This article aims to interpret an annual initiation ritual celebrated in Hellenistic Phaistos (Crete), at a festival known as the Ekdusia, in which young men had to put on women's clothes and swear an oath of citizenship before they could graduate from the civic youth corps (the agela) and enter the society of adult male citizens. It begins by reconstructing the ritual and situating it within its historical and social context. It then reviews the two major theories which have been used to explain transvestism in Greek initiation-structuralist and psychological-and attempts to expose their shortcomings. The author remedies the difficulty with the structuralist approach-its focus on abstract symbols divorced from their social context-by understanding the ritual change of clothes (feminine clothes exchanged for masculine clothes) at the Ekdusia in terms of the radical gender segregation in Cretan society and the gradual transition Cretan boys made from feminine spaces to masculine spaces in both city and home. The author remedies the main problem with the psychological approach-its focus on the psychological dynamic between mother and son rather than the motivations of the rite's adult male sponsors-by looking at how adult men, particularly in modern non-Greek societies which hold initiation rites, understand male adolescent development and create rituals in accordance therewith. This comparative model shows how men in gender-segregated societies think of boys as feminine themselves and believe that their masculine development is at risk if they are not rescued from the dangerous feminine realm, and forced to undergo a combination of defeminization and masculinization rituals. Although there is no direct evidence to suggest that Greek men thought of boys' transition rites in this way, the myths told about three different figures named Leukippos, related directly (etiologically) and indirectly to the Ekdusia, reveal this pattern of thought in its full form.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Nic. Met. fr. 45 Schneider = Ant. Lib. Met. 17.
2
Malla and Lyttos: Inscr. Cret. I.xix.1.17-18
Dreros: Inscr. Cret. I.ix.1.99-1OO
Axos: Inscr. Cret. II.v.24.7-9
3
Inscr. Cret. II.v.24.7-9.
infra, n. 25
G. Manganaro, "Iscrizione opistographa di Axos con prescrizioni sacrali e con un trattato di symmachia," Historia 15 (1966) 18-22.
4
Inscr. Cret. I.xix.1.17-22.
E. Schwyzer, "Zu griechischen Inschriften," RhM 77 (1928) 248 n. 1
R. Willetts, Cretan Cults and Festivals(London and New York, 1962) 108, 294.
5
H. Jeanmaire, Couroi et Courètes: Essai sur l'éducation spartiate et sur les rites d'adolescence dans l'antiquité hellénique (Lille, 1939) 442
M. Delcourt, Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure in Classical Antiquity, tans. J. Nicholson (London, 1961) 4-5
K. Dowden, Death and the Maiden: Girls' Initiation Rites in Greek Mythology (London and New York, 1989) 65.
A. Brelich, Paides e Parthenoi (Rome, 1969) 202
Willetts, Cretan Cults (supra, n. 4) 175-78, 306-307
P. Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter: Forms of Thought and Forms of Society in the Greek World, trans. A. Szegedy-Maszak (Baltimore, 1986) 117.
6
RE 7 (1910) 519 s.v.
Galateia (Weicker), and J. Fontenrose, Orion: The Myth of the Hunter and Huntress (Berkeley, 1981) 65 n. 9
Delcourt (supra, n. 5) 5
7
Stolai: Procl. Chr. ap. Phot. Bibl. 239
Anec. Bekk. 318.
9
E. David, "Dress in Spartan Society," AncW 19 (1989) 9.
10
S. Lonsdale, Dance and Ritual Play in Greek Religion (Baltimore, 1993) 137-68.
11
Inscr. Cret. I.ix.1.11-12, 140-41.
12
Schwyzer (supra, n. 4) 246 and n. 1.
13
Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149 = Strab. 10.4.21.
14
Plu. Amat. 17 (762bc).
J. Bremmer, "Adolescents, Symposion, and Pederasty," in O. Murray, ed., Sympotica (Oxford, 1990) 142.
15
Plu. De mus. 9 (1134c).
16
L. Bonfante, "Nudity as a Costume in Classical Art," AJA 93 (1989) 543-70.
17
Inscr. Cret. I.xvi.5.21.
Schwyzer (supra, n. 4) 243-44.
18
Apodromos: Inscr. Cret. IV.lxxii.7.35-40 (Gortyn).
Droneus: Inscr. Cret. I.viii.13.8 (Knos- sos)
I.xvi.5.44 (Lato)
I.xix.3 (Malla)
IV.lxxii.7.40-43 (Gortyn).
