Wallace-Hadrill's reading of spatial hierarchy does not address the representation of gender in mythological paintings. However, a rough survey indicates that the majority are erotic and/or violent. Erotic depictions common on household items (mirrors, lamps, Arretine ware) suggest that the Romans were sensitive to this content; the likely use of pattern books in selecting programs for domestic decoration suggests a synoptic awareness of it. This points to the applicability of contemporary theories of representation and power, and Mulvey's model of visual pleasure in narrative film is adapted for this paper. According to Mulvey, film offers two pleasures: (1) scopophilia, which presents the woman as aesthetic-erotic fragments, suggesting but concealing her difference (culturally read as castration); (2) sadistic voyeurism, which assumes difference and then investigates, punishes, or forgives it. Both are illustrated in paintings of Ariadne abandoned and rediscovered, and in other paintings which portray either the gaze (Polyphemus at Galatea, Actaeon at Diana) or erotic violence (rapes of Cassandra, Daphne, Auge). While these paintings seem to confirm in relation to gender what the rest of the house says about class and status, some paintings confuse the issue. The male body is often fetishized (Narcissus, Endymion, Cyparissus), and attacked (Hylas, Actaeon, Pentheus); gender and role are sometimes deliberately ambiguous (Hermaphroditus). Such transgressions of the boundaries of the male body are not a part of Mulvey's theory, and they suggest the use of gender to complicate as well as confirm the class/status message of the house; two different negotiations of this use are found in the House of the Vettii and the House of the Ara Maxima. One can compare reversals and reassertions of gender, class and status in other evidence, in literature, pantomime and the games.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, "The Social Structure of the Roman House," BSR 56 (1988) 55
Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum (Princeton, 1994).
Eugene Dwyer, "The Pompeian Atrium House in Theory and in Practice," in Elaine K. Gazda, ed., Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Architecture and Decor of the Domus, Vlla, and Insula (Ann Arbor, 1991) 25-48.
2
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1) 78.
John R. Clarke, The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 B.C.-A.D. 250: Ritual, Space, Decoration (Berkeley, 1991)
3
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1) 75.
4
Molly Myerowitz, "The Domestication of Desire: Ovid's parva tabella and the Theater of Love," in Amy Richlin, ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1992) 131-57
Ovid's Ars Amatoria.
5
Natalie Boymel Kampen, review of Gazda (supra, n. 1)
The Art Bulletin 74.2 (1992) 327-29
6
Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (rev. ed., Oxford, 1992)
"Reading Ovid's Rapes," in Amy Richlin, ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1992) 158-79.
7
Maria Wyke, "Written Women: Propertius' Scripta Puella," JRS 77 (1987) 47-61
"Mistress and Metaphor in Augustan Elegy," Helios 16 (1989) 25-47
"Reading Female Flesh: Amores 3.1," in Averil Cameron, ed., History as Text: The Writing of Ancient History (London, 1989) 113-43
Marilyn Skinner, "Ego Mulier: The Construction of Male Sexuality in Catullus," Helios 20.2 (1993) 107-30.
8
Shelby Brown, "Death As Decoration: Scenes from the Arena on Roman Domestic Mo- saics," in Amy Richlin, ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1992) 208
Christine Kondoleon, "Signs of Privilege and Pleasure: Roman Domestic Mosaics," in Elaine K. Gazda, ed., Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Architecture and Decor of the Domus, Villa, and Insula (Ann Arbor, 1991) 105-15.
9
Carlin A. Barton, The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster (Princeton, 1993) 46.
Myerowitz (supra, n. 4) 153
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 221
10
Marilyn B. Skinner, "Catullan Obscenity," Syllecta Classica 3 (1991) 5.
11
Lise Bek, Towards Paradise On Earth: Modem Space Conception In Architecture: A Creation of Renaissance Humanism, Analecta Romana Instituti Danici, suppl. 9 (Rome, 1980) 164-203
Dwyer (supra, n.1)
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 12-23
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1).
