Atalanta, devotee of Artemis and defiant of men and marriage, was a popular figure in ancient literature and art. Although scholars have thoroughly investigated the literary evidence concerning Atalanta, the material record has received less scrutiny. This article explores the written and visual evidence, primarily vase painting, of three Atalanta myths: the Calydonian boar hunt, her wrestling match with Peleus, and Atalanta's footrace, in the context of rites of passage in ancient Greece. The three myths can be read as male and female rites of passage: the hunt, athletics, and a combination of prenuptial footrace and initiatory hunt. Atalanta plays both male and female initiatory roles in each myth: Atalanta is not only a girl facing marriage, but she is also a female hunter and female ephebe. She is the embodiment of ambiguity and liminality. Atalanta's status as outsider and as paradoxical female is sometimes expressed visually by her appearance as Amazon or maenad or a combination of the two. Her blending of gender roles in myth offers insight into Greek ideas of social roles, gender constructs, and male perceptions of femininity. Erotic aspects of the myths of the Calydonian boar hunt and the footrace, and possibly also her wrestling match with Peleus, emphasize Atalanta as the object of male desire. Atalanta challenges men in a man's world and therefore presents a threat, but she is erotically charged and subject to male influence and dominance.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
TrGF 9 F 2
S. Radt, TrGF, vol. 3 [Aeschylus], 136-37
R. Kassel and C. Austin, PCG
2
schol. at Ar., Frogs 1238
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150
Apol- lod. 3.9.2
Prop. 1.10
Theog. 2.1288-91
Arist., Historica 640.44 in V. Rose, Aristotelis: Fragmenta (Stuttgart, 1967)
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769.73
Call. 3.215-16
Hyg., Fab. 80, 99.
schol. at Ar., Frogs 1238
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769
FGrH frag. 162
Anth. Pal. 7.413 (Antipater of Sidon)
Ael., VH 13.1.1-2, 13.1.113.
Eur., Supp. 887-89.
Sophocles, OC 1320-22
Ovid, Ars Am- atoria 2.185
3
R. Merkelbach and M. L. West, eds., Fragmenta Hesiodea (Oxford, 1967) frags. 72, 76
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150
schol. at Ar., Frogs 1238
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769
Trypho frag. 2(84)
Diod. Sic. 4.41.289, 4.65.4, 4.65.7
Ov., Met. 10.609, 660
Hdn., [Unrepresented Characters] 2.895.1-18
Hyg., Fab. 173, 185, 244
Opp., Cyn. 2.26-27
Lib., Progymnasmata 34
Serv., In Verg. Aen. 3.113.7- 9
Joannes Malalas, Chronographia 165.10-11, 189.3
schol. at Horn., Il. 2.497b
schol. at Theoc. 3.40-42b.
St. Byz., Ethnika 596.1-2, 13
Eust., Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem 1.404.21
4
Eur., Ph. 1162
Mastronarde ad loc.
5
Escher, RE 2, p. 1893, s.v. Atalanta.
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769.
Marcel Detienne, Dionysos Slain, trans. M. Muellner and L. Muellner (Baltimore and London, 1979) 30-31.
6
Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frag. 72
Eur., Ph. 151-153
schol. ad loc.
Call. 3.215-217
Apollod. 3.9.2
Ael., VH 13.1.19-20
schol. at Aesch., Th. 532d-f, 532i-k
schol. at Hom., Il. 2.764.
7
Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frag. 73
Theog. 2.1290-94
Apollod. 3.9.2
Ov., Met. 10.564-69
Ael., VH 13.1.17-18.
8
Xen., Cyn. 13.18
Call. 3.215-17
Hdn., De prosodia catholica 3, 1.82.20 and 2.37.11
schol. at Theoc. 3.42d
Clem. Al., Strom. 4.121.1-2.
Apollodorus 3.9.2
Pl., Rep. 620b
Call. 3.222-24
Proc., In R. 2.317.11-13, 2.320.2-3.
9
Proc., In R. 2.317.11-13
Eust., Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem 2.88.13, 4.240.20-21.
10
Susan Woodford, LIMC 6 (Zürich and Munich, 1992) 414-35, s.v. Meleagros
John Boardman, LIMC 2 (Zürich and Munich, 1984) 940-50, s.v. Atalanta
11
David D. Leitao, "The Perils of Leukippos: Initiatory Transvestism and Male Gender Ideology in the Ekdusia at Phaistos," ClAnt 14 (1995) 130-63
Robert Garland, The Greek Way of Life (Ithaca, 1990) 163, 177-78
Pierre Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter, trans. A. Szegedy-Maszak (Baltimore and London, 1986) 116, 139, 140
Nancy Felson Rubin and William Merritt Sale, "Meleager and Odysseus: A Structural and Cultural Study of the Greek Hunting-Maturation Myth," Arethusa 16 (1983) 141.
