This study examines the death of Achilles in ancient myth, focusing on the hero's imperfect invulnerability. It is concluded that this concept is of late origin, perhaps of the Hellenistic period. Early evidence about Achilles' infancy does not suggest that he was made invulnerable, and early evidence concerning his death apparently indicates that Achilles was wounded more than once. The story of Achilles' heel as we know it is therefore late, though it is demonstrable that certain themes and motifs of earlier traditions about Achilles were preserved in later traditions. What caused the concept of Achilles' imperfect invulnerability to emerge, it is proposed, was the late story in which the hero is ambushed in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo. Certainly Achilles was wounded in the lower leg in early Greek myth. An explanation is needed if this does not reflect the story of his imperfect invulnerability, and the arguments of several scholars are surveyed. The theory that the "swift-footed" hero was first immobilized by a lower wound before being slain is ultimately favored, though it is suggested that invulnerable armor and poison may have played a role. A comparative approach to myth and ritual is employed, with attention given to evidence from various areas (e.g., Scythia, the Near East) and ages (Proto-Indo-European to modern) in an effort to illuminate stories about the infancy and death of Achilles. The study also assesses two alleged reflections in the Iliad of Achilles' death, the death of Patroclus in Book 16 and the wounding of Diomedes in Book 11. The evidence in ancient art and literature about the death of Achilles is often obscure, but this exploration of continuity and innovation in myth about Achilles should assist our understanding of it.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Pestalozzi 17
Schoeck 76- 77
P. Kakridis 293 n. 1
Heubeck 1974:46
Kullmann 1984:313-15
1991:441 n. 65
Mueller 53
M. Edwards 1987:63-64
1991:18
McLeod 36
Janko 409
Stanley 421 n. 158
Fenik 1968:234-35
Hainsworth ad loc
Fenik 1986:15-17
2
Welcker 175-76
Drerup 231 n. 3
R. Carpenter 74
Scherer 99
Fenik 1964:38
Thordarson 110
Kemp-Lindemann 3, 222
Kossatz-Deissmann passim, esp. 185
Kunisch 18
Schein 121 n. 3
King 271 n. 68
Janko 409
Woodford 25-26, 94
Baldrick 81
3
Berthold 35-43
Thor- darson; Young; and Gantz 625-28
4
Thompson D 1344ff., 1840ff
5
Thompson Z 311ff
Waser 1577
Thordarson 113
Janko 409
Baldrick 81
Bergin, Lloyd, and Schoepperle 157-79
MacCulloch 175ff
Green 81
Cross Z 311ff
Baldrick 9 and Littleton/Malcor passim on Ossetian myth
Drerup 231 n. 3
Thordarson 112-14
6
Lycoph. 455
Pind., Isthm. 6.36ff
schol. Isthm. 6.53 = Hes., fr. 250 M-W. Gantz 633
Paris, Louvre E 635
LIMC "Aias I" no. 120, ca. 600
Severyns 328
Davies 1989a:60-61
Shefton 1973:207 n. 4
Hesiod, fr. 87 M-W
Olympia, Museum BE 1la
LIMC "Kaineus" no. 61, ca. 650
Ahlberg-Cornell 128-29
Gantz 594
Gantz 631-34
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 1.22
Gantz 280-81
Frazer ad Apollod., Bibl. 1.9.26
Gantz 364-65
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 3.31
Gantz 594
Frazer ad Apollod., Bibl. 2.5.1
Gantz 383-84
Ahlberg-Cornell 38-39, 97-99
Bernabé pp. 131ff
Apollod., Bibl. 1.8.2
Frazer ad loc.
