It is the argument of this paper that many aspects of Lucan's characterization in the Bellum Civile of Caesar and Pompey, and of the conflict itself, reflect a ritual combat for kingship such as the combat and murder codified in the myth of Romulus and Remus. It was a well-established convention by Ennius's time, further developed in the late Republic, that the conflict between the founding brothers over control of Rome was the ultimate cause for the Civil Wars. The religious (and possibly the historical) basis of this myth can be found in the rites of the priest of Diana at Aricia, the rex nemorensis, which were still extant in Lucan's time. The evidence for Lucan's use of this paradigm is reviewed, and Book 3 of the Bellum Civile is then reassessed in the terms that it suggests. The themes of sacred place (especially the sacred grove), scared combat, and the necessary murder are most clearly presented in Book 3. It is further argued that seeming inconsistencies in the nature of the gods in Lucan's epic can be at least partially resolved if we understand that the gods must remain aloof and outside the action while the ritual takes place, even though they themselves have instituted the ritual of kingship murder, and will, when it is completed, receive the murderer as their ritually validated priest-king. In the conclusion, ways are suggested in which this paradigm, if accepted, begins to clarify various puzzling choices Lucan has made elsewhere in the epic regarding his narrative of events, his development of character, and the recurrent images of lightning, tree, and blood-sacrifice owed to the gods.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
C. M. C. Green, "StimulosDeditAemula Virtus: Lucan and Homer Reconsidered," Phoenix 45 (1992) 234-49
M. von Albrecht, "Der Dichter Lucan und die epische Tradition," in M. Durry, ed., Lucain: Sept exposés (Fondation Hardt Entretiens 15, Geneva, 1970) 275-76.
2
V. J. C. Hunink, M. Annaeus Lucanus: Bellum Civile Book III, A Commentary (Amsterdam, 1992).
Inst. 10.90
Martial (14.194)
Fronto (2.105)
Petronius (118.6)
J. D. Duff, Lucan: The Civil War [London, 1928, repr. 1988] xii
M. P. O. Morford, The PoetLucan (Oxford, 1967)
F. Ahl, Lucan: An Introduction (Ithaca, 1976)
W. R. Johnson, Momentary Monsters (Ithaca, 1987)
E. Fantham, De Bello Civile, Book II (Cambridge, 1992)
Philip Hardie, The Epic Successors of Virgil [Cambridge, 1993]
G. Luck, Lukan: Der Bürgerkrieg [Berlin, 1985] 37
N. F Deratani, "Der Kampf für Freiheit und Patriotismus," in W. Rutz, ed., Lucan [Darmstadt, 1970] 133-48
4
R. M. Ogilvie, Commentary on Livy, Books 1-5 (Oxford, 1965) on 1.6.3 (the Romulus story).
5
Duff (supra, n. 2).
Duff, ad loc., "so long will loyalty be impossible between sharers in tyranny"
6
Tib. 2.5.24
7
D. R. Shackleton Bailey, M. Annaei Lucani: De Bello Civili, Libri X (Stuttgart, 1988).
8
Cic. de Rep. 2.30.52
A. Erskine, "Hellenistic Monarchy and Roman Political Invective," CQ 41 (1991) 119.
9
DRN 5.1108-1109
Polyb. 6.5.4-8
Livy, Book 1.
10
Crassus erat belli medius mora (1.99-100).
11
Ennius, fr. 402-403
E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin I (Cambridge, Mass., 1935).
12
Cic. Phil. 2.34.85
Suet. Div. Iul. 79.
13
Livy (1.19.1).
Livy 1.19.1
Livy 1.21.6
Sen. Apoc. 10.2
14
Virg. Aen. 8.342
Livy 1.9.5
Dio Cass. 47.19.3.
15
Dio Cass. 47.19.3
Dion. Hal. 2.15.3-4
Plut. Rom. 9.
Dio Cass. 47.19.3
C. Renaud's analysis of the exile theme in theAeneid (Studies in the Eighth Book of theAeneid: The Importance of Place [Diss. Univ. of Texas at Austin, 1990] 117-34).
16
Servius ad Aen. 8.564
H. H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic [Ithaca, 1981] 197-98
17
A. E. Gordon, "The Cults of Aricia," UCPA II (1934) 1-20
S. Piggott, The Druids (New York, 1968, repr. 1991) 19 (on the similarity of the rituals at Nemi to Celtic sacrifices) and 48-51
A. Alföldi, "Diana Nemorensis," AJA 64 (1960) 137-44
18
Ovid Ars Am. 1.258-62
Str. 5.3.12
Suet. Cal. 35
Paus. 2.27.4
Serv. ad Aen. 2.116, 6.136.
19
Peter HRF Cato fr. 71
Servius ad Aen. 2.116, 6.136
Ovid Met. 15.489
20
Servius (ad Aen. 2.116 and 6.136)
Strabo (5.3.12)
Pausanias (2.27.4)
Suetonius (Cal. 35)
Aen. 2.116, 6.139, 7.515, 7.761-82
Ars Am. 1.258ff.
Fasti 3.261ff.
J. G. Frazer's monumental work, The Golden Bough3 I-XII (London, 1911-1915)
Vols. I and II, The MagicArt
21
Appian B.C. 5.3.24
23
Livy 1.49.8
24
Dion. Hal. 4.1.2-3.
G. Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Römer [München, 1912] 24
K. Latte, Römische Religionsgeschichte [München, 1960] 144-47
Scullard [supra, n. 16] 111-13
Jupiter Feretrius, Schol. Bern. ad Virg. Georg. 2.384
Servius ad Aen. 3.384.