12
Jean-Pierre Vernant, Mortals and Immortals (Princeton, 1991) 225, 231, 238-43; Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 114, 116-17
Page DuBois, Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-History of the Great Chain of Being (Ann Arbor, 1982) 69
Claude Calame, Les choeurs de jeunes filles en Grèce archaïque 1 (Rome, 1977) 36, 258-60
Pauline Schmitt, "Athéna Apatouria et la ceinture: Les aspects féminins des Apatouries à Athènes," AnnalesESC 32 (1977) 1065-67.
Leitao (supra, n. 11) 138
Ernest J. Ament, "Aspects of Androgyny in Classical Greece," in Woman's Power, Man's Game: Essays on Classical Antiquity in Honor of Joy K. King (Wauconda, IL, 1993) 15-16
13
Pl., Laws 823e-824b
Athen. 18a.
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 117-19
Pierre Vidal-Naquet, "Retour au chasseur noir," in Mélanges Pierre Livêque 2 (Paris, 1989) 387-411.
Aristophanes, Lysistrata 781-96
14
Pierre Brulé, "Des femmes au miroir masculin," Mélanges Pierre Lévêque 2 (Paris, 1989) 57
Schmitt (supra, n. 12) 1067.
15
Fritz Graf, Greek Mythology: An Introduction, trans. T. Marier (Baltimore and London, 1993) 64-68
Bryan Hainsworth, The Iliad: A Commentary 3, Books 9-12 (Cambridge, 1993) 131-32
Jan Bremmer, "La plasticité du mythe: Méeléagre dans la poésie homérique," in Claude Calame, ed., Métamorphoses du mythe en grèce antique (Paris, 1988) 37-56
J. Keck, Studien zur Rezeption fremder Einflüsse in der chalkidischen Keramik (Frankfurt, 1988) 153
Th. Kakridis, Homeric Researches (New York and London, 1987, reprint of 1949 edition) 11, 18-41
Jennifer R. March, The Creative Poet, BICS supp. 49 (1987) 29, 30-42
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 137-71
"Meleager and the Motifemic Analysis of Myth: A Response," Arethusa 17 (1984) 211-23
16
Stesich., Suotherai (PMG 221)
Phry., Pleuroniae as attested in Paus. 10.31.4
Bac- chy. 5.71-154
Aesch., Ch. 603-12
Stefan Radt, ed., Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta 4 [Göttingen, 1977] frags. 401-406
schol. at Ar., Frogs 1238
Au- gustus Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorumfragmenta supplementum [Hildesheim, 1964] frags. 515-39
Apollod. 1.8.2-3
Accius frags. 428-50
Diod. Sic. 4.34.2-5
Ov., Met. 8.270-525.
Anthony A. Barrett, "P. Oxy. 2359 and Stesichorus' [Unrepresented Characters]," CP 67 (1972) 118
"taking up their positions at the nets" (p. 118).
Pl., Laws 823e- 824b.
P.Oxy. 2359
his Games for Pelias.
Richard Garner, "Stesichorus' Althaia: P. Oxy. LVII.3876.frr.1-36," ZPE 100 (1994) 29 n. 11
Hugh Lloyd-Jones, "Review of E. Lobel, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part XXIII (London, 1956)," CR 72 (1958) 17
Garner (supra) 26-38
17
Giampiera Arrigoni, "Atalanta e il cinghiale bianco," Scripta philologa 1 (1977) 9-47
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 414.
18
Merkelbach and West [supra, n. 3] frag. 25, lines 12-13
Bacchy. 5.71-154
Iliad 9.566ff.
Walter Burkert, Homo Necans, trans. P. Bing (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1983) 54
Pausanias 10.31.4
Gamer (supra, n. 16) 28, 32-33
March (supra, n. 15) 44-46
Maurice Croiset, "Sur les origines du récit relatif a Méléagre dans l'ode V de Bacchylide," in Mélanges Henri Weil (Paris, 1898) 73-80.
19
Aesch., Ch. 603-612
Apollod. 1.8.2-3
Accius frags. 428-450
Manilius, Astronomica 5.175-82
Paus. 10.31.4
Hyg., Fab. 174
schol. at Lucian 17.31, 30.1.17.
Diod. Sic. 4.34.2-5
Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.270-546
Joannes Malalas, Chronographia 165.13-14
schol. at Hom., Il. 9.543
Lucian 17.31.