Gantz 328-31
Berthold 29ff
J. Kakridis 14
Maclcod 142
Burkert 1985:63
Hainsworth [cautiously] 131-32
Murnaghan 247
7
Thordarson 112
Davies 1989a:60
Fenik 1964:38
Kemp-Lindemann 244
Hommel 16 n. 35
Pinney; Hedreen, esp. 322
8
Murnaghan 251-52
Frazer, vol. 2, 311ff
Berthold 39ff
Richardson 231-32
9
Schol. Ap. Rhod. 4.816 = Hes., fr. 300 M-W
10
Young 21 n. 32
11
schol. Il. 16.37
schol. Pind., Pyth. 3.178
schol. Aristoph., Clouds 1068
Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 178-79 (with Lycophron 178-79)
Photius, Bibl. 190
Young 13
12
Plutarch, De Is. et Os. 16
Richardson 238
13
Richardson 69-70, 237-38
Young 12
n. 15
Styx at Homeric Hymn to Demeter 259
Young 25 n. 49
Nagy 1979:188-89
n. 27
14
Richardson 81, 242, 247
Murnaghan 258
Foley 51
15
Woodford 25
Calasso 105
Thordarson 111-12
Marx 173 n. 5
Frazer, vol. 2, 359ff
Farnell 36-44
Onians 289-90
Richardson 238ff
Vermeule 214 n. 22
Pliny, NH 35.139
16
Robbins 7-8
17
Achil. 1.133-34
1.268-70
1.480-81
18
Lactant. ad Achil. 1.134, 296, 480
Fulg., Myth. 3.7
schol. Hor., Epod. 13.12
Serv. ad Aen. 6.57
Vatican mythographers 1.36, 178, 2.205, 3.11.24 (Bode)
19
LIMC"Achilleus" nos. 5-18
Kemp-Lindemann 3ff
LIMC "Achilleus" nos. 1-4
Kemp-Lindemann 2
Los Angeles, County Museum of Art 61.48.2
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 12
Hannover, Kestermuseum K 640
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 18b
Woodford 26
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 5
Espérandieu 97-98
Espérandieu 94
20
Robert 67, 1187
Weitzmann 54ff
21
M. Edwards 1987:70
Gantz 627-28
22
Young 15
23
Young 16, 25 n. 47
Tertullian (De anim. 50.3-5
Young 31
24
Pépin 1991a, 1991b
Christians. Toynbee 407
Kemp-Lindemann 4
Young 23 n. 39
Gantz 627-28
Hommel 39-40
25
Berlin, Staatliche Museen Misc. 6239
LIMC "Ares/Mars" no. 11
Marx 169-79
Dieterich 198
Richardson 238
Simon under LIMC "Ares/Mars" no. 11
26
Young 13-14
Richardson 232-33, 236, 241, 247
Farnell 41ff. Cf. Ov., Met. 14.599-604
Onians 289-90
Benoit (108)
27
Young 14-15
Marx 174
Dieterich 198
Waser 1577
Richardson 238ff
Waser 1574ff
Stanford ad 10.511ff
M. West ad Theog. 805
Nagy 1979:188-89
28
Young 14
Tertullian, De anima 50.3-5
29
Berthold 64
Thompson Z 311ff
King 203
30
"Ineditorum Stesichoreorum," 307ff
Poetarum melicorum Graecorum fragmenta, ed. M. Davies, vol. 1 (Oxford, 1991)
31
Bernabé p. 65
32
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 850
Kemp- Lindemann 220
33
Hampe/Simon 48
Young 13
Kossatz-Deissmann under LIMC "Achilleus" no. 850
Woodford 94
Kemp-Lindemann 221
Schoeck 77, 129
Janko 409
Pfuhl 19
Rumpf 59
34
Berthold 35-36
Young 13
35
Athens, National Museum (no #)
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 848
Kemp-Lindemann 219
36
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 848
Ahlberg-Cornell 72
37
LIMC "Alexandros" no. 93
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 848
38
Copenhagen, National Museum 14066
LMC "Alexandros" no. 97
Kemp-Lindemann 220-21
39
Hampe/Simon 49
Hampe/Krauskopf 254
LIMC "Alexandros" no. 97
Kemp-Lindemann 220-21
Gantz 626
40
Bochum, Ruhr-Universität Antikenmuseum S 1060
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 851
42
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 853
"Achle" nos. 128-33
LMC "Diomedes" no. 114
Kemp-Lindemann 221
43
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 891
"Achle" nos. 139-46
Kemp-Lindemann 225-26
44
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 893
Hannover Kestner K 1316; no. 893b
Rome, Museo dei Conservatori 966
LMC "Achilleus" no. 896
45
Paris, Cabinet des Médailles (no #)
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 856
Kemp-Lindemann 221
46
Hampe/Simon 49
Lehmann-Hartleben PI. XIV B
47
St. Petersburg, Hermitage (B 407)
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 895
Kemp-Lindemann 226
48
Castellamare, Museum (no #)
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 855
49
Frazer, vol. 2, 214 n. 1
Gantz 628, 658-59
King 184-95
Förster 1882:199ff
Robert 1189
TÜrk 2719
Scheliha 243
P. Kakridis 294
Gantz 659
King 290 n. 29
Lycophron 307ff
Lycophron 271-72
Dares (34)
Dictys (4.10ff.)
