The uneasy relation between violence and sanctity, between oppression and culture, underlies the dramatic action of Euripides' "Ion." Ion's monody ends with his threatening to shoot the birds who would soil the temple, or in other words, to protect purity through violence and death. The earlier part of his song also shows how the forces of exclusion and domination create sacredness. Ritual silence (euphemia), restricted access to the aduton, ritual chastity, even the irreversible transformation of natural gardens into laurel brooms and jugs of water all suggest how violence and domination create culture out of nature. The rape of Creusa epitomizes the relation between culture and violence. Her meeting with Ion reveals the psychological cost of social oppression and portrays the imperfect interdependence between moral feelings and legal institutions. Various dramatic devices portray the divisions in Creusa's mind that the injustice has created, devices including self-address, riddling speech, self-restraint, and silence. Her reluctance to pose her bold question to the oracle, and her displacement of the story onto the person of a raped "friend," show her resentful awareness that social institutions (such as the Delphic oracle) collaborate in the oppression. Ion's disillusionment (429-51) echoes her resentment (especially 253-54, 442-43) more theoretically. Together their comments show how moral rules and legal institutions, though fundamentally based on personal feelings such as shame and indignation, enact these feelings only imperfectly; the resulting dissonance in turn leads to further indignation and moral reflection. Finally, the allusions to fifth-century politics in Ion's speech on Athenian politics (585-647) and elsewhere suggest that democracy itself depends on political domination and imperialism.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
W. Burkert repeatedly speaks of the central importance of fear and horror in religion (1985:54,272)
2
C. Whitman 1974:75-76.
3
J. M. Redfield (1975:162)
4
J. P. Gould 1973:93 n. lOOa.
5
Eur. Ion 1174-75
W. Burkert 1985:62, 76.
Eur. Phaeth. 58
J. Diggle 1970:93 ad loc.
M. S. Ruipdrez 1953:16-17
W. Burkert 1985:149 n. 55
A. S. Owen 1939:144
A. P. Burnett 1970:133
6
J. O. de G. Hanson 1975:34-35.
7
Moral. 378D
A. P. Burnett 1970:33
8
A. S. Owen 1939:xxvii n. 6.
9
A. S. Owen 1939:79 ad loc.
10
Androm. 166
Hypsip. fr. l.ii.17
Hec. 363
Phaethon 54-56
R. A. S. Seaford 1984:101
Cycl. 29.
J. Vogt 1975:23.
12
H. van Herwerden 1875:90 on 153.
U. v. Wilamowitz 1926:93 on 153
Whitman's oxymoron, in calling Ion "almost pathetically happy" (1974:75)
13
Diod. Sic. 16.26
Plut. Numa 9
Moral. 438C
L. R. Famell 1898:iv.188
R. Parker 1983:93
15
G. Nagy 1979:180
P. E. Easterling 1989:113.
16
Pind. Pae. 8.58-59
Pausan. 10.5.9- 13
C. Sourvinou-Inwood 1991:192-94, 205-206
17
Hermogenes [?] Progymn. 7 p. 41 Walz
B. Knox 1979:259
B. Seidensticker 1982:219
18
R. Parker 1983:33 n. 5, 74
19
K. V. Hartigan 1991:70
20
Wilamowitz 1926:116 on 638
Delphi (245-46)
21
A. Gavrilov (1994:92-112)
22
S. A. Barlow 1971:48
24
Delphi (Horn. H. Apollo 300-304, 356-74)
Callim. Hymn 4.249-55
Eur. IT 1102-1105
F. I. Zeitlin (1989:157)
Moral. 385C
25
N. Loraux 1993:233 n. 231
26
B. Knox 1979:260.
28
Xuthus (524)
B. Seidensticker 1982:227
29
A. P. Burnett (1970:37)
K. V. Hartigan (1991:70)
Wilamowitz (1926:93 on 158)
A. S. Owen (1939:80 ad loc.)
30
H. Apollo 51-60, 281-85, 528-37
J. S. Clay 1989:45, 85, 93-94
31
D. J. Mastronarde 1975:166-67
B. Goff 1988:47
Eumen. 1-19
Pind. fr. 55 Snell, Eur. IT 1245-83
C. Sourvinou-Inwood 1991:227
32
L. Gernet 1981:256 n. 31
260 n. 42
266 n. 99
D. T. Steiner 1995:202-204
33
Med. 1299-1300
34
B. Seidensticker 1982:238
N. Loraux 1993:190-91, 201, 223
35
Aesch. Choeph. 249
Soph. Antig. 531
Eur. Hec. 1181
36
D. Wiles 1991:95, 104, 175
PI. Phdo. 1 17B (= Philostr. Vita Apoll. 1.12)
Eur. Med. 188
Eur. Supp. 322
Aristoph. Frogs 804
Callim. fr. 194.101
37
Hes. Theog. 827
Hom. Iliad 6.182
Eur. Ion 203
Hom. Il. 1.104
Xen. HG 7.5.12
Diod. Sic. 3.37.9
Heliodor. 3.8
RE 3.100 s.v. Basilisk
38
P. Chantraine 1968:264 s.v.
Hom. Il. 22.95
Etym. Magn. 286.7.
