Julius Caesar's "Bellum Ciuile" writes Caesar-articulates a particular construction of its subject: Caesar. The essay shows how writing in the civil war wins and loses the war, and how the writing of the Civil War exploits this throughout its course. The initial suppression of Caesar's letter to the senate in 49 BCE creates a lack which the rest of the text is to supply, and a structure of injustice inflicted on Caesar by villainous manipulation of communiqués. The narrative presents Caesar's withheld claims over and again, in an ever-lengthening set of dramatized formulations and vindications, both in the form of his own behaviour and in its contrast with his enemies'. The many and various roles of writing in the civil war are examined, from orders and despatches to the propagandist war of words, and it is shown how the conflict is moralized through polarity between the letters sent by the two sides. Caesar presents himself as the last proconsular conqueror of the republic, playing the patriotic general from Gaul to Alexandria, where the "Bellum Ciuile" gives out-in time for this the first writer and mythographer of the Roman Empire to hide his hero's overthrow of the political order. It is argued that Caesar runs Bellum Gallicum and "Bellum Ciuile" together to make a seamless continuum, as a vital strategy for occluding, denying, and displacing civil war from the triumphant procession across a welcoming Roman world he offers in the "Bellum Ciuile".

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
2
Collins (1972) 957
Richter 166-79
H. Oppermann, "Aufbau. Anfang des Bellum Civile," in Rasmussen 138
3
Raditsa 450f
4
Ibid. 448
5
Pascucci 519f
6
A. Hitler, Der Hitler-Prozess, in A. Bullock, Hitler, A Study in Tyranny (Harmondsworth, 1962) 117
8
Carter 28
M. Gelzer, Caesar Politician and Statesman (Oxford, 1969) 190 n. 5
Hirtius' b.G. 8
Brunt 18
Raditsa 439
Richter 175
9
Carter 153
10
Barwick 17f
11
Glotta 58 (1980) 103-119, at 112
12
LaPenna 194
13
Eden 115f
14
Suet. Div. lul. 29.2
Appian Bell. Ciu. 2.32.128
Dio 41.1.3f
F. Kraner, F. Hofmann, H. Meusel, H. Oppermann, C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii De Bello Ciuli [Berlin, 195912] 12f
15
Collins (1972) 957
docet, wrote Caesar, 32.2
16
LaPenna 196-98
Barwick 47-70
Suet. Iul. 86
17
R. Hodge and G. Kress, Language as Ideology (London, 19932) 162-64
18
Collins (1972) 961f
Pharsalus (3.83)
19
Collins (1972) 945f
20
Plin Nat. Hist. 7.91
Rambaud 23
21
Pascucci 517-19
22
W. W. Batstone, "Etsi: A Tendentious Hypotaxis in Caesar's Plain Style," AJPh 111 (1990) 348-60
23
A. Haury, "Ce brave Varron ... (César, Ciu., II, 17-21)," in Mélanges d'archéologie, d'épigraphie et d'histoire offerts à Jérome Carcopino (Paris, 1966) 507-513
LaPenna 194
Eden 116
24
Collins (1972) 954
Perrotta 20f
LaPenna 193f
25
Eden 108
27
Raditsa 434
28
J. D. Wilson, "Ben Jonson and 'Julius Caesar,'" in P. Ure, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar: A Selection of Critical Essays (London, 1969) 241-52, at 245
29
S. Sebag Montefiore, King's Parade (Harmondsworth, 1992) 67
30
E. Wright, Psychoanalytic Criticism: Theory in Practice (London, 1984) 66f., 113, 114-16
J. Henderson, "Becoming a Heroine (IST): Penelope's Ovid," LCM 11 (1986) 7-10, 21-24, 37-40, 67-70, 81-85, 114-20, on epistoliterarity.
32
Raditsa 439f
33
J. Tatum, Xenophon's Imperial Fiction: On the Education of Cyrus (Princeton, 1989) 208
34
Contrast Collins (1959) 117
Mutschler 198f
35
Suet. Diu. lul. 79.2
36
Rambaud 339
Collins (1972) 953
37
F. Ahl, Lucan: An Introduction (Cornell, 1976) 307
R. M. Ogilvie, "Caesar," in E. J. Kenney and W. V. Clausen, eds., The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Vol. II (Cambridge, 1982) 281-85, at 284f
Barwick 93-106
J. M. Carter, Julius Caesar, The Civil War Book III (Warminster, 1993) 233
38
J. Masters, Poetry and Civil War in Lucan's "Bellum Civile" (Cambridge, 1992) 216-59
39
Marin 206-214, esp. 213
40
J. L. Borges, Selected Poems 1923-1967 (Harmondsworth, 1962) 54
43
Corfinium (1.21.4f., 19.5)
Brundisium (25.5)
Rambaud 248-50, "Travaux et Flottes"
44
E. Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Republic (London, 1985) 122
G. L. Hendrickson, "The De Analogia of Julius Caesar: Its Occasion, Nature, and Date, with additional Fragments," CPh 1 (1906) 97-120
W. A. Oldfather and G. Bloom, "Caesar's Grammatical Theories and his own Practise," CJ 22 (1926-1927) 584-602
P. Sinclair, "Political Declensions in Latin Grammar and Oratory, 55 BCE-CE 39," in A. J. Boyle, ed., Roman Literature and Ideology: Essays for J. P. Sullivan (Victoria, 1995 = Ramus 24.1) 92-109, at 93.