Hyginus (Fab. 110)
Förster 1883
Rzach 2394
Robertson (King 290 n. 25
50
Rome, Museo dei Conservatori 966
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 857
Kemp-Lindemann 221-22
51
Madrid, Museo del Prado 182 E
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 858
Kemp-Lindemann 222
52
British Museum E 468
Vatican H 502, H 545
LIMC "Achilleus" nos. 565, 568, 570
Pinney 141
53
British Museum E 808
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 852
Pyth. 3.101
Smyrna 3.419
54
Berthold 37ff
Drerup 231 n. 3
Griffin 1977:40
1980:167
Romilly 34
M. Edwards 1987:3-4, 68, 137, 236, 295-96
1991:140-41, 322
Janko 310-11, 334, 409
Baldrick 81
55
J. Kakridis 85-88
Pestalozzi 16, 45
Heubeck 1991:465
1954:93-94
1974:40ff
Schade- waldt 169, 194-95
Kullmann 1960:321
1981:9, 19
1984:310
1991:440
Schoeck passim, esp. 15- 16, 68ff
Scheliha 264; 397-98
Whitman 201, 345 n. 52
Fenik 1964:34 n. 5
Nagy 1979:63, passim
Mueller 53
Schein 26, 155
de Romilly 33ff
Janko 1992 ad 16.777-867
Garner 1993:153-54
Fenik 1968:235ff
57
Berthold 35-36
M. Edwards 1987:239
1991:322
Janko 334
Baldrick 81
58
Gantz 627
Smyrna 3.60ff
59
Berthold 31ff
Frazer ad Apollod., Bibl. 2.4.7
3.15.8
Gantz 257-58
376-77
King 203
60
Quint. Smyrn. 3.60ff
Hyg., Fab. 107
64
S. West 107-108
Murray 148-49
Paton 3 (esp. nn. 2, 3)
65
Frisk 730-71
66
Bergin, Lloyd, and Schoepperle 157-58
Green 81
67
Frazer ad Apollod., Bibl. 1.3.2
Gantz 722-24
Garner 159
69
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 3.20
Gantz 578-80
70
Smyrna 10.23 1ff
Dictys 4.5
Telegonia fr. 4 Bernabé
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 7.36
Gantz 710-11
Bernabé p. 195
Heubeck 1989:86
Scheliha 415-16
Burkert 1983:159
A. Edwards 1985:227 n. 28
Nagy 1990:214
Ael., NA 1.56
72
Schein 76ff
Redfield 36
Hainsworth 253
73
n. 11
Robert 1187 n. 3
74
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 5.3
Gantz 625
Frazer ad Apollod., Epit. 3.32
Gantz 597-603
LIMC "Achilleus" nos. 359ff
Kemp-Lindemann 118-26
Robertson; T. Carpenter 17-21
Ahlberg-Cornell 55, 187
Woodford 55-59
n. 49
75
Vian 31-32
Gantz 625
76
Fenik 1986:15-17
Kunisch 18
77
Robert 1187 n. 1
Pestalozzi 17
Harpe/Simon 47-48
Gantz 625
Schoeck 77, 130
Jouan 94
Janko 409
J. Kakridis 85-86
Schadewaldt 161 n. 1
78
Mueller 128-29
79
Kullmann 1960:42
Hainsworth 268
80
Ahlberg-Cornell 36-37, 187
LIMC "Achilleus" no. 860 and at p. 192
Kemp-Lindemann 223
81
Drerup 231 n. 3
82
Young 14
King 188
83
Dares 34
Dictys 4.11
Philostratus, Heroicus 51.1-7 (De Lannoy)
schol. Eur. Hec. 41
Hampe/Krauskopf 524
Kunisch 18
85
Förster 1882:201 n. 3
Kemp-Lindemann 221-22
LIMC "Achilleus" nos. 857, 896
87
Schoeck 75ff
Diomedes at 5.4ff
Nagy 1979:30-31
88
Schoeck 76-77
Kullmann 1960:314-15

References

References
Ahlberg-Cornell, G. 1992. Myth and Epos in Early Greek Art. Jonsered.