R. Willetts, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete (London, 1955) 7-8, 11-14.
19
Ar. Byz. fr. 48
W. Slater, ed., Aristophanis Byzantii Fragmenta [Berlin, 1986] 31-32
20
Arist. Pol. 1264a21-23
21
Ar. Nub. 988-89
J.-C. Poursat, "Les représentations de danse armée dans la céramique attique," BCH 92 (1968) 564, 566-83, 586-60.
G. Camporeale, "La danza armata in Etruria," MEFRA 99 (1987) 29.
J. Mouratidis, "The Origin of Nudity in Greek Athletics," Journal of Sport History 12 (1985) 213-32.
22
A. Gow and A. Scholfield, Nicander: The Poems and Poetical Fragments (Cam- bridge, 1953) 3-8
RE 17 (1936) s.v. Nikandros (Kröll).
23
FGrH 461 F 1
FGrH 70 F 146-49
FGrH 457-468.
24
Malla and Lyttos (Inscr. Cret. I.xix.1) (3rd cent.)
Dreros (Inscr. Cret. I.ix.1) (3rd/2nd cent.)
Lato and Olous (Inscr Cret. I.xvi.5) (second half of 2nd cent.)
Axos (Inscr. Cret. II.v.24) (3rd cent.).
25
F. Blass, Die kretischen Inschriften (Göttingen, 1905) no. 5019
H. Collitz, et al., eds., Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschrifren (Göttingen, 1884-1915), vol. 111.2.3.
M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. I (Rome, 1935) 269
J. Sboronos, Numismatique de la Crète ancienne (Macon, 1890) 253ff.
Strabo (10.4.14)
26
H. van Effenterre, "À propos du serment des Drériens," BCH 61 (1937) 327-332.
27
H. van Effenterre, "Il problema delle istituzioni doriche," in D. Musti, ed., Le origini dei Greci, Dori e mondo egeo (Bari, 1985) 293-312.
28
Lato: Inscr. Cret. I.xvi.5.23.
Olous: Inscr. Cret. I.xvi.5.23, 42-43
Hierapytna: Inscr. Cret. III.v.13
M. Guarducci, "Note sul calendario cretese," Epigraphica 7 (1945) 72-87
A. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology: Calendars and Years in Classical Antiquity (Munich, 1972) 134-36.
29
Inscr. Cret. I.xvi.4.
30
Inscr. Cret. III.iii.7.
31
Willetts, Cretan Cults (supra, n. 4) 107-108.
32
Idem, 175-76
U. Pestalozza, [Unrepresented Characters] Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. Rendiconti 71 (1938) 222-24.
Theocr. 18.50
33
F. Graf, Nordionische Kulte (Rome, 1985) 207.
34
Hsch. s.v. [Unrepresented Characters]
35
Graf (supra, n. 33) 207 nn. 2, 3
LSJ s.vv. [Unrepresented Characters].
36
IG II2 1237.123-25.
37
Inscr. Chios 41
Graf (supra, n. 33) 60-61, 105.
38
Achilles: Apollod. 3.13.8.
Heracles: Plu. Quaest. Graec. 58 (304cd)
Plu. An seni 4 (785e).
Pentheus: Eur. Bacch. 849ff., 917ff.
Theseus: Paus. 1.19.1.
supra, nn. 1, 2, 4.
supra, n. 7
infra, nn. 88-92.
Argos: Plu. De mul. vir. 4 (245ef).
Sparta: Plu. Lyc. 15.
39
A. van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, trans. M. Vizedom and G. Caffee (Chicago, 1960) 10-11.
40
W. Halliday, "A Note on Herodotos VI.83
Hybristika," ABSA 16(1909-1910) 216
41
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 5) 114-16.
Brelich (supra, n. 5) 31.
42
C. Calame, Les choeurs des jeunes filles en Grèce archaïque (Rome, 1977), vol. I, 36-37, 259-60.
Dowden, Death and the Maiden (supra, n. 5) 65
43
V. Turner, "Betwixt and Between: the Liminal Period in Rites de Passage," in idem, The Forest of Symbols (Ithaca, 1967) 95-98.
Turner's theory is elaborated further in "Liminality and Communitas," in idem, The Ritual Process (Ithaca, 1969) 94-130.
44
D. Cohen, Law, Sexuality and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens (Cambridge, 1991) 172, 192-93, and 171-202 generally
K. Dowden, The Uses of Greek Mythology (London and New York, 1992) 118.
45
Delcourt (supra, n. 5) 4-5, 16.