39
N. Loraux 1993:218 n. 152.
40
Eur. Troad. 1173-74
Soph. Ajax 728, 1031
Trach. 1103
Aristoph. Acharn. 320
Eur. Troad. 1121
41
Hom. H. Dem. 35
42
N. Loraux 1993:218 n. 154
Eur. Erechth. fr. 65.16-21
Ion 281-82
N. Loraux 1993:218
N. S. Rabinowitz 1993:203
43
A. P. Burnett 1971:123.
Solon 23
R. A. S. Seaford 1990:160
G. Sissa 1990:87
44
N. Loraux 1993:230 n. 214.
R. E. Wycherly 1978:177 n. 9
N. Loraux 1993:220 n. 163.
Andria 725
Donatus ad lo.
B. Knox 1979:251, 270
46
F. I. Zeitlin 1989:149.
47
W. Biehl 1979:64
49
N. Loraux 1993:196 nn. 54-55.
J. Diggle 1981
A. S. Owen 1939.
W. Biehl 1979
Phoen. 360, 1418
Ion 1370
Orest. 1181
Phaeth. 265
50
Carmelus 1743-53
W. Biehl 1979
51
Eur. Hec. 1250-51
52
D. J. Mastronarde 1975:173 n. 16
53
B. Seidensticker (1982:236-40)
54
Herodot. 3.80.5
Eur. Supp. 452-55
Erechth. fr. 362 N2
55
D. L. Cairns 1993:307-308
56
(Eur. Androm. 53, 1001, 1107-1108)
Androm. 1092-99
Pausan. 10.7.1
Strabo 9.3.9
57
N. Loraux (1993:196 n. 54)
58
K. V. Hartigan 1991:74.
59
C. Wolff 1965:184
P. T. Stevens 1976:41 n. 107.
60
Plut. Pericles 37.
61
B. Seidensticker 1982:236.
62
U. v. Wilamowitz 1926:104 on 417.
63
B. Knox 1979:267
B. Seidensticker 1982:229
A. W. Saxonhouse 1986:271
N. Loraux 1993:207
64
C. Wolff 1965:175.
65
B. Seidensticker (1982:229)
66
Soph. OC 562-68
Eur. Hcld. 329-30.
Aeschin. 3.154
67
Pausanias 9.39
Athen. 14.614a, RE 2.7.1.691 s.v. Trophonios
Thinkery (Clouds 507-508).
70
R. Goossens 1962:491.
71
A. M. Devine and L. D. Stephens 1981:48.
Thuc. 6.105, 7.18
Sicily (7.8-10).
Deceleia (7.19)
72
G. B. Walsh 1978:314.
73
G. B. Walsh 1978:310-12.
74
N. Loraux calls her "a kind of war captive" (1993:203).
75
R. A. S. Seaford 1990:159-60.
Xen. HG 2.3.15
Thuc. 8.5
76
N. Loraux 1993:206-207.
77
Hom. Il. 2.199, 265-66
W. G. Thalmann 1988:10-13
P. E. Easterling 1989:110
Pind. Olymp. 7.28
Soph. OT 811
Eur. Androm. 588
HF 254
IA 311
78
Pl. Laws 701A-B
Arist. Polit. 6.1318b36-37.
79
PI. Rep. 563A-C, [Xen.]
Ath. Pol. 1.10
Arist. Polit. 6.1319b29-30
80
A. P. Burnett 1970:71 on 644
J. O. de G. Hanson 1975:37
81
Eur. Alcest. 953
Hipp. 1098, 1179-80.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Barlow, Shirley A. 1971. The Imagery of Euripides: A Study in the Dramatic Use of Pictorial Language. London: Methuen.
Biehl, Werner, ed. 1979. Euripides: Ion. Leipzig: Teubner.
Burkert, Walter. 1985, 1977. Greek Religion. Trans. J. Raffan, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Burnett, Anne P. 1962. "Human Resistance and Divine Persuasion in Euripides' Ion." CP 57.89-103.
Burnett, Anne P., trans. 1970. Ion by Euripides. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Burnett, Anne P. 1971. Catastrophe Survived: Euripides' Plays of Mixed Reversal. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Cairns, Douglas L. 1993. Aidos: The Psychology and Ethics of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greek Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Chantraine, P. 1968. Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Grecque. Paris: Klinck- sieck.
