This paper seeks to ascertain the ways in which Adonis and his ritual lament were used by Classical men and women in their constructions of their own gender and the other. The evidence from Classical Athens turns out to originate mainly among men and thus outside the cult, from which men were excluded; the myths and descriptions of the rite that we possess say more about men's attitudes toward themselves and toward women than about the celebrants' motives. Nevertheless, women's attitudes toward Adonis may be inferred from the social circumstances in which the Attic cult arose. Care must be taken to distinguish the different interests represented in the extant evidence (e.g., male from female and Greek from non-Greek). Marcel Detienne's influential structuralist interpretation of the cult has rightly dissociated Attic Adonis from similar Near Eastern figures and contextualized him in Classical Athenian society. Detienne's interpretation, however, has limitations, since it treats Adonis only as a representative of the unmanly and unproductive, and tends to ignore the different uses to which men and women could put Adonis and his rite. For example, the proverb "more fruitless than the gardens of Adonis" originated in male discourse, and does not necessarily reflect women's views. In comedy Adonis and the Adonia become a foil for masculine values; not only does this tell us nothing of what the celebrants thought, but awareness of the many strategies of self-definition available to Athenian men compels us to entertain other constructions of Adonis in other discursive milieus. Finally, although little testimony remains from the woman's perspective, we may speculate that in democratic Athens, restrictions on traditional female mourning rituals and the polarization of the sexes would have made such a private cult as the Adonia attractive to women.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Winkler 1990:188-209
Stehle 1990
Holst-Warhaft 1992:99-103.
Detienne 1994
2
Burkert 1979:105-108.
3
Atallah 1966:310- 18
Burkert 1979:192 n. 3.
W. W. Baudissin, Adonis und Esmun (Leipzig, 1911)
4
W. Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution (Harvard, 1992) 41-87
S. Morris, Daidalos (Princeton, 1992) 115.
5
IG II2 337
SIG4 280
P. Foucart, BCH 3 (1879) 514-15
M. N. Tod, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1948) 250-51.
6
L-S i.180-320 ([Diogen.]
L-S ii. 1-52 ([Diogen.], Epit.
7
FGrH 137 F 3
Lucian, De dea Syr. 6-7.
8
Paus. 2.20.6
E. L. Hicks, JHS 9 [1888] 342
9
J. Servais in S. Ribichini, ed., Adonis: Relazioni del colloquio in Roma (Roma, 1984) 83-93
Plato, Phdr. 276B
Theophr., H.P. 6.7.3.
Aristoph., Lys. 389
Schol. ad loc.
Weill 1966:669 n. 1), 395
Men., Sam. 45.
Burkert 1979:192 n. 8.
10
Plut., Alcib. 18.5
Nic. 13.7
Alciphron 4.14.8
Hesych. s.v. [Unrepresented Characters].
Photius, Lex. s.v. '[Unrepresented Characters]
11
Theophr., H.P. 6.7.3
Schol. Theoc. 15.113
Zenobius 1.49 (L-S i.19)
Alciphron 4.14.8
Hesych. and the Suda s.v. '[Unrepresented Characters].
LIMC pl. 47
Atallah 1966:225-26.
12
Plato, Phdr. 276B
13
Aristoph., Lys. 393, 396
Plut., Alcib. 18.5
Nic. 13.7
Pherecrates, fr. 181 PCG.
14
Aristoph., Lys. 392-96
Diphilus, fr. 42 PCG
Men., Sam. 41-46
Alciphron 4.14.
N. Weill, BCH 94 (1970) 591-93
Winkler 1990:191.
Diphilus, fr. 49 PCG
15
Atallah 1966:177-93
Weill 1966:664-74
LIMC pl. 45-46, 48-49
C. M. Edwards, Hesperia 53 (1984) 62-72
A. P. Zarkadas, Horos 7 (1989) 137-43
LIMC ii.2 s.v. Aphrodite pl. 210
16
Theoc. 3.48
Cornutus, Theol. gr. 28
[Orph.], H. 56
Origen, Sel. in Ezech. 9 (13.797 Migne)
Porphyry in Euseb., P.E. 3.11.9
Porph., Agalm. 7 Bidez
Sallustius, De deis 4.3
Amm. Marc. 19.1.2, 22.9.15
Macrob., Sat. 1.21.1-4
[Clem. Rom.], Hom. 6.9
Jo. Lyd., Mens. 4.64.