Apollodorus 1.8.2-3
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 414
Radt (supra, n. 16).
Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.531-32
he (8.533-45)
Hyginus, Fabulae 174
Callimachus 3.219-21
infra, n. 26
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 156-57
(supra, n. 15) 215-17
Glenn W. Most, "Of Motifemes and Megatexts: Comment on Rubin/Sale and Segal," Arethusa 16 (1983) 207.
20
Apollodorus 3.9.2
21
Albert Henrichs, "Three Approaches to Greek Mythography," in Jan Bremmer, ed., Interpretations of Greek Mythology (London and Sydney, 1987) 252.
22
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 414, 430
Most (supra, n. 19) 204, 205
Louis Séchan, Études sur la tragédie grecque2 (Paris, 1967) 423, 426
Denys Page, "A New Fragment of a Greek Tragedy," CQ 31 (1937) 179.
Contra: Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 155
(supra, n. 15) 214-15
Arrigoni (supra, n. 17) 21.
Page (supra) 179-80
Séchan (supra) 423-33
A. D. Trendall and T. B. L. Webster, Illustrations of Greek Drama (London, 1971) 98
M. Cropp and G. Fick, Resolutions and Chronology in Euripides: The Fragmentary Tragedies, BICS Suppl. 43 (1985) 84-85.
23
Hippomenes: Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frags. 72
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150.
Melanion: Hellan. in FGrH frags. 99, 162
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150, 151.
John Boardman, LIMC 5 (Zürich and Munich, 1990) 465-66, s.v. Hippomenes.
John Boardman, LIMC 6 (Zürich and Munich, 1992) 404-405, s.v. Meilanion.
24
Dodwell pyxis now in Munich (327)
Heldensage3 314, C3
D. A. Amyx, Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period [Berkeley, 1988] 205-206, 284, 565, pl. 86
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 416, 430
Keck (supra, n. 15) 154-55
Dietrich von Bothmer, "An Attic Black-Figured Dinos," BMFA 44 (1948) 44
Georg Daltrop, Die kalydonische Jagd in derAntike (Hamburg and Berlin, 1966) 18.
Contra: Alain Schnapp, "Images et programme: Les figurations archaïques de la chasse au sanglier," RA 2 (1979) 200, 204
Karl Schefold, Gods and Heroes in Late Archaic Greek Art, trans. A. Griffiths (Cambridge, 1992) 197
Elizabeth Langridge, "The Boar Hunt in Corinthian Pottery," AJA 95 (1991) 323
Keck (supra, n. 15) 154
Konrad Schauenburg, Jagddarstellungen in der griechischen Vasenmalerei (Hamburg and Berlin, 1969) 12
P. de la Coste-Messelière, Au Musée de Delphes (Paris, 1936) 131-33.
25
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 430.
Keck (supra, n. 15) 154
March (supra, n. 15) 37-38
Antonio Minto, Il Vaso François (Florence, 1960) 164.
26
Heldensage3 310, A3.
Fritz Eichler, Die Reliefs des Heroon von Gjölbaschi-Trysa (Vienna, 1950)
Paul Jacobsthal, Die melischen Reliefs (Berlin, 1931) 32-33 no. 27, 78-80 no. 103, Tafs. 15, 60
Andrew Stewart, Skopas of Paros (Park Ridge, N. J., 1977) 14-21, 60-62, 133
De la Coste-Messeliére (supra, n. 24) 120-27.
Pausanias 3.18.15, 8.46.1
Elinor Bevan, Representations of Animals in Sanctuaries of Artemis and Other Olympia Deities 1 (Oxford, 1986) 77
27
François Lissarrague, L'autre guerrier: Archers, peltastes, cavaliers dans l'imagerie attique (Paris and Rome, 1990) 125-49
H. A. Shapiro, "Ama- zons, Thracians, and Scythians," GRBS 24 (1983) 111
M. F. Vos, Scythian Archers in Archaic Attic Vase-Painting (Groningen, 1963) 40-52.
28
ABV 87, 18
Addenda2 24
Heldensage3 310, A4.
29
Heldensage3 311, A13.
Shapiro (supra, n. 27) 106
Dietrich von Bothmer, Amazons in Greek Art (Oxford, 1957) 6-115.
30
ABV 76, 1
Paralipomena 29
Addenda2 21
Heldensage3310, A1.
Schnapp (supra, n. 24) 197
31
Keck (supra, n. 15) 155-57
Fred S. Kleiner, "The Kalydonian Hunt: A Reconstruction of a Painting from the Circle of Polygnotos," AntK 15 (1972) 7-14
Daltrop (supra, n. 24) 15-25
Von Bothmer (supra, n. 24) 42-48
Minto (supra, n. 25) 36-40.
