The paper aims at reconstructing the influence of Simonides on a contiguous series of Horatian poems ("Odes" 4.6-9). The starting point is provided by the discovery of new Simonidean fragments published by Peter Parsons and by Martin West in 1992. But the research casts a wider net, including the influence of Theocritus on Horace-and of Simonides on Theoocritus-and the simultaneous and competing presence of Pindar and Simonides in late Horatian lyric. The influence of Simonides is seen in specific textual pointers-e.g., a simile on the death of Achilles in 4.6, the idea of caducity in 4.7-as well as in the composite role-model of Simonides, the immortalizing poet, the flexible praise-singer. Some wider questions are put in perspective: (1) As for Horace's approach to the poetic tradition, the Roman poet is able to glance across whole genealogies of models, without necessarily making a choice, but making the invocation of several predecessors, already linked in a tradition, relevant to his new text. "Odes" 4.7, for instance, features a dialogue of Horace, Homer, Mimnermus and Simonides. The oscillation in modern criticism between an "Alexandrian" and a "classicizing" Horace could be better explained by constructing a complex model of intertextuality: "Pindar" plus "the Pindar in Callimachus"; "Simonides" plus "the Simonides in Theocritus." (2) The dominating influence of Pindar in Book IV could be a part of a richer picture of influence, now difficult to reconstruct since all we have is the four Pindaric books of epinicia, not necessarily the only (and not even the most) widely read choral lyric in antiquity. (3) The reuse of early-classical praise poetry includes references to social constructs and cultural models of patronage, gift exchange, and poetic addressee: they are important in Augustan lyric precisely because they are felt as distant and impossible to recreate, and become a part of Horace's deft and often ironical negotiations with the problem of being a lyric poet in Augustan Rome.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Davis 1991
2
Richard Hunter (1996)
3
infra, §6.
6
Fraenkel 1964.
7
Barchiesi 1995, 36 n. 9
Garner 1993, 159
Gantz 1994, 625-28.
8
Fraenkel 1957, 410 n. 1
Pascucci 1982, 160-65
Nem. 8.38
9
Boedeker's arguments (1995, 225)
11
Barchiesi 1996.
12
Horace's self-fashioning had been, in 3.30.12
13
Ross 1975, 148-49.
Nisbet-Hubbard 1970, p. 3
1978 on 2.16.38
Miller 1994, 158-60.
14
Feeney 1993, 55.
Pind. Nem. 7.11-16
Ol. 10.91-96
Theocr. 16.
Pind. Nem. 4.6-8
Wilson 1980, 102-103
15
Harrison 1990
White (1993, 231)
Hor. ep. 1.2 and 18
White 1993, 230
Mayer 1994, 8-9.
infra, §11.
16
White 1993
17
Pasquali 1964, 189
18
Quinn 1980, 308 ad loc.
19
Treu 1963, 288.
20
Theocritus (17.16-22)
Od. 11.602-603
Harrison 1994, 143-44
Pind. Nem. 1.72-75
PMG 585.1
Oates 1932, 102
Burzacchini 1977
21
Merkelbach 1952, 313
Parsons 1992b, 11.
Theocritus 16
22
Harrison 1990
23
Pyth. 3.112-15
24
infra, §6.
25
Suerbaum 1968, 330-31
Prop. 3.1.25-34
Solmsen 1948, 108-109
Fedeli 1980 ad loc.
A.A. 3.403-14
Hor. 4.9.28
c. 3.30
c. 4.8 and 4.9
26
A.P. 9.571
Barbantani 1993, 7-9
Stat. silv. 4.7.5
27
A.P. 9.184.1
Barbantani 1993, 9
28
Gow 1952, 315
Bell 1978, 78 n. 191
Griffiths 1979, 32 n. 61
Theocr. 16
30
Heinze 1960, 248 with n. 40
Conte 1992
Putnam 1986, 154.
31
Steiner 1993.
