This article seeks evidence of Herodotus's conception of his historical enterprise in the recurring scenes in which he portrays barbarian kings as inquirers and investigators. Through these scenes-involving most notably Psammetichus, Etearchus, Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, and Xerxes-the historian not only explores the character of autocrats, but also holds up a mirror to his own activity as inquirer. Once we recognize the metahistorical dimension of Herodotus's representation of inquiring kings, we can better understand the scenes in which these figures appear and the historian who sees his own enterprise reflected or distorted in their efforts. I argue first that the tale of Darius's inquiry concerning the Paeonian wonder-woman (5.12-13) is a paradigmatic Herodotean treatment of kingly inquiry in the way the historian both identifies with, and distances himself from, his kingly investigator. I then assess kingly research under three headings that reflect some of the many ways that Herodotean kings use and abuse investigation: Measurement and Self-Aggrandizement; Exploration and Conquest; Trial, Torture, and Test. Under the final rubric, kingly experiments are the focus, some involving human subjects (esp. 2.2 and 3.38), others involving the divine (1.46-49 and 7.12-18). Herodotus's extensive analysis of inquiring kings indicates that any earlier investigator-measurer, explorer, or experimenter-is a potential rival for him. If Herodotus is conscious that he is following in the footsteps of inquiring kings, however, his critique of their techniques and motives suggests that his inquiry is intellectually and ethically superior to theirs. Ultimately, then, Herodotus's exploration of regal investigation helps both to define and to lend authority to the historiê that he undertakes in the Histories.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Dewald (1987)
Marincola (1987)
Lateiner (1989) 55-108.
2
Barthes ([1967]
1981)
White (1984)
Munson (1993a).
3
Cook (1976) 40
Redfield (1985) 102
Lateiner (1989) 93-95, 102-3.
Bischoff([1932] 1965)
Lattimore (1939)
Fehling (1989) 203-9.
4
Pearson ([1954] 1983)
Immerwahr (1966) 75-78, 148-88
Waters (1971)
(1985) 136-51
Gammie (1986)
Flory (1987) 119-49
Hartog (1988) 322-39
Lateiner (1989)163-86
Evans (1991) 41-75
Munson (1993b).
Lateiner ([1989] 170-86
Hartog [1988] 330-39
Flory (1987) 119-49
Munson (1993b).
infra, n. 6
Sicyon (6.126-130)
5
A. B. Lloyd (1975) 156-70
Müller (1981)
Hunter (1982) 107-115
Lateiner (1986)
Gould (1989) 86-109.
6
Müller ([1981] 311-12)
Connor (1993).
Croesus (1.56.1-2)
Periander (1.24.7, 3.50.3, 3.51.1 bis).
7
Bloomer (1993) 45.
Munson (1993a) 37-41.
8
supra, n. 1
n. 5.
9
Dubois (1991)
Hunter (1994) 89-94.
13
Hartog (1988) 340-60, 232-37.
Bloomer (1993).
Immerwahr (1966) 293-94
Gould (1989) 106-9
Lateiner (1989) 126-44.
14
Bloomer ([1993] 49)
16
Konstan (1983) 16-17.
17
Flory ([1987] 174, n. 32
Lateiner [1989] 63
19
Immerwahr's ([1960] 265-66)
. Dewald ([1987] 159
Dewald [1993] 55-56
Lateiner (1987) 95-100,115-16
Dewald (1993)
Hedrick (1993) 17-26.
Armayor ([1978a] 49-57)
Fehling ([1989] 223)
Pritchett ([1993] 132-38)
20
Procop. Bell. Pers. 1.18.52-53
Pritchett's comments ([1993] 136-37).
21
Horn. Od. 21.122
Hp. Nat. Puer. 24
22
Armayor (1978b)
Lewis (1985) 116-17.
23
Demaratus (7.102.3, 7.104.3-5)
Solon (1.32)
Boedeker (1987b) 195-96.
Immerwahr (1966) 182
Konstan (1987) 62-69.
Konstan (62-63)
24
Bloomer (1993) 45-46
25
Redfield (1985).
27
Dewald ([1987] 161, n. 31)
Hohti (1977)
28
G. E. R. Lloyd (1966) 341-45
A. B. Lloyd (1976) 139-40
Hohti (1977) 8-11
Redfield (1985) 103
Gould (1989) 89-90.
30
Lateiner ([1986] 10)
31
Hartog (1988) 230-37
Bloomer (1993) 33-38.
32
Konstan (1987) 66
Fehling (1989) 31-33.