Schnapp (supra, n. 24) 195-218
32
ABV 163, 2
Paralipomena 68
Addenda2 47
Heldensage3 311, A14.
33
Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 417K
34
Getty 86.AE.154 (Bareiss 248).
Andrew J. Clark, CVA: United States 25
J. Paul Getty Museum 2 (Malibu, 1990) 39-41, pls. 82-84, 89:1.
35
Heldensage3 314, C2
Amyx (supra, n. 24) 163.
36
Ann Steiner, "The Meaning of Repetition: Visual Redun- dancy on Archaic Athenian Vases," JdI 108 (1993) 197-219.
Schnapp (supra, n. 24) 213-14, 218.
37
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 430
Kleiner (supra, n. 31) 7-19.
38
ARV2 577, 52
Heldensage3 314, B1.
Kleiner (supra, n. 31).
39
Heldensage3 311, B2
Woodford (supra, n. 10) 417 no. 25
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 941 no. 9 (illustration).
40
O. W. Reinmuth, The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century B.C. (Leiden, 1971).
41
John J. Winkler, "The Ephebes' Song: Tragoidia and Polis," in J. J. Winkler and F. I. Zeitlin, eds., Nothing to Do With Dionysos? (Princeton, 1990) 31
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 97-99, 106
0. W. Reinmuth, "The Genesis of the Athenian Ephebia," TAPA 83 (1952) 34-50, esp. nn. 3, 5
H. Jeanmaire, Couroi et Courètes (Lille, 1939) 307-308 n. 1.
P. Siewert, "The Ephebic Oath in Fifth-Century Athens," JHS 97 (1977) 102-111
Vidal-Naquet (supra) 97
42
Winkler (supra, n. 41) 31
infra, n. 43.
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 98-99, 108-109.
43
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 98-99, 109-122
Schmitt (supra, n. 12) 1059-61.
Winkler (supra, n. 41) 33-37
"iconographic sign for ephebes" (35).
44
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 106-28.
45
Philostr., VS 2.550
Winkler (supra, n. 41) 35 n. 43
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 112, 116-17
P. G. Maxwell-Stuart, "Remarks on the Black Cloaks of the Ephebes," PCPS n. ser. 16 (1970) 113-16
P. Roussel, "Les chlamydes noires des éphèbes athéniens," REA 43 (1941) 163-65.
Lissarrague (supra, n. 27) 206
46
Staatliche Mus. 5783
Jacobsthal (supra, n. 26).
Larissa Bonfante, "Nudity as a Costume in Classical Art," AJA 93 (1989) 545, 551-57.
47
Michael Taylor, The Tyrant Slayers: The Heroic Image in Fifth Century B.C. Athenian Art and Politics2 (Salem, N. H., 1991)
Andrew Stewart, Greek Sculpture: An Exploration (New Haven and London, 1990) 135-36, pls. 227-31
John Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period (London, 1985) 24-25, figs. 3-9
Martin Robertson, A History of Greek Art (Cambridge, 1975) 185-87
Sture Brunnsåker, The Tyrant-Slayers of Kritios and Nesiotes (Stockholm, 1971)
Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (Princeton, 1970) 79-83, figs. 115-17.
48
Taylor (supra, n. 47) 36-76.
49
Taylor (supra, n. 47) 36-70.
50
Garner (supra, n. 16) 34
Alain Schnapp in Yves Bonnefoy, ed., Greek and Egyptian Mythologies (Chicago and London, 1992) 121, s.v. Heroes and Myths of Hunting in Ancient Greece
Bremmer (supra, n. 15) 2, 48-49.
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 118
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 137-71
(supra, n. 15) 213-14.
Contra: Most (supra, n. 19) 209-11.
Christine E. Morris, "In Pursuit of the White Tusked Boar: Aspects of Hunting in Mycenaean Society," in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist, eds., Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm, 1990) 151-52
Robert B. Koehl, "The Chieftain Cup and a Minoan Rite
of Passage," JHS 106 (1986) 99-110
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 143
51
Thomas F. Scanlon, "Race or Chase at the Arkteia of Attica?" Nikephoros 3 (1990) 103
52
Bremmer (supra, n. 15) 42, 48
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 137-71
Contra: Most (supra, n. 19) 199-218.
53
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 145, 146, 147.
54
Froma I. Zeitlin, "Cultic Models of the Female: Rites of Dionysos and Demeter," Arethusa 15 (1982) 129-30.