32
Suerbaum 1968, 198-221
33
A.A. 3.409-10
34
Hor. c. 4.14.1ff.
Suerbaum 1968, 241-44
Putnam 1986, 302-303
35
Hardie 1993, 135.
36
Skutsch's apparatus and note ad loc.
37
Silius 13.793-97
Nem. 7.12ff.
38
Gray 1986.
39
Bell 1978.
41
Kurke 1991, 59-61.
42
Bing 1988, 68-69.
Page 1981, 208-209
43
Woodman 1974, 118
Horace 3.30.1-5.
Pasquali 1964, 740.
c. 2.20
Nisbet-Hubbard 1978, 336-37.
met. 15.234-36
fr. eleg. 13 W.
44
Carson 1992.
Cic. Arch. 30.
45
Suerbaum 1968, 328-29
Molyneux 1992, 185-86
47
A. Corso's notes in the Italian edition of Pliny the Elder, Turin, 1988, V, 367-71.
48
Ghedini 1994, 306
Olympian 2
Appendix infra.
49
Harrison 1990, 34-35
50
Prop. 4.6.85.
51
On Nem. 9.48-53
Ol. 7.1-11
Isthm. 6.1-9
Steiner 1993, 175.
52
Kurke 1991, 156.
53
Kurke 1991, 94-95.
54
c. 4.2.19-20
55
Bell 1978, 33.
56
Bell 1978, 36-37.
57
Harrison 1990, 35 n. 34
Putnam 1986, 149
infra
Theocritus 16
patron's Kunstverstand
Maehler 1982, 86-87.
58
Quinn ad loc.
Kiessling-Heinze ad loc.
Harrison 1990, 36 n. 37.
59
Theocritus 16
infra.
60
Suerbaum 1968, 182 with n. 545
Nisbet-Hubbard 1970, 359 (on 1.32); 254 (on 1.21); 302 (on 1.26).
61
Barchiesi 1993, 156
Epistles 2.1 and 2.2
62
Quinn 1980 ad loc.
63
Harrison 1990, 35 with n. 32.
64
Harrison 1990, 35
Putnam 1986, 149
65
Kurke 1991, 246.
66
Cic. Tusc. 1.34
Arch. 28
67
Theocritus 16
Austin 1967, 11 with n. 19
Gutzwiller 1983, 220-22.
68
Hor. ep. 2.1
ep. 2.2
Barchiesi 1993, 156
69
supra, §1.
70
Treu 1963, 284.
71
Molyneux 1993, 224-33.
72
Kühn 1978, 15-20.
73
Parsons 1992b, 11-12
West 1993, 6
Hunter 1993, 14 n. 13
74
Griffiths 1979, 37 n. 68.
75
infra, nn. 104
120.
77
Pindar Nem. 8.25.
78
Pind. Nem. 7.12-22
Theocritus 16.51
supra, n. 37.
79
Treu 1963, 286-87
Gutzwiller 1983, 232-33.
Griffiths 1979, 31.
80
Bell 1978, 76-77.
82
Dover 1971, 222
Austin 1967, 7-9
Horace 4.9
Winsor Sage 1994
83
Herodotus' version (9.1 and 58).
84
Hunter 1996.
85
Stehle 1996
Boedeker 1995
Aloni 1994, 11-16.
86
Privitera 1982, 118
Carey 1981, 184.
87
Wilamowitz 1913, 320.
88
Nagy 1990, 192.
89
Vell. 2.97
note 42-43
Winsor Sage 1994
90
Most 1994.
91
Oates 1932, 1-55
Burzacchini 1977, 39-40
n. 20.
92
Bell 1978, 44-46.
93
Putnam 1986, 170-73.
94
c. 2.2
A.R 16.40
Nisbet-Hubbard 1978, 33 and 35
Nisbet 1995, 32
Bell 1978, 67
Bell, op. cit.
95
Stinton 1990, 374
Fraenkel and Quinn that IV 7
Quinn 1980, 313
96
Nisbet-Hubbard ad 1.9.13.