33
Munson ([1991] 59)
Romm ([1992] 56)
34
Munson ([1991] 60
Gould [1989] 104
35
Fehling ([1989] 184-87)
37
Munson (1991) 60.
Romm (1992) 57-59.
38
Vemant ([1979] 247)
39
Hartog (1988) 362-63.
40
Flory ([1987] 174, n. 34)
Lateiner (1986) 8-9.
41
Lateiner (1986)
42
Evans (1991) 100-102
Munson (1993a) 35-36.
43
A. B. Lloyd ([1976] 107)
Lateiner (1989) 81-82.
44
Thompson (1955-1958) H255
Aly ([1921] 1969) 151-2.
45
Hartog [1988] 125-33
48
A. B. Lloyd (1976) 5-6.
49
Cook ([1976] 47)
Hunter ([1982] 77, n. 37)
50
Bloomer (1993) 45-46.
51
Salmon ([19561 324, 326-27)
A. B. Lloyd ([1976] 11-12)
Hdt. 7.73
Salmon (1956) 323-24
Lloyd (1976) 10.
52
Contrast 2.119.2-3
53
A. B. Lloyd ([1976] 8-9)
Benardete ([1969] 33)
Salmon [1956] 325-26
54
Lateiner (1977) 177-78.
Munson (1991) 54-55.
55
Munson (1991) 59-62.
Munson (1991) 59
Cambyses' experiments: 3.16, 3.28.1-29.2, and 3.35.5.
56
Munson (1991) 56 and 59.
57
Aly ([1921] 1969) 289, n. 1
59
Konstan (1987) 61-69.
Dillery (1992).
Gammie ([1986] 182)
61
Benardete ([1969] 81)
Cook [1976] 39
Prexaspes (3.35.1-4).
62
Munson (1991) 62
Bloomer (1993) 30-31.
Bloomer (49)
Darius in 3.38.
Lateiner (1989) 170-86.
63
Lateiner (1989)
65
Delphi (1.53.3).
66
Immerwahr (1966) 158
Stahl (1975) 10.
67
Klees ([1965] 46-49, 95-98
Kirchberg [1965] 17, n. 4
Dobson (1979)
350, n. 2
Klees [1965] 64-65
Fontenrose ([1978] 113
68
Lateiner (1990) 235-46.
Legrand (1937)
69
Fontenrose ([1978] 15)
Dewald (1985) 53-55
Lateiner (1990) 230-34.
70
Immerwahr (1966) 234-36.
Shimron (1989)
71
Evans (1991) 49
73
Parke ([1984] 212)
74
Dewald (1985) 52, n. 9
75
Cyr. 7.2.17
76
Immerwahr (1966) 159-60
Stahl (1975) 8-9.
77
Croesus's dynasty (1.91.1)
78
Segal (1971) 49-51
Evans (1991) 45
Nagy (1990) 274-78.
79
Stahl (1975)
S. Shapiro's response to Stahl, forthcoming in CJ.
80
Hom. Il. 2.1-40
Immer- wahr (1954) 34
Frisch (1968) 14-15.
Aesch. Pers. 742
Solmsen ([1974] 1982) 94-96.
81
How and Wells [1928] 1991, Vol. 2, 132
Köhnken ([1988] 38-39)
Germain's ([1956] 311)
82
Frisch (1968) 16-17.
83
Shimron ([1989] 51)
Lateiner ([1989] 284, n. 48)
Denniston ([1970] 248)
Immerwahr ([1954] 34)
Köhnken ([1988] 37-40)
Solmsen ([1974] 1982) 89-90.
84
Frisch (1968)15-16.
85
Solmsen ([1974] 1982) 92
86
Köhnken ([1988] 28)
Solmsen ([1974] 1982, 96
Lateiner [1989] 204
87
Solmsen ([1974] 1982) 88-89, n. 35
Evans (1991) 62.
88
Xerxes' decision to attack Greece (7.1-52)
Immerwahr (1954) 30-45
Evans (1961)
(1965) 149-50
Solmsen ([1974] 1982) 82-99
Lateiner (1989) 204-5.
89
Sabacus episode (2.139).
90
Fehling (1989) 198-202.
Waters ([1971] 100)
Gammie (1986) 187-95.
91
Lateiner ([1989] 185)
Waters (1971) 85
92
Segal (1971) 45.
Lateiner (1989) 80.
Stahl (1975) 13 (on 1.86.2)
93
Gammie ([1986] 179
Stahl [1975] 26-29
94
Dewald ([1985] 49)
95
Connor (1984) 20-32.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Aly, W. 1921. Volksmärchen, Sage und Novelle bei Herodot und seinen Zeitgenossen. Göttingen. Repr. 1969 with corrections by L. Huber.