55
Lorna Hardwick, "Ancient Amazons—Heroes, Outsiders, or Women?" Greece & Rome 37 (1990) 28-29
William Blake Tyrrell, Amazons: A Study in Athenian Mythmaking (Baltimore and London, 1984) 2
Greek weapons, 49-50
Shapiro (supra, n. 27) 108-109.
56
John Boardman, "Atalanta," The Art Institute of Chicago Centennial Lectures, Museum Studies 10 (Chicago, 1983) 7.
57
Heldensage3 311, C1.
58
Paralipomena 42
Addenda2 28
Heldensage3 311, A16.
59
Roger Just, Women in Athenian Law and Life (London and New York, 1989) 243
Mary R. Lefkowitz, Women in Greek Myth (Baltimore, 1986) 22
Tyrrell (supra, n. 55) 55-57.
60
Just (supra, n. 59) 258-59
Zeitlin (supra, n. 54) 134-35.
61
Anne Ley, "Atalante—Von der Athletin zur Liebhaberin," Nikephoros 3 (1990) 35 n. 11
Just (supra, n. 59) 242
François Hartog, The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History, trans. J. Lloyd (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1988) 216-24
Tyrrell (supra, n. 55) 40-63.
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 32-33.
62
Just (supra, n. 59) 243
Tyrrell (supra, n. 55) 28
Lefkowitz (supra, n. 59) 19.
63
Just (supra, n. 59) 245, 249
DuBois (supra, n. 12) 38.
Hardwick (supra, n. 55) 33-34.
64
Hardwick (supra, n. 55) 18-21
Tyrrell (supra, n. 55) 6, 16.
65
François Lissarrague, "Figures of Women," in P. Schmitt Pantel, ed., A History of Women in the West 1 (London, 1992) 227-28
Hardwick (supra, n. 55) 29.
Josine H. Blok, The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth (Leiden, New York, and Cologne, 1995) 270-71, 407, 417
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11) 88.
66
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 154, 155.
Schefold (supra, n. 24) 185
67
Hartog (supra, n. 61) 217.
68
Hartog (supra, n. 61) 52-54.
69
Heldensage3 311, C4
J. M. Hemelrijk, Caeretan Hydriae (Mainz, 1984) 29-30 no. 15, pls. 9, 16, 67-69, 131, 145-46, 152, figs. 20, 55, 61, 68, 72.
infra, n. 100
Martin Robertson, A History of Greek Art (Cambridge, 1975) 139.
70
Schefold (supra, n. 24) 196
K. Friis Johansen, "Eine neue Caeretaner Hydria," Opuscula Rom 4 (1962) 71.
Hemelrijk (supra, n. 69) 30
"typical of some East Greek wares" (173).
71
Friis Johansen (supra, n. 70) 66.
72
Eur., Ph. 1108-1109
schol. at Eur., Ph. 1107.
73
ABV 23
Addenda2 7
Brommer, Heldensage3 310, A2
Boardman [supra, n. 10] 941 no. 1
Rome, Vatican 306
Brommer, Heldensage3 310, A3
Woodford [supra, n. 10] 416 no. 8
Bolligen, Switzerland, Blatter Collection
Addenda2 28
Paralipomena 42
Brommer, Heldensage3 311, A16
Boardman [supra, n. 10] 941 no. 5
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 34.212 (ABV 87, 18
Addenda2 24
Brommer, Heldensage3 310, A4
Woodford [supra, n. 10] 416 no. 12
74
Andrew Stewart, "Stesichoros and the François Vase," in W. G. Moon, ed., Ancient Greek Art and Iconography (Madison, 1983) 69.
75
ABV 39, 15
Stewart [supra, n. 74] 58-61, figs. 4.4a-4.4j
Sophilos, British Museum 1971.11.1-1
Stewart [supra, n. 74] 61
Lissarrague (supra, n. 65) 151
Akropolis 610 (ABV 82, 3)
Mary Zelia Pease, "The Pottery from the North Slope of the Acropolis," Hesperia 4 (1935) 215- 17
London, British Museum B197 by the Painter of Berlin 1686 of ca. 550 B.C.
Copenhagen, National Museum 9080 by the Sabouroff Painter of ca. 460 B.C.
John H. Oakley and Rebecca Sinos, The Wedding in Ancient Athens (Madison, 1993) 28, 34
London, British Museum 1920.12-21.1 (ARV2 1277, 23)
Lissarrague (supra, n. 65) 147-49
Ingrid Krauskopf, "Eine attisch schwarzfigurige Hydria in Heidelberg," AA (1977) 18 nos. 16-18 and 20, 20 nos. 23-24 and 28, 21, 22.