97
Sider 1996.
98
West 1993, 11
Carmina 4.10
99
Davis 1990, 157.
Plin. nat. 12.40
Ov. Fast. 5.317.
Austin on Verg. Aen. 6.309ff.
Sider 1996, Appendix.
100
Cataudella 1928, 231
Oates 1932, 80-81.
Iliad 6
101
Allen 1994, 42
Griffith 1975, 77
Horace's almum /quae rapit hora diem (4.7.7-8)
Allen, op. cit.
c. 1.12.16 etc.
Griffith 1975, 86 n. 34
102
Horatian lyric, 2.16.17
Nisbet- Hubbard ad loc.
Sim. 520.1ff.
Davis 1990, 155-60
PMG 542.22-23
West 1993b
PMG 615.
103
fr. 85 Bergk = 29 Diehl to the spuria
Babut 1971, 23 n. 36
Pellizer 1976
Pellizer 1976
104
fr. eleg. 20.14 and 19.1-2 W, note PMG 59
Plut. vit. et poes. Hom. 2.1 p. 7
Page, PMG 652 (v)
Sider 1996
PMG 542 (Pittakos); 579 (Hesiod); 581 (Cleobulus), and West ap.
Parsons 1992, 43.
Rösler 1990, 233
Oates 1932, 85-86.
Mulroy 1992, 207-208
105
Bona 1988, 5-6
Segal, 1976, 71-76.
106
Griffith 1975.
107
Cataudella noted (1928, 230).
108
Davis 1991, 136-37
Putnam 1986, 55-56
Aitia 1.32 Pf.
hymn. Apoll. 110
Oates 1932, 98-100
Waszink 1979, 117 n. 18
Wilson 1980, 102 n. 17
Pind. Nem. 3.76-79
Hubbard 1995, 221
Führer 1992, 256f.
Nagy 1994
109
Slater 1972, 234.
110
Lefkowitz 1981, 49 ff.
Kurke 1991, passim.
112
Oswyn Murray's study ofHoratian symposia (1985)
113
ep. 1.19.34
Bryson 1984, 154
114
Pasquali 1964, 684-87.
115
La Penna 1963, 144
Lyne 1995, 211-12.
116
Scodel 1982
Slatkin 1991, 121
Simonides' Threnoi
PMG 523.
117
Sider 1996
Horace's Ars
118
Suerbaum 1968, 228-29
120
Supra, n. 104.
121
Idyll 18
Hunter 1996.
122
PMG 510
Molyneux 1971
Slater 1972
Molyneux 1992, 124-26.
PMG 509.
Hor. c. 2.13 and 3.4.25-28.
123
Supra, §4.
Young 1993
124
Pindar's Olympian 2
125
Harrison 1990, 41
Lyne 1995, 212
126
Parallels include c. 4.2.23-24
127
Nisbet-Hubbard 1978, 214-15.
128
Call. fr. 190 Pf.
Verg. Aen. 7.765-80.
c. 2.18.35.
129
Lucr. 3.1025
ann. 137 Sk.
130
Quinn 1980, 312
Aen. 12.794-95
131
Solmsen 1982.
132
Nisetich 1988
133
Suerbaum 1968, 221
nn. 648
649
134
Köhnken 1975
Privitera 1982, xxix-xxxii, 118-20, 230-32
Hubbard 1987, 8 with n. 11
Cole 1993, 84-85 with n. 25.
135
Harrison 1990, 41
136
Parsons 1992, 46-49
West 1993, 12-13
Hunter 1993
Mace 1996.
137
Frost 1980, 158 with n. 45.
138
Molyneux 1992, 118-45.
PMG 511 with Campbell 1991, 379 n. 3
West 1993b, 208
139
c. 3.2.25-26
PMG 582
Plut. reg. et imp. apophth. 207 C
Oates 1932, 31
PMG 524

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