According to Xenophon, the hetaira "gratified" her patron as a philos, participating in an aristocratic network of gift exchange (Xen. Mem. 3.11), while the pornê, as her name signified, trafficked in sex as a commodity. Recent writers on Greek prostitution have acknowledged that hetaira vs. pornê may be as much a discursive opposition as a real difference in status, but still, very little attention has been paid to the period of the "invention" of this binary. Hetaira meaning "courtesan" first occurs in Herodotus (2.134-35) and does not exist in Homer: hence, the conceptual category of the hetaira is an invention of the archaic period. What needs generated the constitution of this category? And what conceptual "work" was the opposition hetaira-pornê doing in Greek culture in the period of its inception? This paper addresses these questions through a reading of fragments of archaic lyric-predominantly those of Anakreon-as well as consideration of Attic vase painting. I suggest that the hetaira-pornê opposition participates in the overarching tension between the aristocratic symposium and the public sphere in archaic Greece. Oswyn Murray has suggested that the symposium constitutes itself as a kind of anti-city with its own rules and conventions. Part of the discursive exclusion of the public sphere is the complete suppression of the city's monetarized economy from the domain of the aristocratic symposium, and it is this impulse to mystify economic relations for sex that generates the category of the hetaira within a framework of gift exchange. But if the motives for this discursive invention are economic, they are also (inextricably) political: the hetaira affirms and embodies the circulation of charis within a privileged elite, while the pornê figures the debased and promiscuous exchanges of the agora.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Reinsberg 1989.161.
Schneider 1913.col. 1332
2
Lesky 1976.112-16.
Schneider 1913
Licht 1932
Herter 1957
1960
Keuls 1985
Reinsberg 1989
3
Hauschild 1933.7-9
Herter 1957.1154, 1181-82
Herter 1960.83
Peschel 1987.19-20
Harvey 1988.249
Calame 1989.103-104
Dover 1989.20-21.
Harvey 1988.249
Xen. Mem. 3.11
Benveniste 1973.112
Chantraine 1968-1980.888.
4
Aristophanes Wasps 1341-70
Xenophon Symposium 2.1, 2.7-22, 3.1, 9.2-7
Plato Symposium 176e7-8, 212d6
Herter 1960.97-98
Peschel 1987.21-25.
5
Dover 1989.21
Hauschild 1933.8-9
Lesky 1976.107-108
Vernant 1980.58-61
Licht 1932.330
6
Davidson n.d. p. 4
Davidson 1994.139-42
Henry 1986.147
7
Davidson 1994.115-211
Kopytoff 1986.
Kopytoff 1986:69
8
Morris 1996.19-48
Morris is following Mazzarino 1947
Arthur 1984
Kurke 1992.
9
Morris 1996.20.
10
Herman 1987
Morris 1986
1989
1996
Kurke 1991
1992
1995.
Will 1954
1955
1975
Kraay 1976.317-28
Vernant 1982.91-101
Seaford 1994.191-234
Howgego 1995.16-18
von Reden 1995.175-81.
11
Ober 1989.
Antiphanes fr. 210 K.-A.
Philemon fr. 3 K.-A.
Euboulos fr. 67 K.-A.
Xenarchus fr. 4 K.-A.
Anaxilas fr. 21 K.-A., p. 112
Antiphanes fr. 210 K.-A., pp. 116-17
Euboulos fr. 41 K.-A., p. 140
Hauschild 1933
Fantham 1975
Anderson 1984
Henry 1985
1986
Konstan 1987
Wiles 1989
Brown 1990
1993.
12
Robinson 1951
1956
Kraay 1964
1976
1977
Price and Waggoner 1975
Price 1983.
Kiyonaga 1973
Kroll and Waggoner 1984
Karweise 1991
Howgego 1995.2-6.
Weidauer 1975
Kagan 1982.
13
Herter 1960.95-97
Brendel 1970.19, 29-36
Peschel 1987
Calame 1989.103-108
Reinsberg 1989.91-120.
14
Murray 1990.7
Murray 1983.265-66
15
von Reden 1995.205-206 with 214-15 n. 50.
16
Anaxilas fr. 21 K-A
17
Eustathius to Homer, p. 1651.1, 1329.33
Suetonius de blasph. pp. 49-51
Archilochus dub. fr. 302W, spur. fr. 328W
Hipponax frr. 135, 135a, 135bW
Alkaios fr. 117b V.
Burnett 1983.78-97.
18
D. Christodoulou, private correspondence.
19
Gentili 1958.193n. 3.