Baldrick, J. 1994. Homer and the Indo-Europeans. London.
Benoit, F. 1969. Art et dieux de la Gaule. Paris and Grenoble.
Bergin, O. J., J. H. Lloyd, and G. Schoepperle. 1912. "The Death of Diarmid." Revue Celtique 33: 157-79.
Bernabé, A., ed. 1987. Poetae epici Graeci Testimonia et fragmenta. Vol. 1. Leipzig.
Berthold, O. 1911. Die Unverwundbarkeit in Sage und Aberglauben der Griechen. Giessen.
Boardman, J. 1990. "The Greek Art of Narrative." In J.-P. Desœudres, ed., ETMOTYIA: Ceramic and Iconographic Studies in Honour of Alexander Cambitoglou. Sydney.
Brown, S. 1991. Late Carthaginian Child Sacrifice. Sheffield.
Burkert, W. 1983. Homo Necans. Tr. P. Bing. Berkeley.
—. 1985. Greek Religion. Tr. J. Raffan. Cambridge, Mass.
Calasso, R. 1993. The Marriage of Cadmus and Harmony. Tr. T. Parks. Toronto and New York.
Carpenter, R. 1946. Folk Tale, Fiction, and Saga in the Homeric Epics. Berkeley.
Carpenter, T. H. 1991. Art and Myth in Ancient Greece. London.
Cook, R. M. 1983. "Art and Epic in Ancient Greece." BABesch 58: 1-10.
Cross, T. P. 1952. Motif-Index of Early Irish Literature. Bloomington.
Davies, M., ed. 1988. Epicorum Graecorum fragmenta. Göttingen.
—. 1989a. The Epic Cycle. Bristol.
—. 1989b. "The Date of the Epic Cycle." Glotta 67: 89-100.
de Romilly, J. 1983. Perspectives actuelles sur l'epopée Homérique. Paris.
Dieterich, A. 1893. Nekyia. Leipzig.
Drerup, E. 1921. Das Homerproblem in der Gegenwart. Würzburg.
Edwards, A. T. 1985. "Achilles in the Underworld: Iliad, Odyssey, and Aethiopis." GRBS 26: 215-28.
Edwards, M. W. 1987. Homer: Poet of the Iliad. Baltimore.
—. 1991. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 5. Cambridge.
Espérandieu, É. 1913. Recueil général des bas-reliefs, statues, et bustes de la Gaule romaine. Vol. 5. Paris.
Farnell, L. R. 1916. "Ino-Leukothea." JHS 36: 36-44.
Fenik, B. C. 1964. "Iliad X" and the "Rhesus": The Myth. Brussels.
—. 1968. Typical Battle Scenes in the Iliad. Hermes Einzelschriften, Heft 21. Weisbaden.
—. 1986. Homer and the Nibelungenlied. Cambridge, Mass.
Fittschen, K. 1969. Untersuchungen zum Beginn der Sagendarstellungen bei den Griechen. Berlin.
Foley, H. P., ed. 1994. The Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Princeton.
Förster, R. 1882. "Achilleus und Polyxena." Hermes 17: 193-238.
—. 1883. "Zu Achilleus und Polyxena." Hermes 18: 475-78.
Frazer, J. G., ed. 1921. Apollodorus: The Library. 2 Vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.
Frisk, H. 1960. Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2 Vols. Heidelberg.
Gantz, T. 1993. Early Greek Myth. Baltimore.
Garner, R. 1993. "Achilles in Locri." ZPE 96: 153-65.
Green, M. J. 1992. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend. London.
Griffin, J. 1977. "The Epic Cycle and the Uniqueness of Homer." JHS 97: 39-53.