76
Stewart (supra, n. 74) 53-74.
77
Michael W. Haslam, "Kleitias, Stesichoros, and the Jar of Dionysos," TAPA 121 (1991) 45 and n. 32
Haslam writes "The notion that the krater was made as a wedding gift seems very attractive"
Jeffrey M. Hurwit, The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. (Ithaca and London, 1985) 226-27.
Contra: H. A. Shapiro, "Old and New Heroes," ClAnt 9 (1990) 140-42.
Haslam (supra) 35-40; G. Schaus, "Gold or Clay: Dionysos' Amphora on the Francois Vase," EchCl 30 (1986) 119-28
Dyfri Williams, "Sophilos in the British Museum," Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 1 (1983) 33
78
ARV2 1410, 14
Addenda2 374.
79
Alain Schnapp, "Eros the Hunter," A City of Images, trans. D. Lyons (Princeton, 1989) 82-86
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 48-49.
80
Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Cambridge, MA, 1989) 92
Gundel Koch- Harnack, Knabenliebe und liergeschenke: Ihre Bedeutung im päderastischen Erziehungssystem Athens (Berlin, 1983) 63
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 25, 49.
81
RVAp 2, 497 no. 44.
82
H. Alan Shapiro, "Greek 'Bobbins': A New Interpretation," AncW 11 (1985) 115-20
A. S. F. Gow, [Unrepresented Characters], Rhombus, Turbo," JHS 54 (1934) 3, 5.
Christopher A. Faraone, "The Wheel, the Whip and Other Implements of Torture: Erotic Magic in Pindar, Pythian 4.213-19," CJ 89 (1993) 1-19
Marcel Detienne, The Gardens of Adonis, trans. J. Lloyd (Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1977) xiii, 84-86.
83
ABV 23
Mary B. Moore and Mary Z. Pease Philippides, The Athenian Agora 23: Attic Black Figured Pottery (Princeton, 1986) 178-79 no. 610, pl. 58: 610.
84
Most (supra, n. 19) 204-205
Stewart (supra, n. 26).
85
Heldensage3 311, C3
Hemelrijk (supra, n. 69) 21-23, pls. 6-7, 15, 51-53, 128, 143-44, 151, 157
87
Vernant (supra, n. 12) 195-243.
88
Schnapp (supra, n. 79)
Froma I. Zeitlin, "The Power of Aphrodite: Eros and the Boundaries of the Self in the Hippolytus," in P. Burian, ed., Directions in Euripidean Criticism: A Collection of Essays (Durham, NC, 1985) 52-111
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 137-71
(supra, n. 15) 218
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 26-52.
schol. at Horn., Il. 9.527a.83.
89
RVAp 2, 533
Heldensage3 311, D1.
90
FGrH frag. 32.14
Diod. Sic. 4.41.289, 448.5
J. Martin, ed., Scholia in Aratum vetera (Stuttgart, 1974) 348.16.
Theoc. 1.124b.
Apollonius Rhodius 1.769-73
91
Judith M. Barringer, Divine Escorts: Nereids in Archaic and Classical Greek Art (Ann Arbor, 1995).
92
RVAp 1, 418 no. 19
Heldensage3 312, D2.
93
Henrichs (supra, n. 21) 252-53.
supra, n. 90.
94
Ley (supra, n. 61) 31-72
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 945-46 nos. 62-80.
Pausanias 3.19.6, 5.17.5-5.19.10
Lynn E. Roller, "Funeral Games in Greek Art," AJA 85 (1981) 107-19
95
Carl Roebuck, "Pottery from the North Slope of the Acropolis, 1937-1938," Hesperia 9 (1940) 146-47
Akropolis 590a
Roller (supra, n. 94) 110-11, pl. 20:4
96
F. Brommer, CVA: Deutschland 11, Schloss Fasanerie (Adolphseck) 1 (Munich, 1956) 11, pl. 10.
97
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 945 no. 66
98
A. D. Ure, JHS 75 (1955) 94
Ley (supra, n. 61) 46
99
ABV 509, 703
Addenda2 127.
100
Rubin and Sale (supra, n. 11) 157
(supra, n. 15) 217
Contra: Most (supra, n. 19) 207-208.
Robertson (supra, n. 69) 138.
101
Boardman (supra, n. 56) 10
102
Supra, n. 16.
Schefold (supra, n. 24) 195
103
ABV 65, 113
Addenda2 166.
104
ARV2 1039, 1679
Paralipomena 443.