45
Eden 86
ibid. 97
Pascucci 493, 501
J. J. Schlicher, "The Development of Caesar's Narrative Style," CPh 31 (1936) 212-24
H. C. Gotoff, "Towards a Practical Criticism of Caesar's Prose Style," ICS 9 (1984) 1- 18
M. F. Williams, "Caesar's Bibracte Narrative and the Aims of Caesarian Style," ICS 10 (1985) 215-26
N. J. deWitt, "The Non-Political Nature of Caesar's Commentaries," TAPA 73 (1942) 341-52
Perrotta 29
46
R. R. Dyer, "Rhetoric and Intention in Cicero's Pro Marcello," JRS 80 (1990) 17-30
47
Bérard esp. 93
48
H. Fränkel, "Über philologische Interpretation am Beispiel von Caesars Gallischem Krieg," Rasmussen, 165-88, esp. 182ff
49
Perrotta 27
Bérard 94
F. E. Adcock, Caesar as a Man of Letters (Cambridge, 1956) 76
Berlin, 1933
"Probleme und heutiger Stand der Caesarforschung," in Rasmussen 485-522, at 497
50
Collins (1972) 932f., 942
51
Rambaud 196f
M. Rambaud, "Essai sur le style du Bellum Ciuile," IL 14 (1962) 60-69, 108-113, at 67f
52
G. McCulloch, The Game of the Name (Oxford, 1989) 267
53
D. Huff, Score: The Strategy of Taking Tests (Harmondsworth, 1964) 110
54
Catull. 11.10
55
Raditsa 449
56
S. Petrey, Speech Acts and Literary Theory (London, 1990) 95f., 98f.
S. Cavell, Disowning Knowledge: In Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge, 1987) 143-77
Raditsa 439
59
W. W. Batstone, "A Narrative Gestalt and the Force of Caesar's Style," Mnemosyne 44 (1991) 126-36, esp. 128f.
Rambaud 254f.
60
M. McDonnell, "Borrowing to Bribe Soldiers: Caesar's De Bello Civili 1.39,"
Hermes 118(1990) 55-66.
61
H. Oppermann, "Curio-Miles Caesaris?"Hermes 105 (1977) 351-68, at 352
Gärtner 122-25.
62
Rowe 404
Mutschler 222 and n. 1
63
V. Rosenberger, Bella et Expeditiones. Die antike Terminologie der Kriege Roms [Stuttgart, 1992] 150-60, esp. 158
Rambaud 66
64
LaPenna 198-200
65
D. Battaglia, ed., Rhetorics of Self-Making (Berkeley, 1995)
66
W. C. Sellar and R. J. Yeatman, 1066 and All That (Harmondsworth, 1960) 9.
67
H. P. Cooke, In the Days of our Youth (London, 1925) 12
C. Stray, "The Smell of Latin Grammar: Contrary Imaginings in English Classrooms," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester 76 (1994) 201-220, at 204
E. R. Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages [London, 1953] 51
E. Owen, "Caesar in American Schools Prior to 1860," CJ 31 [1935-1936] 212-22.
R. T. Lakoff, Talking Power: The Politics of Language (New York, 1990) 239-53
68
Marin 39-88, "The King's Narrative, or How to Write History."
69
F. Herbert, Dune Messiah (London, 1969) 47: "Words of Muad'dib by Princess Irulan."
70
G. Willans and R. Searle, Down with Skool! (London, 1973) 47.
71
Brunt 13, citing Cic. Ad Fam. 8.14.3
72
H. Fugier, "Un thème de la propagande Césarienne dans le De Bello Ciuili: César, Maître du Temps," Bulletin de la Faculté de Lettres à Strasbourg 47 (1968) 127-33.
73
Brunt 21, 22
74
Collins (1959) 120f.
(1972) 958f.
75
Collins (1972) 933f.
Gaul, esp. BG 4.11.5.
Plin. Nat. Hist. 7.92
78
Caesar, 3.59
Domitius, 80.7
82
Gartner 127.
83
Perrotta 14F.
86
LaPenna 200 and Collins (1972) 960f.
87
J. Derrida, "Dialanguages," in Points (Stanford, 1995) 144

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