Bettina Bergmann, "Painted Perspectives of a Villa Visit: Landscape as Status and Metaphor," in Elaine K. Gazda, ed., Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Architecture and Decor of the Domus, Villa, and Insula (Ann Arbor, 1991) 49-70.
12
Laura Mulvey, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," in Visual and Other Pleasures (Bloomington, 1989) 14-26.
The article was originally published in Screen in 1975.
Carol Armstrong, "The Reflexive and Possessive View: Thoughts On Kersetz, Brandt, and the Photographic Nude," Representations 25 (1989) 57-70
Margaret Carrol, "The Erotics of Absolutism: Rubens and the Mystification of Sexual Violence," Representations 25 (1989) 3-39
Beatriz Colomina, "The Split Wall: Domestic Voyeurism," in Beatriz Colomina, ed., Sexuality and Space (Princeton, 1992) 73-128
Nancy Vickers, "Diana Described: Scattered Woman and Scattered Rhyme," in Elizabeth Abel, ed., Writing and Sexual Difference (Chicago, 1981) 265-79.
Diana Robin, "Film Theory and the Gendered Voice in Seneca," in Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz and Amy Richlin, eds., Feminist Theory and the Classics (New York, 1993) 102-21
Charles Segal, "Philomela's Web and the Pleasures of the Text," in Irene J. F. DeJong and J. P. Sullivan, eds., Modern Critical Theory and Classical Literature (Leiden, 1994) 258-80.
13
Mary Ann Doane, The Desire To Desire: The Women 's Film of the 1940s (Bloomington, 1987)
Sandy Flitterman-Lewis, To Desire Differently: Feminism and the French Cinema (Urbana, 1990)
E. Ann Kaplan, "Is The Gaze Male?" in Ann Barr Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson, eds., Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality (New York, 1983)
Constance Penley, The Future of an Illusion: Film, Feminism, and Psychoanalysis (Minneapolis, 1989)
Gaylyn Studlar, In The Realm of Pleasure: Von Stemberg, Dietrich, and the Masochistic Aesthetic (Bloomington, 1988).
Kaja Silverman, The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema (Bloomington, 1988)
Robin (supra, n. 12)
14
Victor Burgin, "Perverse Space," in Beatriz Colomina, ed., Sexuality and Space (Princeton, 1992) 21940
Segal (supra, n. 12)
15
Mulvey (supra, n. 12) 22.
16
Wallace-Hadrill observes (supra, n. 1) 49
17
John D'Arms, Romans on the Bay of Naples: A Social and Cultural Study of the Villas and their Owners from 150 B.C. to A.D. 400 (Cambridge, Mass., 1970).
18
Lawrence Richardson, Jr., Pompeii: An Architectural History (Baltimore, 1988), 194-98.
19
Karl Schefold, Die Wände Pompejis: Topographisches Verzeichnis der Bildmotive (Berlin, 1957).
20
Schefold's guide (supra, n. 19)
Irene Bragantini, Mariette de Vos, and Franca Parise Badoni, Pitture epavimenti di Pompei (Rome, 1981-1986)
Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Pompei: Pitture e mosaici (Rome, 1990-)
21
Sheila McNally, "Ariadne and Others: Images of Sleep in Greek and Early Roman Art," ClAnt 4.2 (1985) 177
22
LIMC entry; examples 55-58 and 61-66
23
LIMC entry, numbers 75-76, 78-86, 88-90
Anna Gallo, "Le pitture rappresentanti Arianna abbandonata in ambiente pompeiano," Rivista Di Studi Pompeiani 2 (1988) 57-82
24
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1) 75.
25
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 367.
Roger Ling, Roman Painting (Cambridge, 1991) 219-20
26
Clarke (supra, n. 2)
Ling (supra, n. 25).
Lise Bek, "Quaestiones Conviviales: The Idea of the Triclinium and the Staging of Convivial Ceremony from Rome to Byzantium," Analecta Romana Instituti Danici 12 (1983) 81-107
Bek (supra, n. 11).
