Dido's Epicureanism is as complex and problematic as Aeneas' much-discussed Stoicism. This paper argues that Virgil's allusions to Lucretius form a consistent pattern: Dido embodies the ironies inherent in Epicureanism as practiced by Virgil's contemporaries, mouthing apparently Lucretian sentiments even as she comes to personify a Lucretian exemplum malum. Yet her fall is largely due to the pervasive supernatural machinery of the Aeneid-divine intervention which Lucretius declares impossible. In Book 1, Virgil employs Lucretian allusions in distinctly un-Lucretian contexts to suggest in Dido a disjunction between words and actions. There is a Lucretian flavor in the description of her initial equanimity, in her injunction to the Trojans to put away fear and cares, and in the scientific rationalism of the song of Iopas. These passages contrast with the sensualism evident in her lavish court and her growing passion for Aeneas-excesses of luxury and love described in words that Lucretius used to condemn them. In Book 4, Virgil more directly refutes Lucretian doctrine about the mortality of the soul and the indifference of the gods. The sarcastic questions of Anna and Iarbas are implicitly answered in such a way as to refute the Epicurean stance. Dido points to the gods' indifference a few seconds before she invokes their aid, and her final submission to Fate occurs in words that Lucretius used to deny its existence. Finally, the departure of Dido's soul recalls Lucretius' atoms of "heat and wind," in ironic contrast to the immortality of her Shade.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Williams (1983) 213.
2
Kenney (1971) 3-4
3
Buchheit 1972
Farrell (1991) 169
Hardie (1986) 233
4
Kenney (1971) 4
Pease (1927) 248
5
Aeneas' "Stoicism"
Bowra (1933-1934) 366-76
Edwards (1960) 162-65
Galinsky (1988) 323-40
Pease (1935) 36-37
p. 36 n. 285 for bibliography
Hahn (1931) 19
Feeney (1991) 172-73
Pease (1927) 246-47
the song of Iopas (1.742-46)
Dido's sarcastic Epicurean outburst (4.379-80)
shade (4.34)
6
Segal (1990) 8
Hardie (1986) 165
senses (1.699-700)
7
Michels (1944) 148
Farrington (1963) 87
Virgil's "polemical inversion"
Ferguson (1990) 2266
8
Johnson (1976) 152-53
9
Aen. 1.94-96, Od. 5.305-306
Harrison (1992) 124
10
Virgil's secludite
Virgil's res dura et regni novitas
inde hominum pecudumque genus vitaeque volantum, 6.728
Norden [1957] ad 723ff
Catto [1989] 60-69
Austin (1977) ad 6.728
lopas, 1.742-43
11
Momigliano (1941) 151-53
Castner (1988) xix
Ferguson (1990) 2262
Nichols (1976) 45
12
Castner (1988) xix
Momigliano (1941) 153
13
Summers (1995) 33.
14
Castner (1988) xvii.
15
Gale (1994) 1 11
Odyssey 7."
17
Nisbet and Hubbard (1978) 254
DRN 2
18
Segal (1971) 342: "Luxury and Dido's love are virtually inseparable."
19
Lucretius passage (4.1068-69)
Dido passage (1.712-14)
Putnam (1965) 225-26
Clausen (1987) 163
TLL s.v.
Munro on Lucr. 1.312
DRN 3.521-22
20
Thomas (1988) ad loc.
Georgics 3 (452-566)
"the twin calamities of Book 3" (ad 452).
21
Segal (1971) 348
22
Knauer (1964) 168
Little (1992) 16
Hardie (1986) 58
i, p. 143 Georgii
Brown (1990) 318-21
Georgics passage (2.475-82)
23
Geo. 475-94
Merrill (1935) 258
Georgics 2.490-92
Klingner (1967) 271
Buchheit (1972) 71
Dyson (1994) 12
Conington (1881)
Page (1898)
Williams (1979)
Mynors (1990) ad loc.
Ross (1987) 228-31
Thomas (1988) ad loc.
24
Knauer (1964) 168
Hardie (1986) 62
Farrell (1991) 258-60
25
Hardie (1986) 62.
26
Clausen (1987) 31.
27
errores, 755
errantem, 756
tot adire labores, 1.10
Richter [1977] 104
Pöschl (1962) 151-54
28
Eichholz (1968) 108
Hannah (1993) 128-29
Segal (1971) 344
Kinsey (1979) 79
Brown (1990) 321-22
29
Brown (1990) 333-34.
30
Snyder (1980) 114
Rhetorica ad Herennium, "nam amari iucundum sit, si curetur ne quid insit amari" (4.14.20)
Virgil's Eclogues
Brown (1987) ad DRN 4.1134.
31
Snyder (1980) 115.
32
Ahl (1985) 17-63.
33
Odyssey 6-8
Argonautica 3
Aurora (1.751)
Diomedes (1.752)
Il. 5.323-24
Lyne [1987] 138-39
Servius ad 1.741
Greeks (1.754)
Aeneas (1.754-56)
34
Nadeau (1970) 341
35
Austin (1955) ad 4.379f
Edwards (1960) 158-59
Pease (1935) 324-25
Ferguson (1990) 2266
36
Austin (1955) ad 382
37
Austin (1955) ad 4.614
38
Tupet (1970) 242-55
duBois (1976)

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