20
Gentili 1958.186-94.
Pindar fr. 122.19 SM
Sophocles fr. 720 Radt
Pollux 7.203.
Xenophon Mem. 3.11.14
21
1884.317n. 27
1913.103n. 1
22
Mazzarino 1947
Arthur 1984.37-49
Kurke 1992
Morris 1996
Kurke 1992.93-94.
23
fr. 48 Gentili, 427 PMG
fr. 136 Gentili, 455 PMG.
24
Kurke 1995.
25
Reitzenstein 1893.13-17
26
Theognis 723-24
Aristophanes Clouds 1073
29
Morris 1996.36
31
Murray 1990.7.
Kurke 1992.98-106.
32
Carm. conv. 904 PMG
33
Keuls 1985.160-86
Calame 1989
Reinsberg 1989
35
Brown 1983
Slater 1978
Davies 1981
Slater 1978.
36
Brown 1983.12-13.
Aristophanes, Frogs 112
Pollux Onomasticon 7.202
Herter 1960.74-75
Garrett and Kurke 1996.
37
Brown 1983.13-14.
Pollux Onomasticon 10.177
38
Brown 1983.14.
39
von Reden 1995.171-94
1995.175
40
Though Gerber (1970.234)
Brown (1983.14)
Young (1973.413)
41
Brown 1983.13
Aristophanes, Birds 158.
van Groningen 1966.50-51
ad ll. 117, 119
Hangard 1963.62-66, 94
Stroud 1974.171-72
Caccamo Caltabiano and Radici Colace 1983.442-43.
42
Plutarch Pericles 27
Gentili fr. 8, test. iii
43
Brown 1983.14 with n. 79.
Slater 1978.186 n. 8
Theognis 581-82
Pollux Onomasticon 7.203
44
Brown 1983.7.
Dioscurides AP 7.31.10
Antipater Sidonius AP 7.27.5
Smyth 1963.290
Gerber 1970.233
Brown 1983.7.
Aristophanes Lysistrata 250, 265, 423, 1163
CAF adesp. 805
Henderson 1991.137.
46
Serrao 1968
Cavallini 1990.
47
Posited first by Gallavotti 1955.48.
48
Gentili 1958.182-90.
49
Serrao 1968.51.
50
Latte 1955.496
Merkelbach 1956.96-97
West 1994.102
Gentili 1958.194.
Gerber (1976.121)
52
Gallavotti 1955.50
53
Detienne 1996.89-106
Morris 1996.36-37.
54
Serrao 1968.44-46.
Iliad 6.506-14
55
Gentili 1958.191-92.
56
Taillardat 1967.124
57
Anakreon: fr. 124
Gentili, 439 PMG
fr. 157 Gentili, 480 PMG
Anaxilas fr. 22.6 K.-A.
fr. 347 PMG
fr. 72 Gentili
58
Brown 1983
Rosenmeyer 1992.37-49
Fränkel 1973.300-301.
59
Halperin 1990.88-104.
60
Athenaeus, Deipn. 13.569d
Philemon fr. 3 K-A (4th c. BCE)
Nikander of Kolophon 271/2 F9 Jacoby.
Halperin (1990.186n. 89)
61
Halperin 1990.100-101
Herter 1960.73
63
Kock 1880-1888, vol. 2.479 (ad fr. 4.4).
64
Euboulus fr. 67 K.-A.
Xenarchus fr. 4 K.-A.
65
Henry 1992.261
Philemon fr. 3 K.-A.
Simmel (1978.376-377)
66
Davidson 1994.156, 163-64
Zanker 1975 (with pl. 33, no. 148)
Williams 1993.96-97
Immerwahr 1984.11
Euboulos fr. 82 K.-A
Davidson 1994.143-73.
67
n. 25.
68
Theognis 315-18, 319-20, 1083-84.
69
Aristophanes Clouds 991-97
Knights 1397- 1401.
71
Reinsberg 1989.108.
72
Brendel 1970.19-36
Sutton 1981.74-113 and 117, Table L.1
Peschel 1987
Reinsberg 1989.104-12
Stewart 1996.156-67.
73
Sutton 1981.75 and 117, Table L.2
Sutton 1981.75
Brendel (1970.30)
74
Reinsberg 1989.108
Brendel 1970.26.
Robertson 1992.26
Reinsberg 1989.105-108
Sutton 1981.109-12
Arafat and Morgan 1994.
75
Sutton 1981.98
Stewart 1996.167.
Berlin no. 3251
76
De Vries 1973
Snyder 1974
Kurtz and Boardman 1986
Frontisi and Ducroux 1990
Miller 1992.