Armayor, O. K. 1978a. "Did Herodotus Ever Go to the Black Sea?" HSCP 82: 45-62.
-. 1978b. "Herodotus' Catalogues of the Persian Empire." TAPA 108: 1-9.
Barthes, R. 1967. "Le discours de l'histoire." Social Science Information 6: 65-75. Tr. by S. Bann as "The Discourse of History." In E. Shaffer, ed., Comparative Criticism: A Yearbook 3 (1981): 3-20.
Benardete, S. 1969. Herodotean Inquiries. The Hague.
Bischoff, H. 1932. Der Warner bei Herodot. Diss. Marburg. Repr. in part in W. Marg, ed., Herodot: Eine Auswahl aus der neueren Forschung. Wege der Forschung 26: 302-19, 670-76. Darmstadt, 1965.
Bloomer, W. M. 1993. "The Superlative Nomoi of Herodotus's Histories." ClAnt 12: 30-50.
Boedeker, D., ed. 1987a. Herodotus and the Invention of History. Arethusa 20.
-. 1987b. "The Two Faces of Demaratus." Arethusa 20: 185-201.
Connor, W. R. 1984. Thucydides. Princeton.
-. 1993. "The Histor in History." In Rosen and Farrell 1993: 3-15.
Cook, A. 1976. "Herodotus: the Act of Inquiry as a Liberation from Myth." Helios 3: 23-66.
Denniston, J. D. 1970. The Greek Particles. Oxford.
Dewald, C. 1985. "Practical Knowledge and the Historian's Role in Herodotus and Thucy- dides." In The Greek Historians: Literature and History. Papers Presented to A. E. Raubitschek: 47-63. Stanford.
-. 1987. "Narrative Surface and Authorial Voice in Herodotus' Histories." Arethusa 20: 147-70.
-. 1993. "Reading the World: The Interpretation of Objects in Herodotus' Histories." In Rosen and Farrell 1993: 55-70.
Dillery, J. 1992. "Darius and the Tomb of Nitocris (Hdt. 1.187)." CP 87: 30-38.
Dobson, M. 1979. "Herodotus 1.47.1 and the Hymn to Hermes: A Solution to the Test Oracle." AJP 100: 349-59.
Dubois, P. 1991. Torture and Truth. New York.
Evans, J. A. S. 1961. "The Dream of Xerxes and the 'Nomoi' of the Persians." CJ 57: 109-11.
-. 1965. "Despotes Nomos." Athenaeum n. s. 43: 142-53.
-. 1991. Herodotus, Explorer of the Past. Princeton.
Fehling, D. 1989. Herodotus and His 'Sources'. Tr. J. G. Howie. Leeds.
Flory, S. 1987. The Archaic Smile of Herodotus. Detroit.
Fontenrose, J. 1978. The Delphic Oracle. Berkeley.
Frisch, P. 1968. Die Triiume bei Herodot. Meisenheim am Glan.
Gammie, J. G. 1986. "Herodotus on Kings and Tyrants: Objective Historiography or Conventional Portraiture?" JNES 45: 171-95.
Germain, G. 1956. "Le songe de Xerxès et le rite babylonien du substitut royal." REG 69: 303-13.
Gould, J. 1989. Herodotus. New York.
Grene, D. 1987. Herodotus. Chicago.
Hartog, F 1988. The Mirror of Herodotus. Tr. J. Lloyd. Berkeley.
Hedrick, C. W. 1993. "The Meaning of Material Culture: Herodotus, Thucydides, and Their Sources." In Rosen and Farrell 1993: 17-37.
Hohti, P. 1977. [Unrepresented Characters]: A Note on Conjectures in Herodotus." Arctos 11: 5-14.
How, W. W., and Wells, J. 1928. A Commentary on Herodotus. 2 vols. Oxford. Repr. 1991.
Hunter, V. 1982. Past and Process in Herodotus and Thucydides. Princeton.
-. 1994. Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420-320 B.C. Princeton.
Immerwahr, H. R. 1954. "Historical Action in Herodotus." TAPA 85: 16-45.
-. 1960. "Ergon: History as a Monument in Herodotus and Thucydides." AJP 81: 261-90.
-. 1966. Form and Thought in Herodotus. APA Monograph 23. Cleveland.
Kirchberg, J. 1965. Die Funktion der Orakel im Werke Herodots. Göttingen.
Klees, H. 1965. Die Eigenart des griechischen Glaubens an Orakel und Seher. Tübingen.