105
John D. Beazley, "Some Inscriptions on Vases VIII," AJA 64 (1960) 219-25.
Roller (supra, n. 94) 112
Boardman (supra, n. 56) 12
106
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 946 no. 77
Jacobsthal (supra, n. 26) 61-62 no. 80, Taf. 41.
107
Jacobsthal (supra, n. 26) 108-109.
108
Giampiera Arrigoni, "Donne e sport nel mondo greco: Religione e società," in G. Arrigoni, ed., La donne in Grecia (Rome, 1985) 55-201.
109
Barringer (supra, n. 91) 69-94.
110
Barringer (supra, n. 91) 69-94.
Ley (supra, n. 61) 60
Arrigoni (supra, n. 108) 87.
111
Lefkowitz (supra, n. 59) 44
Arrigoni (supra, n. 108) 87, 113.
Ley (supra, n. 61) 55
112
ARV2 1512, 23
Addenda2 384.
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 949
(supra, n. 56) 16.
Roller (supra, n. 94) 112
113
Bettina Jeske and Claudia Stein in "Eine frührotfigurige Hydria des Psiax," Hefte des archäologischen Seminars der Universität Bern 8 (1982) 5-20
114
Supra, n. 96.
115
Boardman (supra, n. 10) 947 nos. 85-89.
116
ARV2 797, 137.
117
Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frags. 72-76.
Jacques Schwartz, Pseudo- Hesiodeia (Paris, 1960) 361-66
118
Hippomenes: Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frag. 74
Euripides, according to Apol- lod. 3.9.2
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150
Theoc. 3.40-41
Ov., Met. 10.575-680
Hyg., Fab. 185
Lib., Progymnasmata 33, 34
Serv., In Verg. Aen. 3.113.14-22
Nonn., D. 48.180-182
Eust., Commen- tarii ad Homeri Iliadem 4.814.13-14
Myth. Vat. 1.39
schol. at Hom., Il. 23.683bl.6-7
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769-773
schol. at Theoc. 3.40-42b-d, 2.120b.
Melanion: Apollod. 3.9.2.
Xenophon, Cyn. 1.7
schol. at Eur., Ph. 150
schol. at Ap. Rhod. 1.769.
119
Nonn., D. 48.180-82
Nonn., D. 12.87-89.
120
Merkelbach and West (supra, n. 3) frag. 76
Theoc. 3.40-41
Apollod. 3.9.2
Ov., Met. 10.638-80
Hyg., Fab. 185
schol. at Theoc. 3.40-42b
Eust., Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem 4.331.9-10.
121
Scholia to Ar., Lys. 785
Ovid, Ars Amatoria 2.185-92
Propertius 1.9-16
122
ARV2 1152, 7
Paralipomena 457
Addenda2 336.
Emil Hübner, Die antiken Bildwerke in Madrid (Berlin, 1862) 264 no. 632.
123
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 73-120
Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood, "Ancient Rites and Moder Constructs: On the Brauronian Bears Again," BICS 37 (1990) 1-14
Ken Dowden, Death and the Maiden (London, 1989) 9-42
Richard Hamilton, "Alkman and the Athenian Arkteia," Hesperia 58 (1989) 449-72
Paula Perlman, "Acting the She-Bear for Artemis," Arethusa 22 (1989) 111-33
Lilly Kahil, "Le sanctuaire de Brauron et la religion grecque," CRAI (1988) 799- 813
Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood, Studies in Girls' Transitions: Aspects of the Arkteia and Age Representation in Attic Iconography (Athens, 1988); Pierre Brulé, Lafille d'Athènes (Paris, 1987) 179-283
Arrigoni (supra, n. 108) 102-104
Susan Guettel Cole, "The Social Function of Rituals of Maturation: The Koureion and the Arkteia," ZPE 55 (1984) 233-44
Lilly Kahil, "Mythological Repertoire of Brauron," in W. Moon, ed., Ancient Greek Art and Iconography (Madison, 1983) 237-44
Hugh Lloyd-Jones, "Artemis and Iphigeneia," JHS 103 (1983) 87-102
Paula Perlman, "Plato's Laws 833C-834D and the Bears of Brauron," GRBS 24 (1983) 115-30
Lilly Kahil, "Le 'craterisque' d'Artémis et le Brauronion de l'Acropole," Hesperia 50 (1981) 253-63
"La déesse Artémis: Mythologie et iconographie," in Greece and Italy in the Classical World, Acta of the XI International Congress of Classical Archaeology, London, 3-9 September, 1978 (London, 1979) 73-87
"L'Artémis de Brauron: Rites et mystére," AntK 20 (1977) 86-98
"Artémis attique," CRAI (1976) 126-30
T. C. W. Stinton, "Iphigeneia and the Bears of Brauron," CQ 26 (1976) 11-13
Christiane Sourvinou, "Aristophanes' Lysistrata, 641-47," CQ 21 (1971) 339-42
Angelo Brelich, Paides e Parthenoi (Rome, 1969) 240-79
Lilly Kahil, "Autour de l'Artémis attique," AntK 8 (1965) 20-33.
