Certain Greek texts depict Helen in a manner that connects her elusive body with the elusive maneuvers of the persuasive story. Her too-mobile body signals in these texts the obscurity of agency in the seduction scene and serves as a device for tracking the dynamics of desire. In so doing this body propels poetic narrative and gives structure to persuasive argumentation. Although the female figure in traditional texts is always the object of male representation, in this study I examine a set of images of a female body whose representation ultimately seems to frustrate the narrative strategies for which its depiction was created. What emerges in the fifth century as a rhetorical technique begins in Book 3 of the Iliad as a narrative strategy that uses Helen's cloaked and disappearing body to catalyze plot, and develops in Sappho's fr. 16 into a logic of desire shaped by the movement of Helen's and other bodies in the visual field. Gorgias, in the Encomium of Helen, transforms these depictions of Helen into an argument that is structured by Helen's body, an argument that Helen herself employs in Euripides' Troades, where her own body serves as the anatomy of her argument. These texts all associate Helen's body with a type of persuasive narrative that repeatedly invokes the field of vision, describing physical presence in terms that aim at attracting the eye. At the same time this verbal portraiture disrupts the audience's perspective by depicting bodies as cloaked, mobile, and/or half seen, and by obscuring distinctions between desirer and desired, viewer and viewed. As both subject and object in this viewing process, Helen's body comes to be associated with the double vision of seduction (i.e., the shunting of her body from desiring eye to desired object) and the distracting power of persuasive images, which seduce the mind's eye while eluding the mind's grasp.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
De Lauretis (1987) 20.
Foucault [1985]
2
Brooks (1993) 6.
Barthes (1974) esp. 214-16
Barthes (1975)
Richard Howard calls his "erotics of reading" (Intro. to the English ed., viii).
Barthes (1974)
Barthes (1975) 34, 37, 55-56.
3
Freud (1953) esp. 156-57, 194-96.
Lacan [1977] esp. 284-85
Barthes [1975] 10, 14, 21-22, 34, etc.
Irigaray [1974] esp. 53-57
4
Barthes (1975)
5
Brooks (1993)
Brooks himself has to admit (14-15).
6
Zeitlin (1995a) 176.
7
Zeitlin (1990).
8
Vernant (1989) 28.
Il. 2.217-19
9
Hesiod, Erg. 65
Bonnie MacLachlan explains (1993) 52
37n. 33
Raymond A. Prier (1989)
10
Aphrodite (Il. 5.331, 425, H. Aph. 57ff.)
Hera (Il. 14.170ff.)
Helen (Il. 3.382, 385)
Paris (Il. 3.45, 371)
Dionysus (Bacchae 453ff.)
Odysseus (esp. Od. 6.137 and 13.435)
Menelaus (Od. 4.441-42)
Philoctetes (Phil. 875-76)
Orestes (Or. 220)
Donald Lateiner remarks, "Every culture has olfactory boundaries as well as touch boundaries, beyond which we register trespass" (1995) 107.
11
Helen, Il. 3.141, 419-20
Aphrodite, Il. 3.64, 396-97
Od. 8.364-66
H. Aph. 1, 60-65, 85-90
Paris, Il. 3.392, 6.318-22
Tro. 987-92.
12
Helen, Il. 3.156-58
Hec. 441-43
Or. 1383-87
Tro. 891-94
Aphrodite, Il. 3.396-97
Anactoria in Sappho fr. 16.
13
Aidos and Nemesis in Hesiod, Erg.
Sappho 16, 96
Sappho 117
Alcman 6
Archilochus 112 D; cf. the Il.
Tro. 98, etc.
Hec. 59-60, etc.
Or. 961ff.
Electra of Clytemnestra [El. 1069-70]
Orestes of Helen [Or. 1112ff.]
Hecuba of Helen [Tro. 1022-23]
Or. 526-27, 839-40
El. 1207
Or. 1466ff.
15
Ann Bergren (1983)
Froma Zeitlin (1982)
Karen Bassi (1993).
Bassi remarks, "Helen occupies a central position in the Western tradition of females who engender suspicion and conflict just as she is persistently appropriated as an object of struggle for authorship and authority," 61-62.
16
Christopher Collins (1991)
17
Helene Foley (1995)
Foley remarks, "Homeric women are expected to display moral responsibility in their own sphere of the household and to enforce moral standards, such as those relating to hospitality, in the absence of their menfolk," 95.
