36
Stewart 1997:19, 80.
37
Sartre 1966, esp. 316ff.
Jay 1992:287-98.
38
Berger 1972:47
Mulvey 1975
1992
Caughie and Kuhn 1992
Neale 1992
Hatt 1993
Solomon-Godeau 1988:2
39
Hatt 1993
40
Mulvey 1992:27.
41
ARV2 177, 3.
42
Neils 1992:163
Francis and Vickers 1981
ARV2 322, 36
43
Pakenham 1991: 654
Hatt 1993:68.
44
ARV2 336,14.
46
fr. 125
Pl. Charm. 154c
Konstan 1987:63ff.
Stewart 1997:19-23
Pl. Symp. 215a-b.
47
Wollheim 1980:205-206
Stewart 1997:43-44.
48
Ebert 1972
Kurke 1993:141-49.
49
Himmelmann 1990:52
Osborne 1997
Sutton 1992:21
Shapiro 1992:61
Stewart 1997:82.
50
Himmelmann 1990
Osborne 1997.
51
Himmelmann 1990:43.
52
Stewart 1997:80
Himmelmann 1990
53
Osborne 1997
Himmelmann 1990:47
54
Symp. 1.8.8
55
Stewart 1997:67.
56
Harrison 1993:22
57
Stewart 1990:39.
Stewart 1997:53
58
Bérard 1986:196.
Havelock 1995:14.
59
Kurke 1993.
60
Frontisi-Ducroux 1995:127
61
Hyde 1921:149
Kurke 1993:144-45.
NH 34.56
Serwint 1987:103-104.
62
Ebert 55
63
Kurke 1993:145.
64
ARV2 54, 7.
65
Stewart 1990:52
Stewart 1997:80- 82.
66
Theog. 1331-32.
67
Bell 1995.
68
Bell 1995:9.
69
Bell 1995:9n. 44
70
Bell 1995:7n. 33.
71
Bell 1995:7.
72
Havelock 1995:32-35.
Aristoph. Lys. 46-48, 148-54
Stewart 1997:102 and 128.
73
Bell 1995:9
Stewart 1990:133 and 145
Ps.-Lucian's Erotes (13)
Met. 10.285-86
74
Aristoph. Nubes 1014
Ps.-Luc. Erotes 13.
Métraux 1995:38-43.
75
Métraux 1995.
76
Bell 1995:7.
77
N. 6.8-11
N. 11.37-42
O. 2.46.
Winter 1996:11-13
78
O. 13.72
O. 7.90-92.
79
Bourdieu 1990:69-70
Stewart 1997:10-11
81
Rhet. 1.5 1361b
82
N. 3.19
O. 14.7.
I. 4.49-55
n. 26
83
P. 8.96-97
84
MacLachlan 1993.52
O. 14
85
N. 6.38-39.
86
Hes. WD 65-66
Od. 6.232-35
87
Od. 24.83-84
88
Nisetich 1975.
Kurke 1993
89
Steiner 1993.
90
Steiner 1993.
91
O. 6.57-58
O. 1.67-68.
92
Mullen 1982:100
93
Hes. WD 73-75
Archil. fr. 196a27-28
Theog. 1319-22
MacLachlan 1993:56-72.
94
Stewart 1997:82.
95
fr. 123
96
Mullen 1982:186
Mallwitz and Herrmann 1980:155
Shapiro 1992:58-63.
97
Mullen 1982:186 and 255n. 40.
MacLach- lan 1993
Halperin 1990:75-87.
98
Paus. 5.6.7, 6.20.8
100
Carson 1982
Brown 1984
Kurke 1991.
101
Carne-Ross 1985:26-30.
Carson 1982
104
Oakley and Sinos 1993.
105
Carson 1982
Came-Ross 1985:93
107
Winter 1996:19-23
Potts 1994:115.
108
Stewart 1997:14
Stehle and Day 1996.
109
Winter 1996:20.
110
Mulvey 1992:26
Neale 1992.
Ellis 1992:160
111
Stewart 1997:93
112
Spivey 1996:39.
113
Stewart 1997:80.
114
Stewart 1997, chs. 1 and 5.
115
Thuc. 2.43.1
Stewart 1997:79-84
116
Fontenrose 1968
Lattimore 1987
117
Tyrtaeus fr. 12.1-2, 10-14
Xenophanes fr. 2.15-22
Kyle 1987:124-41.
118
Fontenrose 1968
Lattimore 1987
Kurke 1993.
Bohringer 1979.
119
Call. frs. 84 and 85 Pfeiffer
Paus. 6.13.1
120
Eur. apud Plut. Alcib. 11.
Kyle 1987:130-31.
122
Hatt 1991
123
Bonfante 1989.
124
Ebert 12, 48, 57.
125
Aesch. Ag. 414-19
Eur. Alc. 348-52.
Pl. Symp. 215a-b.
126
Xen. Symp. 8.21
127
Faraone 1992.
129
Freedberg 1989, chs. 12 and 13.

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