Lucan's "Bellum Civile" is a poem filled with ethical contradictions. This paper contends that at least some of these contradictions can be traced to competing views regarding the composition of the community in civil war: the view that one's opponent is a civis (fellow-citizen, hence member of one's own community) and the view that he is a hostis (a foreign enemy) are available simultaneously. Therefore the position that it is morally wrong to attack a member of one's own community competes with the position that it is morally right to use violence against an enemy. The Pompeians tentatively and rather sporadically embrace the former view, while the latter view is more strongly characteristic of the Caesarians; the outcome of the battle of Pharsalus accords with this distribution of ethical stances. Yet these conflicting discourses and opposing views of the community are present not only in the voices of the various characters, but also in the narrative voice itself; such contradictions even within a single voice are inevitable artifacts of civil war as Lucan represents it. By portraying this competition in ethical discourses as he does, Lucan makes his civil war a context in which he can recreate and participate in the ideological struggles of Neronian Rome.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Masters 1993
Henderson 1987
Martindale 1976
Due 1962
2
Kautsky 1982:24, 79.
3
Kautsky 1982:169-210 (particularly 169-77 and 197-205).
4
Earl 1961:29-40
Hellegouarc'h 1963:476-83.
5
Minyard 1985:6, 10.
Bourdieu 1991:171-202.
6
Minyard 1985:6-8, 10
Earl 1967:19-26 (and chapter 1 passim)
Earl 1961:18-27 (especially 21)
Smith 1976[1947]:191-97
Habinek 1992:24-35.
Nepos Cato 3.4
Pliny Nat. 8.11
Cic. Rep. 2.2
Woodman 1977:30-31.
8
Moore 1989:5-14 (on Livy's usage)
Hellegouarc'h 1963:244-46
Hellegouarc'h 1963:245-46
Lucan 8.493-95
9
Hellegouarc'h 1963:276-79
Moore 1989:56-61
Wagenvoort 1980[1924].
Bettini 1991[1988] chapters 2-5.
10
Jal 1963
Raaflaub 1974:236-39.
11
Henderson 1987:150.
13
Livy 5.49.5-6
TLL VII.2.721.6-18
Jal 1963:77-78
TLL II.1847.79-1848.13.
Fantham 1992:183
18
Jal 1963:72-76
Saylor 1986:150 (and passim).
19
Caesar himself makes this distinction in 7.269-76
Pompey's force is so heavily non-Roman: civilia paucae/bella manus facient; pugnae pars magna levabit/his orbem populis Romanumque obteret hostem (7.274-76).
20
Curio says, pellimur e patriis laribus patimurque volentes /exilium: tua nos faciet victoria cives (1.278-79).
21
Abolishing Pompey's power: 1.314-26, 333-40, 350-51.
Welfare of soldiers: 1.340-46.
23
Heyke 1970:45
n. 5
24
Corcyrean stasis (3.82.6)
25
Fantham 1992:165
Woodcock 1959:196-97 [§§240-41]
26
Caesar's behavior and attitudes here, calling him in armafurens (439)
28
Marti 1966.
31
Due 1962:116-17.
32
Thucydides 3.82.4
Martindale 1976:48.
Plato Rep. 560D
Tac. Hist. 1.37.4
Sal. Cat. 52.11
Sen. Ben. 5.15.4-6
Bailey, An- thologia Latina 1.460-61
Lebek 1976:233
n. 6.
33
Shackleton Bailey 1988
Håkanson 1979:43-45
Hakanson 1979:45
36
Heyke 1970:85-86.
37
Richardson 1990:109-11.
Richardson 1990:158-66
Lyne 1987:1-2, 217-24.
Heinze 1915:370-73
Masters 1992:1-10.
38
Masters 1992:5-6
n. 14, also 88-90.
Syndikus 1958:39-43
Seitz 1965:216-32
39
Fowler 1990:42-43 (and passim)
42
Ahl 1976:145
245 n. 16.
Sen. Ben. 4.32.2
Shackleton Bailey, Anthologia Latina 1.461
43
n. 29 above
44
Masters 1992:90
Ahl 1976:197
Saylor 1986:155-56.
46
Fowler 1990:57
Lyne 1987:217-38
Conte 1986:152-84.
47
Sen. Prov. 2.1-4, 2.7, 2.12, and passim
Morford 1967.
Long-Sedley 1987:I.354-59
51
Raaflaub 1974:192-200, 234-35.
52
Crawford 1974:1.486-87, 520 [nos. 477-79, 511] and II.739
Powell 1992:151-57
Phil. 5.39
Lucan 9.147
54
Raaflaub 1974:234-39
55
Lucan 1.12, 3.79, and 6.257-61
Val. Max. 2.8.7
56
R. Cagnat in Daremberg-Saglio 1875:V.488-90.
57
Plutarch Pomp. 45
Shackleton Bailey, Anthologia Latina 1.396-400.
58
Dio 42.18.1
Weinstock 1971.60-61
n. 8
Weinstock 1971:60-79 (especially 60-62 and 76-79)
Gelzer 1968:284-85 and 308- 309.
Dio says (41.52.1)
59
Plutarch Caes. 55
Appian B.C. 2.101.