Köhnken, A. 1988. "Der dritte Traum des Xerxes bei Herodot." Hermes 116: 24-40.
Konstan, D. 1983. "The Stories in Herodotus' Histories: Book I." Helios 10: 1-22.
-. 1987. "Persians, Greeks and Empire." Arethusa 20: 59-73.
Lateiner, D. 1977. "No Laughing Matter: A Literary Tactic in Herodotus." TAPA 107: 173-82.
-. 1986. "The Empirical Element in the Methods of Early Greek Medical Writers and Herodotus." Antichthon 20: 1-20.
-.1987. "Nonverbal Communication in the Histories of Herodotus." Arethusa 20: 83-119.
-. 1989. The Historical Method of Herodotus. Toronto.
-. 1990. "Deceptions and Delusions in Herodotus." ClAnt 9: 230-46.
Lattimore, R. 1939. "The Wise Adviser in Herodotus." CP 34: 24-35.
Legrand, P.-E. 1937. "Hérodote croyait-il aux oracles?" In Mélanges offerts à A.-M. Desroussaux: 275-84. Paris.
Lewis, D. M. 1985. "Persians in Herodotus." In The Greek Historians: Literature and History. Papers Presented toA. E. Raubitschek: 101-17. Stanford.
Lloyd, A. B. 1975. Herodotus: Book II. Introduction. Leiden.
-. 1976. Herodotus: Book II. Commentary 1-98. Leiden.
-.1988. Herodotus: Book II. Commentary 99-182. Leiden.
Lloyd, G. E. R. 1966. Polarity and Analogy. Cambridge.
Marincola, J. 1987. "Herodotean Narrative and the Narrator's Presence." Arethusa 20: 121-37.
Miller, D. 1981. "Herodot—Vater des Empirismus?" In G. Kurz et al., eds., Gnomosyne: Festschrift für Walter Marg: 299-318. Munich.
Munson, R. V. 1991. "The Madness of Cambyses (Herodotus 3.16-38)." Arethusa 24: 43-65.
-. 1993a. "Herodotus' Use of Prospective Sentences and the Story of Rhampsinitus and the Thief in the Histories." AJP 114: 27-44.
-. 1993b. "Three Aspects of Spartan Kingship in Herodotus." In Rosen and Farrell 1993: 39-54.
Nagy, G. 1990. Pindar's Homer: The Lyric Possession of an Epic Past. Baltimore.
Parke, H. W. 1984. "Croesus and Delphi." GRBS 25: 209-32.
Pearson, L. 1954. "Real and Conventional Personalities in Greek History." JHI 15: 136- 45.
D. Lateiner and S. A. Stephens, eds., Selected Papers of Lionel Pearson: 110-19. Chico, California, 1983.
Pritchett, W. K. 1993. The Liar School of Herodotus. Amsterdam.
Redfield, J. 1985. "Herodotus the Tourist." CP 80: 97-118.
Romm, J. 1992. The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought: Geography, Exploration, and Fiction. Princeton.
Rosen, R. M., and Farrell, J., eds. 1993. Nomodeiktes: Greek Studies in Honor of Martin Ostwald. Ann Arbor.
Salmon, A. 1956. "L'expérience de Psammétique (Hérodote, II, ii)." LEC 24: 321-29.
Segal, C. 1971. "Croesus on the Pyre: Herodotus and Bacchylides." WS 84: 39-71.
Shimron, B. 1989. Politics and Belief in Herodotus. Stuttgart.
Solmsen, F. 1974. "Two Crucial Decisions in Herodotus." Mededelingen der Koninklijke NederlandseAkademie van Wetenschappen,Afd. Letterkunde Nieuwe Reeks 37/6: 139- 70.
Kleine Schriften III: 78-109. Hildesheim, 1982.
Stahl, H.-P. 1975. "Learning through suffering? Croesus' conversations in the history of Herodotus." YCS 24: 1-36.
Thompson, S. 1955-1958. Motif-Index of Folk Literature. 6 vols. Bloomington.
Vernant, J.-P. 1979. "Manger aux pays du Soleil." In M. Detienne and J.-P. Vemant, eds., La cuisine du sacrifice en pays grec: 239-49. Paris.
Waters, K. H. 1971. Herodotus on Tyrants and Despots: A Study in Objectivity. Wiesbaden.
-. 1985. Herodotus the Historian: His Problems, Methods and Originality. Norman, Oklahoma.
White, H. 1984. "The Question of Narrative in Contemporary Historical Theory." History and Theory 23: 1-33.
This content is only available via PDF.