Suzuki (1989).
21
Andrew Sihler (1995) 120
22
Prier (1989)
23
Freud (1922) 273
n. 3 above.
Freud [1965] 117
Bergren notes (1983) 71-72.
Paul Gordon (1995) 82.
24
Marcel Mauss (1967)
Sitta von Reden (1995)
25
Il. 6.230-36
26
Claude Lévi-Strauss (1963) 61.
Bergren explored this collocation of signifier and sign in relation to Greek texts (1983) 75-78
27
Norman Austin (1975) 127-28
(1994) 37-42
Bergren (1979-1980)
(1983) 79-80
G. A. Kennedy (1986).
28
W. B. Stanford (1972) 130
Jane Snyder (1981)
John Schied and Jesper Svenbro (1996).
Il. 3.212
Il. 6.187, 7.324
Od. 4.677-78, 5.356-57, 9.422-23, 13.303-304, 386.
29
Linda Lee Clader (1976) 6-11.
Austin (1975) 127-28
Zeitlin (1982).
30
Austin (1994) remarks on the duality of Helen's role in this scene, 41-42
Lynn- George (1988) 29-32.
31
Lohmann (1970)
Andromache's, 101-102
Hecuba's, 110-11.
32
Cyp. 7
Clader (1976)
Helen's likeness to the goddess Nemesis, 72-73
Austin (1994)
"Helen is nemesis," 43
nn. 28-29.
34
Bergren (1983) 73-75.
35
Od. 5.59-62, 10.220-23, 226-28, 254-55.
36
Od. 2.93-95, 104-109, 15.512-17, 19.138-40, 24.128-50.
38
Lilly Ghali-Kahil's (1955)
Kahil (1988) 539-45.
Aristophanes' Lys. (155-56)
Euripides' Andr. (629-30)
Lesches' Little Iliad
Malcolm Davies [1988] 58 no. 19
[1991] 289 no. 296
Guy Hedreen (1996)
Ghali-Kahil (1955) pll. 21, 23, 28.3, 29.4, 38.3, 42.1
H. A. Shapiro (1993) pll. 29, 59.
Tro. 958
39
[Unrepresented Characters], 3.126
[Unrepresented Characters], 6.324
Od. 15.105-108
Id. 18.32-37
40
Dios Apate (14.214-15
Od. 23.201
41
II. 3.382
Od. 4.121
Aphrodite's Cyprus is similarly sweet smelling in H. Aph.
[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters]: 58, 66
her altar ([Unrepresented Characters]: 59).
42
Clader (1976)
Briseis (another object of desire and contention), ll. 19.285
43
Clader (1976)
44
Hesiod, Th. 581
H. Aph. 90
Od. 8.366
Prier (1989) 95-96.
Cyp., fr. 7 [Athen. 334 B], 1
Erg. 65-75
Shapiro [1993], 192-94 and pl. 129
45
Monica Silveira Cyrino (1995)
Clader (1976) 13-15.
46
Cyrino (1995) 10.
47
G. M. Pepe [1967] 32
Ghali-Kahil [1955] 55, 56, 57, 225-29, 252-56 and pll. 8.2-3, 11, 13, 23-35
L. D. Caskey and J. D. Beazley [1931-1963] 1: 32-39
Shapiro [1993] 186-207
48
Anchises in H. Aph.
50
Eos and Tithonos (218-38).
Clader (1976)
51
Hera's gift of one of the Charites to Hypnos for doing her bidding in the Dios Apate (14.267-68)
52
Simon Goldhill (1994)
Marilyn Arthur Katz (1991) 183-87.
53
Il. 24.27-30
Proclus, Chrestomathy
Cyp. (and cf. frr. 4, 7, 12)
F. Jouan (1966) 98-99.
54
Cyp. 7
Il. 5.371ff.
Th. 188ff.
55
Homer and Sappho characterize Aphrodite as [Unrepresented Characters] (fr. 1.2 L.-P.)
56
Cyrino (1993)
Alcman (in fr. 3, 61-62: [Unrepresented Characters])
57
Prier (1989)
MacLachlan (1993) 11, 65
58
Burnett (1983) 228n. 30.
59
MacLachlan (1993)
60
Denys Page (1955) 56.
