This paper provides an analysis of Aeneas' visit to the "parva Troia" in Epirus (Vergil, "Aeneid" 3.294ff.), centered on the theme of "substitutes" and "doubles," and beginning with Andromache, the heroine of this encounter. With Helenus as a substitute for her deceased husband, Hector, Andromache is involved in a sort of levirate marriage. Moreover, she reacts to Aeneas and his companions as if they too were "substitutes," living persons who immediately evoke images of the dead, "doubles" for her lost loved ones (Hector first and foremost, and also Creusa and Astyanax). This makes Andromache perfectly at home in "parva Troia", which is itself a "double," a "substitute" for the city destroyed by the Greeks. Except that, like all "doubles," "parva Troia" is an insubstantial illusion, the effigy of something that no longer exists. This city and its landscape can only be "seen," not actually "inhabited." These Trojan exiles are thus victims of a syndrome very similar to "nostalgia" (a Greek word unknown to the ancient Greeks, dating to the early eighteenth century, and beautifully described in a remarkable passage by Chateaubriand). Helenus and his companions are "too faithful" to their vanished city; their destiny, like that of the dead, has been hopelessly fulfilled. Aeneas, however, is not allowed to become a prisoner of the past. Against his will, he must be "unfaithful" to his former city: he will not rebuild Troy. The companions of Helenus and Andromache suffer from an "excess of identity" (one way to define nostalgia). Aeneas, on the other hand, submits to the almost total loss of his own identity: except for the Penates, a highly significant, sacred part of the lost patria, which will contribute to the formation of his identity in a way similar to Helenus and Andromache's own nostalgic cult of the image of Troy.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Aeneid 3.17ff.
2
Aeneid 3.132ff.
3
Aeneid 3.294ff.
4
Servius ad 3.297: PATRIO MARITO atqui Thebana fuit de Thebis Phrygiis
Williams 1962
Cova 1994 ad loc.
5
Cova 1994 ad loc.
6
Servius ad 3.297.
7
Corbett 1969 (= 1933): 68-90
Treggiari 1991: 28-32.
8
Servius ad 3.297.
9
Williams 1962 ad 3.297
Aeneid 3.333f.
Aeneid 12.17
10
Frazer's famous discussion in Folk-lore in the Old Testament, Vol. II, Part VI, §16 (1918: 263-341).
11
Apollodorus Bibliotheca 3.12.5
Scholia ad Iliadem 22.229 b (p. 314 Erbse).
12
Frazer 1918 (especially 338-39).
13
Aeneid 3.329.
14
Servius ad loc.
Cova 1994 ad loc.
Cova 1994: L.
15
Williams 1962 ad loc.
Cova 1994: L.
16
Perret 1942: 217-19
Cova 1994: XLVI-XLVIII.
Heinze 1982 [= 1915]: 106
Cova 1994: XLVIII-LIII.
17
"Le cygne," line 40
Baudelaire 1976: 85-87 and 1003-1009
Nelson 1961
Barchiesi 1975
Bernardelli 1976.
Macchia 1984: 469-71
18
Aeneid 3.298ff.
Williams 1962 ad loc.
Mackie who, unfortunately, does not develop it further (1988: 69).
19
Aeneid 3.301ff.
Servius' gloss ad loc.
Grimm 1967.
Fowler 1917.
20
Homer Iliad 24.778ff.
Seneca's Trojan Women 483ff.
21
Starry West 1983
22
Nelson 1961: 334.
23
La Causerie, 22 January 1860.
Baudelaire 1976: 1008
24
Aeneid 3.306ff.
25
Aeneid 3.259f.
26
Servius Auctus ad 3.306.
27
Servius ad 3.302.
28
Servius ad 3.311.
29
Nelson 1961
Bright 1981
Quint 1982
Starry West 1983: 258-59
Grimm 1967: 155.
30
Andria 245
Barabino 1994
31
Aeneid 3.337ff.
32
Servius ad 3.343
Bettini 1986: 52-58
Bettini 1991: 39-46
33
Williams 1962 ad loc.
34
Apollodorus Bibliotheca 3.12.1.
35
Feldman 1957-1958: 362
Witton 1960: 171.
Euripides' Hecuba 992
Heinze 1982 [= 1915]: 107 n. 1
36
Aeneid 3.349ff.
37
Aeneid 3.2f.
Cova 1994: L.
38
Iliad 20.73
Conington 1894 ad loc.
Williams 1962 ad loc.
"Le cygne," line 20
Vergil's arens Xanthus.
39
Heinze 1982 (= 1915): 82ff.
Otis 1964: 251ff.