27
Herculaneum points out (supra, n. 2) 245-65
28
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1) 94
29
Richard Brilliant, Visual Narratives: Storytelling in Etruscan and Roman Art (Ithaca, 1984) 53-82
Eleanor Winsor Leach, The Rhetoric of Space: Literary and Artistic Representations of Landscape in Republican and Augustan Rome (Princeton, 1988) 361-408
Ling (supra, n. 25) 138
Karl Schefold, Pompejanische Malerei: Sinn und Ideengeschichte (Basel, 1952)
Mary Lee Thompson, "The Monumental and Literary Evidence for Programmatic Painting in Antiquity," Marsyas 9 (1960-61) 36-77.
30
Elizabeth Bartman, "Sculptural Collecting and Display in the Private Realm," in Elaine K. Gazda, ed., Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Art and Architecture of the Domus, Villa, and Insula (Ann Arbor, 1991) 75.
32
Bartman (supra, n. 30) 72
33
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 368-69
Catherine Johns, Sex or Symbol: Erotic Images of Greece and Rome (Austin, 1982) 116-42
Myerowitz (supra, n. 4).
34
Johns (supra, n. 33) 125.
John R. Clarke, "The Warren Cup and the Contexts for Representations of Male-to-Male Lovemaking in Augustan and Early Julio-Claudian Art," The Art Bulletin 75.2 (1993) 275-94
35
Ling (supra, n. 25) 218.
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 156
36
Ling (supra, n. 25) 220
37
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 233.
38
Clarke suggests (supra, n. 2) 234
De Arch. 6.6-7
39
Ling (supra, n. 25) 52-53 and 71-72.
41
Silverman (supra, n. 13) 30.
42
Bek(supra, n. 11) 181-203.
43
Richlin (supra, n. 6, "Reading Ovid's Rapes")
Judith Hallett, "The Role of Women in Roman Elegy: Counter-cultural Feminism," Arethusa 6 (1973) 103-24
Wyke (supra, n. 7)
Skinner (supra, n. 7).
44
Actaeon, Eleanor Winsor Leach, "Metamorphoses of the Actaeon Myth in Campanian Painting," RM 88 (1981): 307-27.
Roger Ling, "Hylas in Pompeian Art," MEFRA 91 (1979): 773-816.
45
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 208-35
46
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 226
Ling (supra, n. 25) color plate VIIIA.
47
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 224.
48
Clarke (supra, n. 2) plate 14.
49
Wallace-Hadrill (supra, n. 1, Houses and Society) 224
Richardson (supra, n. 18)
Pedar W. Foss, Kitchens and Dining Rooms at Pompeii: The Spatial and Social Relationship of Cooking to Eating in the Roman Household, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of Michigan, 1994) 45-56
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 157
50
Myerowitz (supra, n. 4), figures 7.1, 7.6, and 7.7.
51
Clarke (supra, n. 2) 210.
53
Barton (supra, n. 9) 95-96.
54
Katherine M. D. Dunbabin and M. W. Dickie, "Invida Rumpantur Pectora: The Iconography of Phthonos/Invidia in Graeco-Roman Art," Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum 26 (1983) 7-37
Doro Levi, "The Evil Eye and the Lucky Hunchback," in Richard Stillwell, ed., Antioch-on- the-Orontes 3 (Princeton, 1941) 220-32.
Dunbabin and Dickie suggest (30-31)
55
Barton (supra, n. 9) 96
56
Barton (supra, n. 9) 97
57
Keith Hopkins, Death and Renewal (Cambridge, 1983) 201-56.
58
Barton (supra, n. 9) 151
59
Barton (supra, n. 9) 131-32.
60
Jonathan Walters, "Invading the Roman Body: Manliness and Impenetrability in Roman Thought,"
Holt Parker, "The Teratogenic Grid," in Judilh Hallett and Marilyn Skinner, eds., Roman Sexualities (forthcoming).
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