77
Kurke 1992.97-104.
78
Reinsberg 1989.108.
Reinsberg (1989.114)
79
Thus Peschel 1987.197-209
Reinsberg 1989.114-20
80
Berlin inv. 3251
ARV2 113, 7
Para. 2 332
Add.2 173.
Brendel 1970.22-25
Peschel 1987.50-55.
Peschel 1987.
81
Peschel 1987.74-79, 183-84.
82
Peschel 1987.53
83
Peschel 1987.51.
84
Brendel 1970.23
Sutton 1981.91
Peschel 1987.50- 55
Kilmer 1993.71
CVA Berlin 2, p. 14
Dover 1989.101-102
Dover 1989.100-102, 182-84.
85
Greifenhagen 1967.25n. 82
Brendel 1970.24n. 22
Sutton 1981.92
Peschel 1987.52
Kilmer 1993.65.
86
Peschel 1987.54-55.
87
Peschel 1987.70-74 and 110-12
88
Peschel 1987.73-74
Reinsberg 1989.112-14
Robertson 1992.27
Peschel 1987.74-81
Csapo and Miller 1991.380
Goldhill 1992.197
Csapo and Miller 1991.380
89
Munich 2421
ARV2 23, 7
Para.2 323
Add.2 155.
90
Csapo and Miller 1991.373-80
91
Pindar Pyth. 9.97-103
Pyth. 10.59
vs. Ol. 10.100-105
92
Hermitage B 644
ARV2 16, 15
Para.2 509
Add.2 153
93
Robinson and Fluck 1937
Shapiro 1983
1987.
Robinson and Fluck 1937
Beazley Addenda2 396-97
Boardman 1992.47-48
94
Frontisi-Ducroux 1989.163
1996.85-86.
Korshak 1987
95
Peschel (1987.71)
Robertson (1992.27)
96
Louvre G 13
ARV2 86
α, Add.2 170.
Brendel 1970.27-30
Keuls 1985.180-86
Peschel 1987.57-70
Reinsberg 1989.117-20
Stewart 1996.165.
97
Peschel 1987.64-65
98
Peschel 1987.63.
99
Aristophanes Lys. 823-28
Thesmo. 238- 48
Eccl. 13-14
ARV2 331, 20
Kilmer 1982
100
Peschel 1987.62-66
Reinsberg 1989.117-18.
Brendel 1970.27
Sutton (1981.107-108)
Peschel (1987.387n. 144)
101
Peschel 1987.63-64
Reinsberg 1989.117-18
Stewart 1996.163-65
103
Alkaios frr. 50, 58, 332, 335, 338, 346, 347a, 352, 369, 376, 401 V,
Anakreon frr. 356, 383, 396, 410, 412 PMG
Theognis 211-12, 413-14, 473-510, 627-28, 837-44, 873-84, 989-90, 1039-42, 1047-48
Just 1989.163-64, 185-86
104
Xen. Mem. 3.11.10-11, 14
Xenophon's Oikonomikos
Murnahan 1988.
105
Dover 1974.100-102
Just 1989.157-64, 184-93
Henry 1992.258-59
106
Carson 1994
Anaxilas fr. 22.23 K.-A.
Horace Odes 1.22.10.
107
Wilamowitz 1913.155n. 1
Brown 1983.3.
108
Brown 1983.3
Henderson 1991.171n. 88.
109
van Groningen (1966)
West (1992)
van Groningen and Young (1971)
110
Young 1971 (app. crit. ad loc.)
Harrison 1902.277
Carrière 1948.133-34
McKay 1961a
Nagy 1985.77
111
Carrière 1948.133-34
McKay 1961a
1961b.
112
van Groningen 1966.438-39.
113
Timokles fr. 27 K.-A.
Menander Samia; Lucian Dialogues of Courtesans 8
Schneider 1913. coll. 1363-64
114
Figueira 1985.152
Thgn. 1209
Lucian Courtesan Dialogues 299-301
115
Nagy 1979.222-52
1985.22-30
1990.147-50
Thgn. 681-82.
Kyrnos at 237-54
Thgn. 253-54
Foucault 1985.187-214
Dover 1989.39-109
Lewis 1985
Bremmer 1990.
116
Hesiod Theog. 55, 102
Alkaios fr. 70.9-10 V
Euripides Bacchae 279-85.
117
Pindar fr. 122 SM
Kurke 1996
118
Philemon fr. 3 K.-A.
[Dem.] 59

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