Martin West (1970)
Joseph A. Dane (1981)
R. Merkelbach (1957)
Wilamowitz (1914)
Carl Theander (1934)
C. M. Bowra (1935)
Euripides' Or. 249
61
Burnett (1983)
Page duBois (1984)
duBois (1995).
Glenn W. Most (1981)
W. H. Race (1989-1990)
Hayden Pelliccia (1992)
Aristotle (Rhet. 2.23 [1398b19ff.])
H. Frankel (1975)
Gorgias' Enc.
Herodotus' Hist.
62
Pelliccia (1992)
Gorgias' Enc. 4
Helen are admired, 67
n. 10.
63
duBois (1984)
Bruno Gentili (1988)
J. H. Barkhuizen and G. H. Els (1983).
64
Race (1989-1990).
65
Pelliccia (1992).
66
Isocrates' Encomium of Helen.
67
duBois (1984)
Sappho's depiction, 102
G. Kirkwood (1979)
Aphrodite's possible role, 108.
68
Zeitlin (1995b)
Hec., 201-202.
69
McLachlan (1993)
70
H. Diels and W. Kranz (1952; hereafter DK) 288n. 1
Thomas Buchheim (1989) 160n. 2.
71
DK 80B 1
DK 80A1
Dissoi Logoi (DK 90)
Sextus Empiricus [Pros Log. 65-87]
Peri tou meontos: DK 82B3
72
POxy 2506, fr. 26, col. 1
Euripides' Helen
Zeitlin [1982]
George B. Walsh [1984]
Bassi [1993]
Austin [1994]
73
Zeitlin (1990) 92ff.
Susan Jarratt (1991) 65.
74
Poulakos (1983)
75
Gorg. 463b.
Michael Lloyd (1992) esp. 23-24
76
Hist. 3.37-39 [Cleon]
6.9-23 [Nicias and Alcibiades]
77
Bergren (1983)
Enc. 11
78
Alcidamas in Peri ton sophiston (28)
Plato in the Phaedrus (264c)
F. Blass [1892] 193-205.
Poetics (7)
79
Walsh (1984)
Euripides' eidôlon
Buchheim (1989)
164n. 19.
80
Buchheim (1989) 162n. 10.
81
Charles Segal (1965)
83
Barthes (1975) 10-11, 40-41, 47-48.
Barthes says, "Confronting it, the New is bliss (Freud: 'In the adult, novelty always constitutes the condition for orgasm')," 41.
84
O. Immisch (1927): [Unrepresented Characters]
Buchheim (1989): [Unrepresented Characters].
Helen and Heracles section in Isocrates' Helen
85
Kirby (1990)
86
Kirby (1990)
Giovanni Casertano (1986)
87
Jane Tompkins (1980)
88
Segal (1965)
J. de Romilly (1974)
Hugh Parry (1992)
Eur., Medea 402
Pindar, Pythian 4.249
Walsh (1984) 83-84.
89
Rhet. 1405b34ff.
90
Od. 19.457
Pyth. 4.384
Aj. 582
Herodotus, regarding the Magi, Hist. 1.132.
91
Segal (1965) 127, and 141-42n. 41, 150-51nn. 103-105 for bibliography
Walsh (1984) 83-84.
92
Gorg. 502b
93
Walsh (1984) 82-83.
94
Immisch (1927)
Buchheim (1989)
95
Helen's role in Od. 4.219ff.
Gorgias' formulation is paradigmatic (1993) 32nn. 55 and 56.
96
Aphrodite's reactions to Helen ([Unrepresented Characters]: Il. 3.415)
Paris ([Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters]: 5.423)
97
Segal (1965) 126.
98
Nelson Goodman (1978)
Leonard Meyer (1979)
99
Albin Lesky (1972) 391
P. G. Maxwell-Stuart (1973)
K. H. Lee (1976) ix-x
Ruth Scodel (1980) 139-40.
100
Justina Gregory (1991)
Scodel (1980)
Palamedes' in the Palamedes, 90n. 26, also 99, 144.
Goldhill agrees (1986) 237.
Croally (1993)
Lloyd (1992)
101
Croally (1993) 144.
102
Croally (1993) 136, 145
Lee (1976) 225, 241
Michael Lloyd (1984) disagrees, 305.
103
Ghali-Kahil's reading of the figure (1988) 538, no. 225.