60
Plutarch Caes. 56.7-9
Dio (43.42.1)
61
Phil. 14.21-25
Phil. 14.22
Phil. 14.24
Cic. Phil. 14.21-25
Halkin 1953:92-93.
62
Masters 1992:17-22
63
Bartsch 1994:148-87
64
Roller 1994:45-68.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Ahl, Frederick. 1976. Lucan: An Introduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Bartsch, Shadi. 1994. Actors in the Audience: Theatricality and Doublespeakfrom Nero to Hadrian. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Bettini, Maurizio. 1991 [1988]. Trans. John Van Sickle. Anthropology and Roman Culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. In J. B. Thompson, ed., Language and Symbolic Power. Cam- bridge: Polity Press.
Braund, S. H. 1992. Lucan Civil War. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Conte, Gian Biagio. 1986. The Rhetoric of Imitation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Crawford, Michael. 1974. Roman Republican Coinage. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Daremberg, Charles, and Edmond Saglio. 1875. Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines. 5 vols. Paris: Hachette.
Due, Otto Steen. 1962. "An Essay on Lucan." C&M 23: 68-132.
Earl, D. C. 1961. The Political Thought of Sallust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-. 1967. The Moral and Political Tradition of Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Fantham, Elaine. 1992. Lucan De Bello Civili Book II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, Don. 1990. "Deviant Focalization in Vergil's Aeneid." PCPS 36: 42-63.
Gelzer, Matthias. 1968. Trans. Peter Needham. Caesar Politician and Statesman. Cam- bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Habinek, Thomas. 1992. Why was Latin Literature Invented? Unpublished MS, Berkeley.
Halkin, Léon. 1953. La supplication d'action de graces chez les Romains. Paris: Les Belles Lettres ( = Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liége, fasc. 128).
Håkanson, Lennart. 1979. "Problems of Textual Criticism and Interpretation in Lucan's De Bello Civili." PCPS 25: 26-51.
Heinze, Richard. 1915. Virgils epische Technik3. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.
Hellegouarc'h, Joseph. 1963. Le vocabulaire latin des relations et des partis politiques sous la République. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
Henderson, John. 1987. "Lucan/the Word at War." Ramus 16: 122-64.
Heyke, Waltraut. 1970. Zur Rolle der Pietas bei Lucan. Mannheim.
Housman, A. E. 1926. M. Annaei Lucani Belli Civilis Libri Decem. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Jal, Paul. 1963. "Hostis (Publicus) dans la litterature latine de la fin de la République." REA 65: 53-79.
Kautsky, John. 1982. The Politics of Aristocratic Empires. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lebek, Wolfgang Dieter. 1976. Lucans Pharsalia: Dichtungsstruktur und Zeitbezug. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht ( = Hypomnemata vol. 44).
Long, A. A., and David Sedley. 1987. The Hellenistic Philosophers. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyne, R. O. A. M. 1987. Further Voices in Vergil's Aeneid. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Marti, Berthe. 1966. "Cassius Scaeva and Lucan's Inventio." In Luitpold Wallach, ed., The Classical Tradition: Literary and Historical Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan, 239-57. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Martindale, Charles. 1976. "Paradox, Hyperbole, and Literary Novelty in Lucan's De Bello Civili." BICS 23: 45-54.
Masters, Jamie. 1992. Poetry and Civil War in Lucan's Bellum Civile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Minyard, J. D. 1985. Lucretius and the Late Republic. Leiden: E. J. Brill, ( = Mnemosyne suppl. 90).
Moore, Timothy. 1989. Artistry and Ideology: Livy's Vocabulary of Virtue. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum ( = Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie, Bd. 192).
Morford, M. P. 0. 1967. "The Purpose of Lucan's Ninth Book." Latomus 26: 123-29.
Powell, Anton. 1992. "The Aeneid and the Embarrassments of Augustus." In Anton Pow- ell, ed., Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus, 141-74. Worcester: Bristol Classical Press.
Raaflaub, Kurt. 1974. Dignitatis Contentio. München: C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuch- handlung.
Richardson, Scott. 1990. The Homeric Narrator. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Roller, Matthew. 1994. Early Imperial Literature and the Crisis of Aristocratic Authority. Diss. U.C. Berkeley.
Saylor, Charles. 1986. "Wine, Blood, and Water: The Imagery of Lucan Pharsalia IV." Eranos 84: 149-56.
Seitz, Konrad. 1965. "Der pathetische Erzählstil Lucans." Hermes 93: 204-32.
Shackleton Bailey, D. R. 1982. Anthologia Latina. Vol. I. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner.
-. 1988. Lucanus De Bello Civili. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner.
Smith, R. E. 1976[1947]. "The Aristocratic Epoch in Latin Literature." In A. J. Dunston, ed., Essays on Roman Culture, 187-223. Toronto: A. M. Hakkert.
Syndikus, Hans Peter. 1958. Lucans Gedicht vom Burgerkrieg. München: "Uni"-Druck.
Wagenvoort, H. Hendrik. 1980[1924]. "Pietas." In Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion, 1-20. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Weinstock, Stefan. 1971. Divus Julius. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Woodcock, Eric C. 1959. A New Latin Syntax. London: Methuen.
Woodman, Anthony J. 1977. Velleius Paterculus: The Tiberian Narrative (2.94-131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
This content is only available via PDF.