46
B. Bettelheim, Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male (Glencoe, IL, 1954) 27-31, 39-42,66, 211-14, 265 and passim.
47
P. Slater, The Glory of Hera: Greek Mythology and the Greek Family (Boston, 1968) 287-91, 299, 301, 306.
48
N. Felson-Rubin, Regarding Penelope (Princeton, 1994) 167-68, nn. 16, 22.
49
T. Turner, "Transformation, Hierarchy and Transcen- dence: a Reformulation of Van Gennep's Model of the Structure of Rites de Passage," in S. Moore and B. Myerhoff, eds., Secular Ritual (Assen, 1977) 53-70, esp. 70 n. 6
M. Bloch, Prey into Hunter: The Politics of Religious Experience (Cambridge, 1992) 6.
50
Vidal-Naquet (supra, n. 5) 116.
Turner, "Betwixt and Between" (supra, n. 43) 93-99
51
Bettelheim (supra, n. 46) 39-42
E. Leach, "Magical Hair," Journal of the Royal Anthropologic Institute 88 (1958) 147-64.
D. Gilmore, "Mother-Son Intimacy and the Dual View of Women in Andalusia," Ethos 14 (1986) 227-51.
T. Reik, "The Puberty Rites of Savages: Some Parallels between the Mental Life of Savages and Neurotics," in idem, Ritual: Psychoanalytic Studies, trans. D. Bryan(Westport, CT, 1975) 91-160
R. Graber, "A Psychocultural Theory of Male Genital Mutilation," Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 4 (1981) 413-34, esp. 420-21.
52
A. Schlegel and H. Barry, "The Evolutionary Significance of Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies," American Ethnologist 7 (1980) 696-715.
53
Idem, 699-700.
idem, 710-1.
54
J. Whiting, R. Kluckhohn, and A. Anthony, "The Function of Male Initiation Ceremonies at Puberty," in E. Maccoby et al., eds., Readings in Social Anthropology (New York, 1958) 359-70.
idem, 364.
55
Schlegel and Barry (supra, n. 52) 704, 707, 710.
56
D. Cohen, "Seclusion, Separation, and the Status of Women in Classical Athens," G&R 36 (1989) 3-15
idem, Law Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 41-54.
57
M. Lavrencic ,"ANΔAPEION," Tyche 3 (1988) 147-61.
58
Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2 = Ath. 143b
59
Lavrencic (supra, n. 57) 149.
60
Arist. Pol. 1272a23-26.
61
S. Spyridakis, "Aristotle on Cretan [Unrepresented Characters]," Historia 28 (1979) 380-84
62
Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2.
63
M. Guarducci, "Note di antichità Cretesi," Historia 9 (1935) 441-42
H. van Effentere, La Crète et la monde grecque (Paris, 1948) 87-89.
64
Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2
65
Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149 = Strab. 10.4.20.
Inscr. Cret. IV.lxxii.12.17.
66
supra, n. 5
Pont. FHG II.211
Willetts, Aristocratic Society (supra, n. 18) 18-19.
infra
67
Plu. Lyc. 15.3-5.
68
C. Talezaar, "[Unrepresented Characters]: Some Notes on the Spartan Stages of Youth," Mnemosyne 20 (1967) 14142.
69
Pl. Leg. 781a-c.
Pol. 1269b39-1270a8
P. Cartledge, "Spartan Wives: Liberation or License?"' CQ 31 (1981) 87-88.
70
M. Jameson, "Private Space and the Greek City," in 0. Murray, ed., The Greek City from Homer to the Hellenistic Period (Oxford, 1992) 171-95.
71
Felson-Rubin (supra, n. 48) 70-91.
72
Dem. 47.55-56 (Athens)
Plu. Pel. 9.5 (Thebes)
Lucian Gall. 11.
M. Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens (Baltimore, 1990) 37-38.
P1. Lach. 178a-180c
G. Devereux, "Greek Pseudo-Homosexuality and the 'Greek Miracle,'" SO 42 (1967) 78.
73
Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149 = Strab. 10.4.20
Pyrgion FGrH 467 F 1 = Ath. 143e
Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2 = Ath. 143cd.
Plu. Lyc. 17.4-5.
74
Sparta: Xen. Rep. Lac. 2.5-6.
75
Plu. Lyc. 16.7.
76
Heraclid. Pont. FHG II.211.
77
M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. II (Rome, 1939) 165 n. 4
Willetts, Aristocratic Society (supra, n. 18) 13 n. 4.