Anne Burnett (1977) 292-93n. 4.
104
L. Ghali-Kahil (1955) 42, 71-89; pll. 42-45, 48, 56-62.
Hedreen (1996)
105
Zeitlin (1995a)
106
Lloyd (1984).
107
Philip Vellacott's (1975)
108
Kitto (1950) 213
Lee (1976)
Scodel (1980)
George Gellie (1986)
D. Ebener (1954)
109
Gellie (1986).
110
F. A. Paley (1872)
Lee (1976)
Scodel (1980)
Gregory (1991).
111
Plato's Gorgias.
[Unrepresented Characters]: Enc. 3
Gorg. 483c8-d2
Thrasymachus, Rep. 341a, 343c
Scodel (1980)
113
Theoclymenus and Menelaus in Hel.
Menelaus in IA
Biehl (1989)
Menelaus' entrance as "Tragikomik," 320.
114
Gregory (1991) notes this, 171.
115
Vernant (1988) 49-84.
116
Lee (1976) 224.
Scodel (1980)
Lloyd (1984) 309-10.
Biehl (1989) 334-37
Croally (1993) 80-81.
117
Gellie (1986)
Lee (1976).
118
Hec. 441-43
Or. 1383-87.
Hec. ([Unrepresented Characters]: 687)
Zeitlin (1995b) 201-202
186. Clader (1976)
Homer also, 16-23
Euripides' Hel. 926.
119
Plato's Euthyd. 289e-90a
Charm. 155e-5ba.
Enc. 9
Paley (1872)
Goldhill (1984)
120
Croally (1993)
121
his linguistic violence in the Hel. (982ff.)
122
Lee (1976)
Page (on Med. 465ff. [1938])
Dale (on Alc. 697ff. [1954])
123
G. Schiassi (1953)
L. Parmentier (1948)
124
Hel. 1053-54
Helen in the Hel.
Theonoe (894-943)
125
Antiphon, Second Tetralogy.
126
Victor Bers (1994)
178 and n. 11.
128
Biehl (1989)
Hecuba (919-37)
Helen herself (938-42)
Menelaus (943f.), 324-25.
129
Lloyd (1992)
130
Shapiro (1993) 110-24, 186-207
Caskey and Beazley (1931-1963) 32-39.
131
Aristotle (Rhet. 1408b-1409b)
132
Ved. amrta-, mrta-
Lat. mortuus.
133
Aristotle (Rhet. 1401a5ff.).
134
Alcman, fr. 73 (40 D): [Unrepresented Characters]
Helen's name in the Agamemnon (689)
135
Lee (1976) 229
Sciassi (1953)
136
Priam, Lee (1976)
Hecuba 161.
137
Lloyd (1992)
138
Lloyd (1992)
Gorgias' Pal.
Hist. 3.53.2
Socrates in Plato's Ap. [18bl-d7]), 101.
Pal. 28f.
Tro. 955-58
Pal. 7, 9, etc.
Pal. 13
Scodel (1980) passim
142
Od. 4.261 Helen
143
Aristophanes, Lys. 155-56
Euripides, Andr. 629-30
144
U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1906) excises these lines (959-60).
Murray (1904)
J. Diggle (1981a)
Scodel (1980)
Lloyd (1992)
Biehl (1989).
Hecuba's reference to Paris rather than Deiphobus (998-1001) (356).
Paley (1872)
Parmentier (1948)
Lee (1976)
Paris and Deiphobus in the Alexandros
Vellacott (1975)
Paris (998)
146
Aristophanes (Lys. 155-56)
Euripides (Andr. 629-30)
Hedreen [1996] 160
147
Lee (1976)
Scodel (1980)
Clader (1976)
Homer, 19-20
148
Demosthenes 35.40-43, 39.14
Isaeus 10.1
Lycurgus 1.20
Josiah Ober (1989) 166-74
Helen North (1988).
149
Sciassi (1953) 167
Lee (1976) 234-35
Parmentier (1948)
Gorg. 453a
Rhet. 1377b24f.
Gorg. (509-10)
150
H. Aph. 56-57 (quoted above).
Helen in the Hel. (294-96).
151
Hel. 1053-54
152
Lee (1976)
Paley [1872]
Diggle (1981b)
Helen, 68-69.
153
Croally (1993)
154
J. Gould (1990) 185ff.

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