Nancy Serwint, "The Female Athletic Costume at the Heraia and Prenuptial Initiation Rites," AJA 97 (1993) 403-22
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 100-101
Arrigoni (supra, n. 108) 95-101
T. Scanlon, "The Footrace of the Heraia at Olympia," AncW 9 (1984) 77-90.
124
Ley (supra, n. 61) 36
Louis Gernet, The Anthropology ofAncient Greece, trans. J. Hamilton, S. J. and B. Nagy (Baltimore and London, 1981) 24-25
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 33-34.
125
Ley (supra, n. 61) 36
Detienne (supra, n. 5) xi, 34.
126
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 31.
127
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 105, 106
Brulé (supra, n. 123) 58, 59.
Ov., Met. 10.613-15
128
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 41.
Ar., Lys. 781-96.
129
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 11)106-28.
130
Detienne (supra, n. 5)
131
Detienne (supra, n. 5) xi, 33, 34.
132
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 73-74.
133
Claude Bérard, "La chasseresse traquée," in M. Schmidt, ed., Kanon: Festschrift Ernst Berger (Basel, 1988) 282
134
Boardman (supra, n. 56) 4.
Diana Buitron-Oliver, "Stories from the Trojan Cycle in the Work of Douris," in J. B. Carter and S. P. Morris, eds., The Ages of Homer: A Tribute to Emily Townsend Vermeule (Austin, 1995) 438-40
Bérard (supra, n. 133) 280
Boardman (supra, n. 56) 3-18
Cedric G. Boulter, CVA: United States 15, The Cleveland Museum of Art (Princeton, 1971) 21-23, pls. 32-34, 35:1.
135
Boulter (supra, n. 134) 21.
136
Boardman (supra, n. 56) 18.
137
Barringer (supra, n. 91) 95-109
Buitron-Oliver (supra, n. 134) 440.
138
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 41-44.
139
Gernet (supra, n. 124) 24
A. R. Littlewood, "The Symbolism of the Apple in Greek and Roman Literature," HSCP 72 (1968) 147-81
Jürgen Trumpf, "Kydonische Äpfel," Hermes 88 (1960) 14-22.
140
Call. frags. 67-75
Ov., Her. 20.
Littlewood (supra, n. 139), esp. 149-59, 180-81
Trumpf (supra, n. 139).
141
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 43-44.
Marylin Arthur, "Politics and Pomegranates: An Interpretation of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter," Arethusa 10 (1977) 7-47.
142
Christopher A. Faraone, "Aphrodite's [Unrepresented Characters] and Apples for Atalanta," Phoenix 45 (1990) 219-43.
143
Faraone (supra, n. 142) 238.
144
Arrigoni (supra, n. 108) 70 and passim.
145
Richard Seaford, "Eleventh Ode of Bacchylides: Hera, Artemis, and the Absence of Dionysos," JHS 108 (1988) 119
Calame (supra, n. 12) 189.
146
Jean-Pierre Vernant, Introduction to Detienne (supra, n. 82) xv.
147
Schol. at Aesch., Th. 532.9-13, 533.1-4, 535.4-5
G. Dindorf, Aeschylus: Tragoediae superstites et deperditarum fragmenta 3 (Hildesheim, 1962)
Soph., OC 1320
schol. ad loc
Eur., Ph. 150
schol. ad loc, 1153, Supp. 887-89
Hecat. in FGrH frag. 32
Apollod. 3.9.2
Diod. Sic. 4.65.4, 4.65.7.
148
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 106.
149
Ov., Met. 10.686-95
Hyg., Fab. 185
Serv., In Verg. Aen. 3.113.22-26
Myth. Vat. 1.39.
150
schol. at Theoc. 3.40-42b.
Nonnos, Dionysiaca 12.87-89
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 103 n. 137.
151
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 45-46.
Euripides, Medea 1339-43
Page duBois, "On the Invention of Hierarchy," Arethusa 15 (1982) 208.
duBois (supra, n. 12) 112ff.
152
Detienne (supra, n. 5) xii, 27, 44-46.
Scanlon (supra, n. 51) 103
153
Detienne (supra, n. 5) 46
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