Livy 5.21
Pliny H.N. 28.18
Macrobius, Sat. 3.9.7-8
25
Strabo 4.1.5
26
Wissowa (supra, n. 24) 34
Latte (supra, n. 24) 172
Scullard (supra, n. 16) 173-74
Alföldi (supra, n. 17) 144.
27
Festus 460 Lindsay
28
Cic. de Rep. 2.37
Dion. Hal. 4.1.2-3
R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius (Copenhagen, 1980) 57-114
29
Ogilvie [supra, n. 4] 184-86 [adaptations from tragedy] and 359-61
Gyges (1.8-15).
30
Livy (1.42.1)
32
Frazer (supra, n. 20) I 321, n. 1
Pers. 6.55-56
supra, n. 4
ad loc. 1.48.6
33
Dion. Hal. 4.27-50.
34
A. B. Cook, "The Golden Bough and the Rex Nemorensis" (review of The Golden Bough, vols 1-3), CR 16 (1902) 380, n. 3.
Ogilvie (supra, n. 4) 184-87
35
Ogilvie (supra, n. 4) 185.
App. B.C. 1.59.4
Thomsen (supra, n. 28) 112-13
36
RE 18 pt. 4 (1949) 2097-98, s.v. Passienus (2) (R. Hanslik)
Suet. Vita Passieni Crispi
Sen. Benef. 1.15.5
Tac. Ann. 6.20
Quintil. Inst. 6.1.50
Quintil. Inst. 6.3.74
Suet. Ner. 6
Sen. NQ 4. praef. 6.
37
Tac.Ann. 12.8.
38
Suet. Claud. 22 and 42
Tac. Ann. 12.3, 4, 8
Suet. Claud. 24, 29
Dio Cass. 60.5.31.
39
Dio 44.6.3
40
Hunink (supra, n. 2) passim.
41
B.C. 1.36
42
Frazer (supra, n. 20) II 379
Alföldi (supra, n. 17) 137-44
NH 16.234-40]
NH 16.249
A. Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain [New York, 1967] 33-38
NH 16.249-51
43
Ovid Met. 15.488-89
Servius ad Aen. 6.139.
44
Cic. adAtt. 6.1.25
Suet. Div. Jul. 46
Cic. ad Att. 15.4.5
Suet. Cal. 35
Ars Am. 1.247
45
Aen. 6.14647
46
Hunink (supra, n. 2) 167-70
47
C. M. C. Green, "Lucan Bellum Civile 1.444-6: A Reconsideration" CP 89.1 (1994) 64-69.
supra, n. 19
infra, n. 48.
48
Ovid (Met. 14.331, 15.487-90)
Strabo (5.3.12)
Hygin. (Fab. 261)
Servius (ad Aen. 2.116 and 6.136)
Peter HRF Cato fr. 71
Hdt. 4.103
49
Strabo 4.1.4-5
Gordon (supra, n. 17) 11.
50
Gordon, supra, n. 17, 13-17
51
Plut. Sert. 11.3-12.1
P. Spann, Quintus Sertorius and the Legacy of Sulla [Fayetteville, 1987] 63 [doe]
L. Sussman, The Elder Seneca [Leiden, 1978] 20-23
52
Alfoldi (supra, n. 17) 141
Germ. 9.3
Caesar, B.G. 6.16
53
D. C. Feeney, The Gods in Epic [Oxford, 1991] 273-74
54
Hunink (supra, n. 2) 181.
55
NH 16.242
supra
56
Sussman [supra, n. 51] 145-49
Caes. B.C. 2.19
Bell. Hisp. 4-6
L. Curchin, Roman Spain: Conquest and Assimilation [London, 1991] 49
n. 31
57
Hunink (supra, n. 2) 149
58
J. W. Joyce, Time as an Emotive Factor in Lucan 's "Pharsalia " (Diss. Univ. of Texas at Austin, 1982) 23.
59
Fortunae praebere caput (8.614-15).
Suet. Div. Jul. 82.2
60
Cato's speech: sic eat: immites Romana piacula divi / plena ferant, nullo fraudemus sanguine bellum (2.304-305).
J. Long, "The Rhetorical Appropriation of Pompey," presented at the meeting of the APA, New Orleans, December 1992.
61
Caesar B.C. 1.36-37.
62
Joyce (supra, n. 58) 18-19.
63
Suet. Div. Iul. 81.4-82.2.
ad loc., 761
64
Hunink ad loc. 319 and 320.
65
L. Richardson, Jr., A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore, 1992) s. w.
Res Gest. 19
Suet. Aug. 29.3.
66
J. R. Fears, "The Cult of Jupiter and Roman Imperial Ideology," ANRW 2.17.1 (1981) 3-141.
67
Feeney (supra, n. 53) 274-303.
70
Livy 1.7.1
71
ad loc.
Ogilvie's Commentary (supra, n. 4) ad loc.
72
Cic. adAtt. 6.1.25
Div. Jul. 46
Cic. ad Att. 15.4.5
Suet. Cal. 35
75
W. H. Auden, Spain 1937, originally published (London, 1937)
George Orwell ("Inside the Whale," reprinted in The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell I: An Age Like This [London and New York, 1968] 493-529)
H. Carpenter, W H. Auden: A Biography, (Boston, 1981) 217-19.
The English Auden: Poems, Essays and Dramatic Writings, 1927-1939, E. Mendelson, ed. [New York, 1977] 210-12
76
"Tomorrow for the young, the poets exploding like bombs ..." Spain 1937.
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