78
Willetts, Aristocratic Society (supra, n. 18) 15
M. Nilsson "Die Grundlagen des spartanischen Lebens," Klio 12 (1908) 314.
79
Twelve: Plu. Lyc. 16.6.
Fourteen: Talezaar (supra, n. 68) 130-31, 134-35
80
M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. IV (Rome, 1950) 150
Willetts, Aristocratic Society (supra, n. 18) 12.
Plu. Lyc. 17.2
Talezaar (supra, n. 68) 131, 137.
81
supra, n. 2.
82
Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149 = Strab. 10.4.20
Heraclid. Pont. FHG II.211
Jeanmaire (supra, n. 5) 423
Willetts, Aristocratic Society (supra, n. 18) 18-19.
G. Herdt, The Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity (New York, 1981) 55.
83
J. Harrison, Themis: A Study of the Social Origin of Greek Religion (Cambridge, 1912) 507
Jeanmaire (supra, n. 5) 34-38, 353-55
Dowden, Death and the Maiden (supra, n. 5) 65.
84
RE 12 (1925) s.v. Leukippos (Kröll).
Dowden, idem, 62-67
J. Bremmer, "Oedipus and the Greek Oedipus Complex," in idem, ed., Interpretations of Greek Mythology (London and Sydney, 1987) 42, 47, and 53, with bibliography.
85
Paus. 8.20.2-4.
Amat. Narr. 15
Ovid Met. 1.462-567.
86
Hermesianax fr. 5 Powell = Parth. Amat. Narr. 5.
87
Phaistos and Gortyn, FGrH 482 F 3.
supra, n. 25.
supra, n. 84.
88
E. Kadletz, "The Race and Procession of the Athenian Oscophoroi," GRBS 21 (1980) 363-71.
89
Demon FGrH 327 F 6 = Plu. Thes. 23.2-4
91
Jeanmaire (supra, n. 5) 227-383.
92
Plutarch (Sol. 8.4-6)
93
J. Winkler, The Con- straints of Desire: The Anthropology of Sex and Gender in Ancient Greece (New York, 1989) 9- 10
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 38-41
Calame (supra, n. 42) 34-40
Jeanmaire (supra, n. 5) 147-225
Brelich (supra, n. 5) 13-112
94
R. Murphy, "Social Structure and Sex Antagonism," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15 (1959) 89-98.
95
S. Brandes, "Like Wounded Stags: Male Sexual Ideology in an Andalusian Town," in S. Ortner and H. Whitehead, eds., Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality (Cambridge, 1981) 216-39.
96
A. Giacomelli (= Carson), "Aphrodite and After," Phoenix 34 (1980) 1-19
A. Carson, "Putting Her in Her Place: Women, Dirt and Desire," in D. Halperin et al., eds., Before Sexuality (Princeton, 1990) 135-64
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 54-69, 87-89, 98-170
N. Rabinowitz, Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women (Ithaca, 1993) 8-9, 19-20, 126, 155.
97
T. Gregor, Anxious Pleasures: The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People (Chicago, 1985) 139-51
Herdt, Guardians (supra, n. 82) 244-48
R. Lidz and T. Lidz, "Male Menstruation: a Ritual Alternative to the Oedipal Transition," International Journal of Psychoanalysis 58 (1977) 17-31.
98
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 133-70.
99
Herdt, Guardians (supra, n. 82) 206-16.
Lidz and Lidz (supra, n. 97)22.
100
Gregor (supra, n. 97) 44-45, 177-83.
101
Giacomelli (supra, n. 96)
Rabinowitz (supra, n. 96) 126, 155.
Silver Age boy: Hes. Op. 130-33.
102
S. Ottenberg, "Oedipus, Gender, and Social Solidarity: a Case Study of Male Childhood and Initiation," Ethos 16 (1988) 329-30.
103
Ephorus 70 FGrH 149 = Strab. 10.4.21.
104
V. Catalano, "La più antica epigrafe scherzosa ellenica graffita su pithos a Phaistos," GIF 23 (1971) 308-24.
105
Ottenberg (supra, n. 102) 334.
106
Bloch (supra, n. 49) 86-87.
107
Herdt, Guardians (supra, n. 82) 223-27, 243-46.
108
G. Herdt, ed., Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia (Berkeley, 1984).
109
W. LaBarre, Muelos: A Stone Age Superstition about Sexuality (New York, 1984) 59.
110
Urine: E. Bethe, "Die dorische Knabenliebe, ihre Ethic, ihre Idee," RhM 62 (1907) 463-64.
Head-subsance: LaBarre, idem, 31.