Labate 1991, especially 180-84.
40
Aeneid 12.819ff.
Fenik 1960: 20-31 and 143-44
Suerbaum 1967
Feeney 1984.
41
Servius Auctus ad 3.351
Valerius Flaccus Argonautica 1.676
Seneca Agamemnon 392f.
Aeneid 2.490
42
Cova 1994 ad loc.
43
Cova, the episode could constitute an actual "page of surrealistic poetry" (1994: LI)
44
Greene 1986: 211
45
Orlando 1993: 337
Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther (specifically the passage in Book 2, dated September 6).
46
Quint 1982.
47
Levi-Strauss' La pensée sauvage (1962).
48
Perret 1942: 214, 229-31
Lloyd 1957b: 385-86
n. 49 below
Lloyd 1957a
Galinsky 1969: 45 and 112
Biraschi 1981-1982: 278-91
Cova 1994: XLIII-XLVIII.
Van Ooteghem 1937
Ugolini 1937
1942.
49
Lloyd 1957b.
W. S. Anderson 1994 (= 1969): 40-41.
Cova (1992).
50
Lloyd 1957b: 392
Putnam 1980: 7
Cova provides some interesting "quantitative" observations on the relationship between the effective duration of the stops at Actium and at Buthrotum and the number of verses in which the two episodes are respectively developed (1992: 106).
51
Troys" in Book 3 (1982: 34, see also 31).
52
Carmina 3.3.57ff.
Fraenkel 1957.
53
Servius ad 10.60.
54
Musti 1988.
Martin (1975: 232)
Thucydides (6.2.6)
55
De bello Judaico 1.33.
Antiquitates Judaicae 12.387f.; 13.62ff.; 13.285; 20.236f.
56
Bettini 1992: 12-38 and 230.
57
Augustine Soliloquia 2.10f.
Hormann 1986: 58-59
Bouhot 1987
Gilson 1943: 275-82.
58
Otis has called attention to the contrast between Aeneas, a young man who is nevertheless very attracted to the nostalgia of parva Troia-and Anchises, near death himself, but directed towards the future (1964: 261).
Di Cesare 1974: 68.
59
Aeneid 3.486ff.
60
Nelson's brief observations (1961: 335).
Williams 1962
Cova 1994 ad loc.
Odyssey 15.126
61
Cova has now provided a general discussion (1994: LI).
63
Racine 1950: 243.
Heinze (1982 [= 1915]: 107)
Helenus, 3.329
1950: 267
Iliad 6.425
Rossi, from which the observation by Knight cited above is also taken (1994: 87-88).
64
Grimm, Andromache would here be "close to self-hypnotism" (1967: 161).
Astyanax "einer der tiefst empfundenen Züge in Virgils Gedicht" (1982 [= 1915]: 107).
65
Trojan Women 460ff.
Aeneid 3.490f.
Odyssey 4.149f.
de la Cerda 1612: 344
Cova 1994 ad loc.
Statius Achilleis 1.330ff.
Seneca Hercules Furens 1016f.
66
Bettini 1992: 211-39.
67
Aeneid 4.82ff.
68
J. Hofer, Dissertatio medica de [Unrepresented Characters] sive de Heimwehe, first published in Basil in 1688 and subsequently reprinted in 1710
T. Zwinger in his Fasciculus Dissertationum Medicarum Selectiorum under the title "De Pothopatridalgia"
Prete 1992: 45-59
69
E. Kant, "Anthropology from a pragmatic point of view"
Prete 1992: 66
70
"Nostalgia," in Supplément aux Dictionnaires des Sciences, desArts et des Métiers, Tome IV, first published in 1779
Prete 1992: 63-65
71
"Nostalgia," in the Encyclopédie Méthodique. Médicine, Tome X, first published in 1821 in Paris
Prete 1992: 78-84
72
Epistulae ad Lucilium 40.1.
73
Natural History 35.9.
74
Bettini 1992: 10-12 and 51-53.
75
Aeneid 3.493ff.
76
Nelson's "compassion- ate irony" (1961: 335)
Grimm 1967: 161
Starry West 1983: 259.
Bettini 1992: 52-53.
77
Conington 1894 ad loc.
Starry West 1983: 259.
78
Bettini 1992: 51-53.
79
"Le cygne," 52.
80
Bettini 1992: 60-68.
81
Genie du Christianisme 1.5.14
Chateaubriand 1802 [repr. 1966]: 187-88
Bemardelli 1976
82
Aeneid 2.11f.
Hector at 2.293ff.
83
Aeneid 12.819ff.
84
Thompson 1989: 11-24.

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