17
L. Deubner, Attische Feste (Berlin, 1932) 221.
M. Delcor, Syria 55 (1978) 371-94
Isaiah 17:10
Ezekiel 8:17
J. G. Griffiths, Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride ([Cardiff], 1970) 37.
N. Robertson, HThR 75 (1982) 348.
18
Od. 1701.45-50
Theoc. 15.133
Dioscorides, A.P. 5.53 and 193
Plut., De Is. 13
19
Penglase 1994:159-79.
20
The Golden Bough, pt. IV "Adonis Attis Osiris" (1st ed. London, 1913)
W. Mannhardt, Wald- und Feldkulte, vol. 2 (Berlin, 1877) 273-91.
H. Frankfort, The Problem of Similarity in Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Oxford, 1951)
C. Colpe in Alter Orient und altes Testament, vol. 1 (1969) 23-44.
21
Detienne 1994
Atallah 1966:325-27
22
D. E. Eichholz, CR 24 (1974) 234-35
G. Piccaluga, Maia 26 (1974) 38-39.
23
Winkler 1990:199-203.
24
Winkler 1990:199
Stehle 1990:93
25
1994:77-78
Roman Byblos and Alexandria (1994:134-45)
1994:143
26
C. Lévi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology, tr. C. Jacobson and B. G. Schoepf (New York, 1963) 217.
Lévi-Strauss himself reviews Detienne's interpretation in L'homme 12.4 (1972) 97-102.
27
Holst-Warhaft 1992:100
28
Burkert 1979:107
29
G. Nagy in T. J. Figueira and G. Nagy, eds., Theognis of Megara (Baltimore, 1985) 62.
Winkler 1990:192 "They were then deprived of water and allowed to turn brown and shrivel up"
Piccaluga 1977:47
Stehle 1990:92
Murray 1993:87.
30
Theophr., C.P. 1.12.2
Schol. Plato, Phdr. 276B
Epict. 4.8.36
Zenobius 1.49 (L-S i.l9)
[Diogen.] 1.14 (L-S i.183)
[Diogen.], Epit. 1.12 (L-S ii.3)
Plut., Mor. 560C
Greg. Naz., Carm. mor. 29.53 (37.888 Migne)
Julian, Symp. 329C-D
Stobaeus 2.6.2
Simplicius on Aristot., De caelo 269A9, Phys. 230A31
Suda s.vv. [Unrepresented Characters]
Photius, Lex. s.v. '[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters].
R. Rochette, RA 8 (1851) 97-123.
31
G. Pilitsis, Journal of Modem Greek Studies 3 (1985) 160-66
Burkert 1979:107.
A. Hiltebeitel and M. Biardeau in A.-M. Blondeau and K. Schipper, eds., Essais sur le rituel I (Louvain, 1988).
32
Weill 1966:390-91
Nic. 13.7
33
Hesych. and the Suda s.v. '[Unrepresented Characters].
H. Erbse, Untersuchungen zu den attizistischen Lexica (Berlin, 1950) 154
34
Detienne 1994:67-71
Winkler 1990:204.
Dioscorides, M.M. 2.136.1
Ruf. Eph., frr. 109 and 456 Ruelle
Oribasius, Eup. 2.8.
RE 12.368.
35
Mytilene, FGrH 125 F 5.
Nonnus, Dion. 41.155-57
Schol. Theoc. 15.100/101
Priapus (Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alex. 831
Schol. Ap. Rh. 1.932-33A).
Servius on Verg., Ecl. 10.18
36
Il. 3.380 and 5.318
37
Detienne 1994:63-67
Men., Sam. 47-50
38
R. L. Hunter, Eubulus: The Fragments (Cambridge, 1983) 104.
39
Hesych. s.v. [Unrepresented Characters]
40
M. Detienne, Dionysos mis à mort (Paris, 1977) 115
Detienne 1994:141-43.
Schol. Theoc. 5.92F
41
P. M. C. Forbes Irving, Metamorphosis in Greek Myths [Oxford, 1990] 129
W. F. Albright, History, Archeology, and Christian Humanism [New York, 1964] 172-73
42
G. von Lücken, Forschungen und Fortschritte 36 (1962) 243-45
Murray 1993:86.