111
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 183-95.
Dowden, Uses of Greek Mythology (supra, n. 44) 118.
A. Richlin, "Zeus and Metis: Foucault, Feminism, Classics," Helios 18 (1991) 169 and 160-80 passim
112
Pl Leg. 836c
113
Adult pathici: Xen. Mem. 2.1.30
Hyperides fr. 215 Jensen
Pl. Grg. 494e
Dem. 22.58
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 186.
Aeschin. 1.111, 185.
Arist. Rhet. 1384a.
Xen. Symp. 8.2.1.
114
Pl Symp. 192a.
115
M. Foucault, The Use of Pleasure, trans. R. Hurley (New York, 1985) 187-225.
116
Cohen, Law, Sexuality (supra, n. 44) 181 n. 24 and 187 n. 52
Hert, Ritualized Homosexuality (supra, n. 108) 118, 220
B. Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth (London, 1987) 40-54.
117
S. Freud, "New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis," in Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 22 (London, 1964) 86-87
idem, "From the History of an Infantile Neurosis," in Standard Edition, vol. 17 (London, 1955) 86-88.
Bettelheim (supra, n. 46) 46-51.
118
J. Whiting et al. (supra, n. 54) 361, 370.
119
R. Stoller and G. Herdt, "The Development of Masculinity: a Cross-Cultural Contribution," Journal of the Psychoanalytic Association 30 (1982) 29.
supra, n. 102
supra, n. 97
120
A. Schlegel and H. Barry, Adolescence: An Anthropological Inquiry (New York, 1991) 187.
121
Idem, 190
N. Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley, 1978) 93, 109.
122
Schlegel and Barry, Adolescence (supra, n. 120) 190.
123
Idem, 187-93.
124
idem, 45.
125
M. Gilmore and D. Gilmore, "Machismo: A Psychodynamic Approach (Spain)," Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 2 (1979) 281-300
Schlegel and Barry, Adolescence (supra, n. 120) 155.
126
P. DuBois, Sowing the Body: Psychoanalysis and Ancient Representations of Women (Chicago, 1988) 8-9.
127
GA 728a18-22.
Arist. GA 765b36-766a17, 782al0-11, 787b6-19
HA 518a29-31
[Prob.] 876b39-877a3, 894b37
Hipp. Aph. 6.28-30.
S. Said, "Féminin, femme et femelle dans les grand traités biologiques d'Aristote," in E. Lévy, ed., La femme dans les sociétés antiques: Actes des colloques de Strasbourg 1980, 1981 (Strasbourg, 1983) 101-102.
128
HA 613a15-17
HA 631b5-17
129
Arist. GA 728a18.
T. Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, MA, 1990) 25-62
P. DuBois (supra, n. 126) 183.
130
Bremmer, "Oedipus" (supra, n. 84) 41-55, 53-55.
idem, 42,47, and passim.
131
Felson-Rubin (supra, n. 48) 67-91.
132
supra, nn. 96, 101
Slater (supra, n. 47) passim.
133
Nic. Met. fr. 45
Schneider = Ant. Lib. Met. 17
134
M. Papathomopoulos, Les Métamorphoses, Budé edition with commentary (Paris, 1968) 110
F. Celoria, The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis: A Translation with a Commentary (London, 1992) 155
Callim. Aet. fr. 75.1-3 Pf.
Poll. 3.39-40
RE 16 (1933) s.v. Mutunus Tutunus (Vahlert)
Delcourt (supra, n. 5) 4.
135
Poll. 3.39-40.
136
Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149 = Strab. 10.4.20.
137
S. Eitrem, "De Ovidio Nicandri imitatori," Philologus 59 (1900) 59-60
D. Nikitas, "Zur Leukipposgeschichte," Hellenica 33 (1981) 14, 24.
Nikitas, idem, 25-27
138
Ovid Met. 9.731-35, 762-63.
Herdt, Guardians (supra, n. 82) 255-94.
Genesis 2.22-25.
Tim. 90e-9la.
139
Plu. Quaest. Graec. 58 (304cd).
Delcourt (supra, n. 5) 2.
140
Plu. Lyc. 15
De mul. vir. 4 (245ef).
141
Devereux (supra, n. 72) 84
Cartledge (supra, n. 69) 101.
Plu. Lyc. 17.1.
Cartledge, idem, 92 n. 48.
142
Devereux (supra, n. 72) 84 n. 6
G. Herdt, "Fetish and Fantasy in Sambia Initiation," in idem, ed., Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea (Berkeley, 1982) 48-98
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