Clay, Jenny S. 1989. The Politics of Olympus. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Devine, A. M., and Laurence D. Stephens. 1981. "A New Aspect of the Evolution of the Trimeter in Euripides." TAPA 111.43-64.
Diggle, James. 1970. Euripides: Phaethon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Diggle, James, ed. 1981. Euripidis Fabulae. Tomus II. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Easterling, P. E. 1989. "Agamemnon's skêptron in the Iliad." In MacKenzie, M. M., and C. Roueche, eds., Images of Authority: Papers Presented to Joyce Reynolds on the Occasion of her Seventieth Birthday. Cambridge Philological Society Supp. 16.104-21. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Farnell, Lewis R. 1896-1909. The Cults of the Greek States. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gavrilov, Alexander. 1994. "Die delphischen Vogel im euripideischen Prolog (Eur. Ion 154-183)." Hyperboreus 1.92-112.
Gernet, Louis. 1981, 1968. The Anthropology of Ancient Greece. Trans. J. Hamilton and B. Nagy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Goff, Barbara. 1988. "Euripides' Ion 1132-65: The Tent." PCPhS 34.42-54.
Goossens, Roger. 1962. Euripide et Athènes. Brussels.
Gould, John P. 1973. "Hiketeia." JHS 93.74-103.
Hanson, J. O. de Graft. 1975. "Euripides Ion: Tragic Awakening and Disillusionment." Museum Africum 4.27-42.
Hartigan, Karelisa V. 1991. Ambiguity and Self-deception: The Apollo and Artemis Plays of Euripides. Studien zur klassischen Philologie 50. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
Herwerden, H. van. 1875. Euripidou Ion. Utrecht: Kemink.
Janko, Richard. 1992. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. IV: Books 13-16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knox, Bernard. 1979. Word and Action: Essays on the Ancient Theater. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Loraux, Nicole. 1993, 1984. The Children of Athena: Athenian Ideas about Citizen- ship and the Division Between the Sexes. Trans. C. Levine. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mastronarde, Donald J. 1975. "Iconography and Imagery in Euripides' Ion." CSCA 8.163-76.
Nagy, Gregory. 1979. The Best of the Achaians: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Owen, A. S. 1939. Euripides: Ion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Parker, Robert. 1983. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rabinowitz, Nancy S. 1993. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Redfield, James M. 1975. Nature and Culture in the Iliad: The Tragedy of Hector. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ruipérez, Martín S. 1953. "Etymologica: [Unrepresented Characters]." Emerita 21.14-17.
Saxonhouse, Arlene W. 1986. "Myths and the Origins of Cities: Reflections on the Autochthony Theme in Euripides' Ion." In Euben, J. P., ed., Greek Tragedy and Political Theory, 252-73. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Seaford, Richard A. S. 1984. Euripides Cyclops. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Seaford, Richard A. S. 1990. "The Structural Problems of Marriage in Euripides." In Powell, Anton, ed., Euripides, Women and Sexuality, 151-76. London: Routledge.
Seidensticker, Bernd. 1982. Palintonos Harmonia: Studien zu komischen Elementen in der griechischen Tragödie. Hypomnemata 72. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
Sissa, Giulia. 1990, 1987. Greek Virginity. Trans. A. Goldhammer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Steiner, Deborah T. 1995. "Stoning and Sight: A Structural Equivalence in Greek Mythology." ClAnt 14.193-211.
Stevens, Phillip T. 1976. Colloquial Expressions in Euripides. Hermes Einzelschriften 38. Wiesbaden: Steiner.
Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane. 1991. 'Reading' Greek Culture: Texts and Images, Rituals and Myths. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Taplin, Oliver. 1978. Greek Tragedy in Action. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Thalmann, W. G. 1988. "Thersites: Comedy, Scapegoats, and Heroic Ideology in the Iliad." TAPA 118.1-28.
Walsh, George B. 1978. "The Rhetoric of Birthright and Race in Euripides' Ion." Hermes 106.301-15.
Whitman, Cedric H. 1974. Euripides and the Full Circle of Myth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, U. von. 1926. Ion des Euripides. Berlin: Weidmann.
Wiles, David. 1991. The Masks of Menander: Sign and Meaning in Greek and Roman Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Winnington-Ingram, R. P. 1969. "Euripides: Poiêtês Sophos." Arethusa 2.127-42.
Wolff, Christian. 1965. "The Design and Myth in Euripides' Ion." HSCP 69.169-94.
Wycherly, Richard E. 1978. The Stones of Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Vogt, Joseph. 1975, 1972. Ancient Slavery and the Ideal of Man. Trans. T. Wiedemann. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Zeitlin, Froma I. 1989. "Mysteries of Identity and Designs of the Self in Euripides' Ion." PCPhS 35.144-97.
This content is only available via PDF.