43
[Hes.], fr. 139 M-W.
C. Tzavellas-Bonnet, EtCl 51 (1983) 3-11.
[Plut.], De fluv. 28.1.
44
M. L. West, The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women (Oxford, 1985) 149-50.
45
Panyassis, fr. 22A Davies.
Sir James Frazer's Loeb translation of [Apollod.], Bibl. (ii.85-87).
46
H. Lloyd-Jones, Gnomon 48 (1976) 504.
47
W. Burkert, Greek Religion, tr. J. Raffan (Harvard, 1985) 62
Detienne sees a mock harvesting of myrrh at the festival (1994:115-16)
n. 15 above.
48
St. Cyril of Alexandria, Comm. in Is. 2.3 (70.440 Migne)
Theodorus, SH 749
Ovid, Met. 10.465- 74
Hyginus, Fab. 58
Ant. Lib., Met. 34
Schol. Theoc. 1.109A
Schol. Opp., Hal. 3.403
49
T. Nöldeke, Hermes 5 (1871) 443-68.
50
Penglase 1994:179.
51
Theodorus, SH 749
Ovid, Met. 10
Schol. Theoc. 1.109A
Xenophon, FGrH 755
Il. 11.20
Antimachus, fr. 102 West
Plato Comicus, fr. 3 PCG
C. Baurain, BCH 104 (1980) 277-308.
53
Burkert 1979:110.
55
P. Herc. 243 col. v/vi 18
Panyassis fr. 22B Davies
V. J. Matthews, Panyassis of Halicarnassus (Leiden, 1974 = Mnemosyne Suppl. 33) 121
Ovid, Met. 10.519-28
Ant. Lib. 34.5
Verg., Aen. 5.72
Cyr. Alex. (n. 48 above)
Lycophron, Alex. 829.
56
C. Sourvinou-Inwood, JHS 98 (1978) 114-18
58
D. Daube, Collected Studies in Roman Law, vol. 2 (Frankfurt am Main, 1991) 1103.
59
Dover 1989:196-97
Koran 76.19
60
P. Lambrechts in Mélanges Isidore Lévy (Bruxelles, 1955) 207-40.
Theoc. 15.13644
Lucian, Dea syr. 6
R. de Vaux, Revue biblique 42 (1933) 31-56.
61
Winkler 1990:202-206
Stehle 1990
Stehle 1990:89.
62
Winkler 1990:204
Stehle 1990:100
63
Hellenistic Epitaph on Adonis
J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts3 [Princeton, 1969] 84
Theoc. 1.105-10
64
Winkler 1990:205-206.
65
"Sappho and the Crack of Dawn (fragment 58 L-P)," Journal of Homosexuality 20 (1990) 227-33.
Winkler 1990:204-205
Sappho, fr. 55 L-P.
66
Soph., O.T. 118
Eur., Hec. 696
Bion 1.14
67
Dioscorides, A.P. 7.407.7-8
Paus. 9.29.8.
J. Herington, Poetry into Drama (Berkeley, 1985) 56-57
M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford, 1992) 339-40
A. Lardinois, TAPA 124 (1994) 65-66.
68
Athenaeus, Deipn. 694A
69
Piccaluga 1977
N. F. Rubin and W. M. Sale, Arethusa 16 (1983) 137-71.
70
A. Schnapp, RA (1979) 195-218.
71
Burkert 1979:108.
Bion 1.7 and 41
Ovid, Am. 3.9.16
Met. 10.715
72
Piccaluga 1977.
73
Atallah 1966:72-73.
W. J. W. Koster, Philologus 80 (1924-1925) 357.
LIMC i.1 s.v. Adonis nos. 27-28
74
Burkert 1979:108.
Hdt. 1.34-45
Hermesianax, fr. 8 Powell
Plut., Sert. 1
Schol. Nicander, Alex. 8.
75
Lycophron, Alex. 831
Ptolemy Chennus in Photius, Bibl. 146B
[Apoll.], Bibl. 3.14.4 < Schol. Eur., Hi. 1420?
Servius on Verg., Ecl. 10.18
Nonnus, Dion. 42.320-21
Nonnus, Dion. 46.209-11 and often
Atallah 1966:53-56.
76
LIMC pl. 38-39f.