—. 1980. Homer on Life and Death. Oxford.
Hainsworth, B. 1993. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 3. Cambridge.
Hampe, R., and I. Krauskopf. 1981. "Alexandros." In LIMC.
Hampe, R., and E. Simon. 1964. Griechische Sagen in der frühen etruskischen Kunst. Mainz.
Hedreen, G. 1991. "The Cult of Achilles in the Euxine." Hesperia 60: 313-30.
Heubeck, A. 1954. Der Odyssee-Dichter und die Ilias. Erlangen.
—. 1974. Die Homerische Frage. Darmstadt.
—. 1989. "Books IX-XII." In A. Heubeck, S. West, and J. B. Hainsworth, eds., A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, vol. 2. Oxford.
—. 1991. "Studien zur Struktur der Ilias (Retardation-Motivübertragung)." In J. Latacz, ed., Homer: Die Dichtung und ihre Deutung. Darmstadt.
Hommel, H. 1980. "Der Gott Achilleus." SBHeid Abh. 1: 7-52.
Janko, R. 1992. The Iliad: A Commentary. Vol. 4. Cambridge.
Jouan, F. 1980. "Le cycle épique: État des questions." In Association Guillaume Budé, Actes du Xe congrès: 83-104. Paris.
Kakridis, J. T. 1949. Homeric Researches. Lund.
Kakridis, P. J. 1961. "Achilleus' Rüstung." Hermes 89: 288-97.
Kemp-Lindemann, D. 1975. Darstellungen des Achilleus in griechischer und römischer Kunst. Frankfurt.
King, K. C. 1987. Achilles. Berkeley.
Knaack, G. 1903. "Demophon." In RE.
Kossatz-Deissmann, A. 1981. "Achilleus." In LIMC.
Kullmann, W. 1960. Die Quellen der Ilias. Hermes Einzelschriften, Heft 14. Wiesbaden.
—. 1981. "Zur Methode der Neoanalyse in der Homerforschung." WS 15: 5-42.
—. 1984. "Oral Poetry Theory and Neoanalysis in Homeric Research." GRBS 25: 307-24.
—. 1991. "Ergebnisse der motivgeschichtlichen Forschung zu Homer (Neoanal- yse)." In J. Latacz, ed., Zweihundert Jahre Homer-Forschung. Stuttgart.
Kunisch, N. 1989. "Symposion: auch Gespräche über Kunst." In Symposion: Griechische Vasen aus dem Antikenmuseum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Köln.
Lehmann-Hartleben, K. 1938. "Two Roman Silver Jugs." AJA 42: 82-105.
Littleton, C. S., and L. A. Malcor. 1994. From Scythia to Camelot. New York and London.
MacCulloch, J. A. 1918. "Celtic Mythology." In L. H. Gray and G. F Moore, eds., The Mythology of All Races, vol. 3. Repr. New York, 1964.
Macleod, C. W., ed. 1982. Homer, Iliad Book XXIV. Cambridge.
Marx, F. 1885. "Ein neuer Aresmythus." AZ 43: 169-79.
McLeod, W. 1987. "The Iliad and the Odyssey as Great Literature." In K. Myrsiades, ed., Approaches to Teaching Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. New York.
Mueller, M. 1984. The Iliad. London and Boston.
Murnaghan, S. 1992. "Maternity and Mortality in Homeric Poetry." ClAnt 11: 242-64.
Murray, G. 1934. The Rise of the Greek Epic. 4th ed. Oxford.
Nagy, G. 1979. The Best of the Achaeans. Baltimore.
—. 1990. Greek Mythology and Poetics. Ithaca.
Onians, R. B. 1951. The Origins of European Thought. Cambridge.
Paton, W. R. 1912. "The Armour of Achilles." CR 26: 1-4.
Pépin, J. 1991a. 'The Survival of Myths in Early Christianity." Tr. G. Honigsblum. In Y. Bonnefoy and W. Doniger, eds., Mythologies, vol. 2: 649-54. Chicago.
—. 1991b. "Christian Judgments on the Analogies between Christianity and Pagan Mythology." Tr. D. White. In Y. Bonnefoy and W. Doniger, eds., Mythologies, vol. 2: 655-65. Chicago.