J. Aymard, Essai sur les chasses romaines (Paris, 1951) 520-22.
77
RE 9.24-25.
FGrH 566 F 91
LIMC v. 1.550
78
Leitao 1993:86-141
M. Bloch, Prey into Hunter (Cambridge, 1992).
P. Vidal-Naquet discusses adolescent hunting in ancient Greece as a preliminary inversion of adult warfare: The Black Hunter (Baltimore, 1986)
PCPS 212 (1986) 126-44.
79
V. Turner, The Forest of Symbols (Ithaca, 1967) 96
Bloch (n. 78 above)
C. Gallini, SMSR 34 (1963) 61-90
80
Detienne 1994:101-106, 135-36.
81
above, n. 30.
Jo. Chrys., Epist. ad Ephes. 4.12 [62.91 Migne]
82
his Melanippe (= Eur., fr. 514 Nauck).
Theophr., C.P. 1.12.2
83
O. Ballériaux in J. Servais et al., eds., Stemmata (Liège, 1987) 161-64.
Stobaeus 2.6.1
85
Hall 1989:175.
86
Winkler 1990:190-91
Callim., fr. 193.34-38 Pfeiffer
Plut., Mor. 756C.
87
[Diogen.], Epit. 1.12 (L-S ii.3)
88
Il. 24.23
89
Ausonius, Ep. 48.6.
90
Leitao 1993:173-78.
D. C. Pozzi and J. M. Wickersham, Myth and the Polls [Ithaca, 1991] 64-83
92
R. Lattimore, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs (Urbana, 1962)
E. Griessmaier, Das Motiv der mors immatura in den griechischen metrischen Grabinscriften (Innsbruck, 1966).
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Ribichini 1981
Detienne 1994:128-29
E. W. Said, Orientalism (New York, 1978)
F. Hartog, The Mirror of Herodotus, tr. J. Lloyd (Berkeley, 1988)
Hall 1989.
94
Ribichini 1981:70-71
Hall 1989:189-90.
95
Ribichini 1981:71.
96
Photius, Bibl. 147A and 15 1B.
K. H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos (diss. Bonn, 1967)
Zeus (Schol. Theoc. 15.86A
T. Wolbergs, Griechische religiöse Gedichte der ersten nachchristlichen Jahrhunderte [Meisenheim am Glan, 1971] 67-68
97
Dover 1989:6.
Dover 1989:172
LIMC pl. 5, 8-11
Wehgartner 1987.
98
Dover 1989:75.
99
First Sappho, fr. 140A.1 L-P
Bion 1.79
[Orph.], H. 56.2
Proclus, H. 1.26.
100
L. Kurke, ClAnt 11 (1992) 91-120
101
Plut., Mor. 346A.
Wehgartner 1987:196-97
Burn 1987:38-39.
102
L. Mulvey, Visual and Other Pleasures (Bloomington, 1989) 20.
103
Stehle 1990:94.
104
Stehle 1990:101-104.
Stehle 1990:101
105
M. Golden, Phoenix 38 (1984) 308-24
Stehle 1990:97
106
Atallah 1966:141-68
D. Callipolitis-Feytmans, BCH 104 (1980) 325-30
107
Burn 1987:5-6.
108
Murray 1993:87.
Burkert 1979:107
E. Keuls, The Reign of the Phallus (New York, 1985) 28
109
[Dem.] 43.62
Cic., Leg. 2.64 and 66
Plut., Sol. 21
Alexiou 1974:3-23
R. Garland, The Greek Way of Death (London, 1985) 21-23, 137
Holst-Warhaft 1992:102-103, 114-19.
110
Holst-Warhaft 1992:4
111
Detienne 1994:130
112
E. R. Dodds, HThR 33 (1940) 171-76
Euripides: Bacchae2 (Oxford, 1960) xxiii.
113
Theoc. 15
F. T. Griffiths in H. Foley, ed., Reflections of Women in Antiquity (London, 1981) 247-59
R.-S. Kramer, Her Share of the Blessings (Oxford, 1992) 31-34.

Works Cited and Abbreviations

Works Cited and Abbreviations
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L-S = E. L. von Leutsch and F. Schneidewin, Paroemiographi graeci. Gottingae, 1839- 1851.
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Winkler, J. J. 1990. The Constraints of Desire. New York.
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