Pestalozzi, H. 1945. Die Achilleis als Quelle der Ilias. Zürich.
Pfuhl, E. 1955. Masterpieces of Greek Drawing and Painting. Tr. J. D. Beazley. London.
Pinney, G. F. 1983. "Achilles Lord of Scythia." In W. G. Moon, ed., Ancient Greek Art and Iconography. Madison.
Redfield, J. M. 1975. Nature and Culture in the Iliad. Chicago.
Richardson, N. J., ed. 1974. The Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Oxford.
Robbins, E. I. 1993. "The Education of Achilles." QUCC 45: 7-20.
Robert, C. 1920-1926. Die griechische Heldensage. 4th ed. Vol. 2 of Griechische Mythologie. L. Preller, rewritten by C. Robert. Berlin.
Robertson, M. 1990. "Troilos and Polyxene: Notes on a Changing Legend." In J.-P. Desceudres, ed., EYMOTEIA: Ceramic and Iconographic Studies in Honour of Alexander Cambitoglou. Sydney.
Rose, H. J., and C. M. Robertson. 1970. "Achilles." In OCD, 2nd ed.
Rumpf, A. 1927. Chalkidische Vasen. Berlin.
Rzach, A. 1922. "Kyklos." In RE.
Schadewaldt, W. 1965. Von Homers Welt und Werk. 4th ed. Stuttgart.
Schein, S. L. 1984. The Mortal Hero. Berkeley.
Scheliha, R. von. 1943. Patroklos. Basel.
Scherer, M. R. 1963. The Legends of Troy. London.
Schoeck, G. 1961. Ilias und Aithiopis. Zurich.
Severyns, A. 1928. Le cycle épique dans I'école d'Aristarque. Paris.
Shefton, B. B. 1973. "Agamemnon or Ajax?" RA 203-18.
Simon, E. 1984. "Mars auf pränestinischen Cisten." In LIMC "Ares/Mars," E. Simon and G. Bauchhenss, p. 510.
Stanford, W. B., ed. 1959. The Odyssey of Homer. 2 vols. 2nd ed. London.
Stanley, K. 1993. The Shield of Homer. Princeton.
Tardieu, M. 1991. "The Gnostics and the Mythologies of Paganism." Tr. D. White. In Y. Bonnefoy and W. Doniger, eds., Mythologies, vol. 2: 667-79. Chicago.
Thompson, S. 1955-1958. Motif-Index of Folk Literature. 2nd ed. Bloomington.
Thordarson, F. 1972. "Die Ferse des Achilleus—ein skythisches Motiv?" SymbOslo 47: 109-24.
Toynbee, J. M. C. 1977. "Greek Myth in Roman Stone." Latomus 36: 343-412.
Türk, G. 1897-1909. "Polyxena." In W. H. R. Roscher, ed., Ausführliches Lexicon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie, 1884-1937. Leipzig.
Vermeule, E. 1979. Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry. Berkeley.
Vian, F. 1959. Recherches sur les Posthomerica de Quintus de Smyrne. Paris.
Waser, O. 1909-1915. "Styx." In W. H. R. Roscher, ed., Ausführliches Lexicon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie, 1884-1937. Leipzig.
Waszink, J. H., ed. 1947. Tertullian: De anima. Amsterdam.
Way, A. S., ed. 1913. Quintus Smyrnaeus: The Fall of Troy. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.
Weitzmann, K. 1959. Ancient Book Illumination. Cambridge, Mass.
Welcker, F. G. 1882. Der epische Cyclus, oder die Homerischen Dichter. 2nd d. Vol. 2. Repr. Hildesheim and New York, 1981.
West, M. L., ed. 1966. Hesiod, Theogony. Oxford.
West, S. 1988. "Books I-IV." In A. Heubeck, S. West and J. B. Hainsworth, eds., A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, vol. 1. Oxford.
Whitman, C. 1958. Homer and the Heroic Tradition. Cambridge, Mass.
Woodford, S. 1993. The Trojan War in Ancient Art. Ithaca.
Young, D. C. 1979. "The Diachronic Study of Myth and Achilles' Heel." CCA-NS Journal 4.1: 3-34.
This content is only available via PDF.